Home | Current Issue | Past Issues | Search | CollectionsRSS | PDA Services | FAQ | SHCIM Online | Chinese Updated Friday, March 22, 2019
Submit a manuscript
Send response
Read responses
Advance online publication
Sign up for e-alert
JCIM job opportunities
Contact JCIM
 Information For
 About JCIM
Journal description
Editorial policy
Privacy policy
Copy right
Editorial staff
 Language Polishing
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine: 2012; 10(8): 858-865
DOI: 10.3736/jcim20120805
Effects of qigong on performance-related anxiety and physiological stress functions in transverse flute music schoolchildren: a feasibility study
1. Claudia Maria Sousa (Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Porto, 4099-030 Porto, Portugal )
2. Mario Gonçalves (Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Porto, 4099-030 Porto, Portugal )
3. Jorge Machado (Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Porto, 4099-030 Porto, Portugal )
4. Thomas Efferth (Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Mainz, 55099 Mainz, Germany )
5. Tobias Greten (German Society of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 69126 Heidelberg, Germany )
6. Petra Froeschen (German Society of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 69126 Heidelberg, Germany )
7. Henry J. Greten (Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Porto, 4099-030 Porto, Portugal E-mail: E-mail: Heidelbergschool@aol.com)
OBJECTIVE: Based on individual cases of treatment, we were interested in whether the effects of a special kind of qigong, the “White Ball” exercises, can be objectified by physically measurable parameters and psychological scores.
METHODS: We performed a preliminary prospective controlled interventional study with the waiting list design. In the qigong group eight children were included. They received specific qigong lessons of the “White Ball” qigong over seven weeks, twice a week, for 30 min with a waiting list design and instructions to perform the same exercises at home daily. In the control group eight children were included in a waiting list design with no qigong instruction. Subjective perception of anxiety was measured by the Portuguese version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale adapted for children.In addition, salivary cortisol, heart rate variability, blood pressure, surface electromyography of the trapezius muscle and reaction time were measured at the beginning and the end of the study prior to the regular public auditions.
RESULTS: In comparison to the changes in the control group, the qigong group scored significantly lower in heart rate. Otherwise the groups did not differ significantly; however, the effect size was large for salivary cortisol, surface electromyography of the trapezius muscle and blood pressure. There were relevant reductions of subjective perception of anxiety, salivary cortisol levels and heart rate.
CONCLUSION: The heart rate of performing schoolchildren can be potentially reduced by “White Ball” exercises. Based on a sample of 8/8, positive tendencies were also observed for anxiety and blood pressure. The next steps of objectifying possible qigong effects are to increase the sample size, to study young people in other situations arousing anxiety, to develop an appropriate control intervention, to solve the problem of blinding and double blinding, to find additional parameters that may be influenced by the “White Ball” qigong, and to compare the qigong effects with other methods reducing anxiety such as more traditional biofeedback or systematic desensitization.
Welcome to JCIM! You are the number 13209 reader of this article!
Download Article:
[Full Text]      [PDF]      [Chinese]      [Previous]      [Next]      [This Issue]
Please cite this article as:
Sousa CM, Gonalves M, Machado J, Efferth T, Greten T, Froeschen P, Greten HJ. Effects of qigong on performance-related anxiety and physiological stress functions in transverse flute music schoolchildren: a feasibility study. J Chin Integr Med / Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2012; 10(8): 858-865.
1Wesner RB, Noyes R Jr, Davis TL. The occurrence of performance anxiety among musicians[J].J Affect Disord, 1990, 18(3): 177-185.  .
2van Kemenade JF, van Son MJ, van Heesch NC. Performance anxiety among professional musicians in symphonic orchestras: a self-report study[J].Psychol Rep, 1995, 77(2): 555-562.  .
3Fehm L, Schmidt K. Performance anxiety in gifted adolescent musicians[J].J Anxiety Disord, 2006, 20(1): 98-109.  .
4Watson D, Weber K, Assenheimer JS, Clark LA, Strauss ME, McCormick RA. Testing a tripartite model: Ⅰ. Evaluating the convergent and discriminant validity of anxiety and depression symptom scales[J].J Abnorm Psychol, 1995, 104(1): 3-14.  .
5Watson D, Clark LA, Weber K, Assenheimer JS, Strauss ME, McCormick RA. Testing a tripartite model: Ⅱ. Exploring the symptom structure of anxiety and depression in student, adult, and patient samples[J].J Abnorm Psychol, 1995, 104(1): 15-25.  .
6Andreatini R, Boerngen-Lacerda R, Zorzetto Filho D. Tratamento farmacolgico do transtorno de ansiedade generalizada: perspectivas futuras[J].Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 2001, 23(4): 233-242.  .
7Altenmüller E. Neurologische Erkrankungen bei Musikern. Darmstadt: Steinkopff. 2003. German.
8Spahn C, Richter B, Altenmüller E. MusikerMedizin: Diagnostik, Therapie und Prvention von musikerspezifischen Erkrankungen. Stuttgart: Schattauer. 2011. German.
9Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BAuA). Music — safe and sound: hearing conservation for professionals and entertainment. Bremerhaven: Wirtschaftsverlag NW Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH. 2008.
10Blum J. Medizinische Probleme bei Musikern. Stuttgart: Thieme. 1995. German.
11Klein-Vogelbach S, Lahme A, Spirgi-Gantert I. Musikinstrument und Krperhaltung. Berlin und Heidelberg: Springer. 2000. German.
12Kloppel R. Die Kunst des Musizierens. Von den physiologischen und psychologischen Grundlagen zur Praxis. Mainz: Schott. 2003. German.
13Lahme A, Klein-Vogelbach S, Spirgi-Gantert I. Berufsbedingte Erkrankungen bei Musikern. Berlin und Heidelberg: Springer. 2000. German.
14Wagner C. Hand und Instrument. Musikphysiologische Grundlagen. Praktische Konsequenzen. Wiesbaden: Breitkopf & Hrtel. 2005. German.
15Skarabis P. Der gesunde Musiker: Trainingsprogramme für Beruf und Hobby. Berlin: Henschel Verlag. 2005. German.
16MedlinePlus. Stress and anxiety. (2011-06-16) [2012-04-01]. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003211.htm.
17American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. Text revision. Arlington: American Psychiatric Association. 2000.
18World Health Organization. International Classification of Diseases-11. 2012.
19Menezes GB, Fontenelle LF, Mululo S, Versiani M. Treatment-resistant anxiety disorders: social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder[J].Rev Bras Psiquiatr, 2007, 29(Suppl 2): S55-S60.  .
20Sertel S, Greten HJ, Kraemer HJ, Efferth T, Plinkert PK, Baumann I. Evaluation of quality of life in patients treated with traditional Chinese medicine[J].Open Otorhinolaryngol J, 2010, 4: 62-67.  .
21Fales CL, Barch DM, Burgess GC, Schaefer A, Mennin DS, Gray JR, Braver TS. Anxiety and cognitive efficiency: differential modulation of transient and sustained neural activity during a working memory task[J].Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci, 2008, 8(3): 239-253.  .
22Wilson M, Smith NC, Holmes PS. The role of effort in influencing the effect of anxiety on performance: testing the conflicting predictions of processing efficiency theory and the conscious processing hypothesis[J].Br J Psychol, 2007, 98(Pt 3): 411-428.  .
23Masters RSW. Knowledge, knerves and know-how: The role of explicit versus implicit knowledge in the breakdown of a complex motor skill under pressure[J].Bri J Psychol, 1992, 83(3): 343-358.  .
24Eysenck MW, Calvo MG. Anxiety and performance: The processing efficiency theory[J].Cogn Emot, 1992, 6(6): 409-434.  .
25Borges AI, Manso DS, Tomé G, de Matos MG. Ansiedade e coping em crianas e adolescentes: diferenas relacionadas com a idade e género[J].Anlise Psicolgica, 2008, 26(3): 551-561.  .
26Shinnick P. Qigong: where did it come from? Where does it fit in science? What are the advances? J Altern Complement Med. 2006; 12(4): 351-353.
27Greten HJ. Chinese medicine as vegetative systems biology. Part Ⅰ: therapeutic methods[J].HNO, 2011, 59(12): 1160-1164.  .
28Greten HJ. Chinese medicine as vegetative systems biology. Part Ⅱ: the structure of TCM diagnosis[J].HNO, 2011, 59(12): 1165-1175.  .
29Sancier KM, Holman D. Commentary: Multifaceted health benefits of medical qigong[J].J Altern Complement Med, 2004, 10(1): 163-165.  .
30Lee MS, Jang JW, Jang HS, Moon SR. Effects of Qi-therapy on blood pressure, pain and psychological symptoms in the elderly: a randomized controlled pilot trial[J].Complement Ther Med, 2003, 11(3): 159-164.  .
31Greten HJ. Understanding TCM. Heidelberg: Heidelberg School Editions. 2007.
32Chen K, Yeung R. Exploratory studies of qigong therapy for cancer in China[J].Integr Cancer Ther, 2002, 1(4): 345-370.  .
33Cheung BM, Lo JL, Fong DY, Chan MY, Wong SH, Wong VC, Lam KS, Lau CP, Karlberg JP. Randomised controlled trial of qigong in the treatment of mild essential hypertension[J].J Hum Hypertens, 2005, 19(9): 697-704.  .
34Xin L, Miller YD, Brown WJ. A qualitative review of the role of qigong in the management of diabetes[J].J Altern Complement Med, 2007, 13(4): 427-433.  .
35Lee MS, Chen KW, Sancier KM, Ernst E. Qigong for cancer treatment: a systematic review of controlled clinical trials[J].Acta Oncol, 2007, 46(6): 717-722.  .
36Lin S. Research leading to a systems/cellular/molecular model for the benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi on health and healing[M]. In: Scientific and Skill Papers on Qigong, published in coordination with The World Qigong Forum 2007 and 10th World Congress on Qigong and Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tokyo, 2007. 3-8.  .
37Johnson JA. Chinese medical Qigong therapy: A comprehensive clinical text. Pacific Grove: The International Institute of Medical Qigong. 2000.
38Jin C, Hu Z, Jia Z. Practical Chinese Qigong for home health care. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press. 1996.
39Greten HJ. Handbuch des funktionell therapeutischen Qigong Ⅰ: Diagnosengerechte bungspraxis. Heidelberg: Heidelberg School of Chinese Medicine. 2009. German.
40Witt C, Becker M, Bandelin K, Willich SN. Xianggong (“fragrant” Qigong) for the health of school children: a qualitative pilot study of feasibility and effects[J].J Chin Med, 2007, 84: 46-51.  .
41Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH. The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories[J].Behav Res Ther, 1995, 33(3): 335-343.  .
42Leal IP, Antunes R, Passos T, Rebeiro JLP, Maroco J. Estudo da escala de depresso, ansiedade e stresse para crianas (EADS-C)[J].Psicologia, Saúde & Doenas, 2009, 10(2): 277-284.  .
43Ribeiro JLP, Honrado A, Leal IP. Contribuio para o estudo da adaptao portuguesa das escalas de ansiedade, depresso e stress (EADS) de 21 itens de Lovibond e Lovibond[J].Psicologia, Saúde & Doenas, 2004, 5(2): 229-239.  .
This article has been cited by other articles ( within jcim ) :
1Qigong improves balance in young women: a pilot study20134

 Home | Current Issue | Past Issues | Search | CollectionsRSS | PDA Services | FAQ | SHCIM Online | Chinese
Copyright © 2003-2012 by JCIM Press. All rights reserved. ISSN 1672-1977