Updated Monday, September 25, 2017
Open Access
-  Abstract
-  Full text
-  Download PDF file
-  Send to a friend
-  Related articles in JCIM & JIM
-  Cited in JCIM & JIM
-  Reader's comments
-  Send a comment
 Language Polishing
Original Experimental Research
Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine: Volume 10, 2012   Issue 4
Effects of valerian consumption during pregnancy on cortical volume and the levels of zinc and copper in the brain tissue of mouse fetus
1. Alireza Mahmoudian (Department of Anatomical Sciences and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran )
2. Ziba Rajaei (Neuroscience Research Center and Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran E-mail: E-mail: rajaeiz@mums.ac.ir)
3. Hossein Haghir (Department of Anatomical Sciences and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran )
4. Shahaboldin Banihashemian (Department of Anatomical Sciences and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran )
5. Javad Hami (Department of Anatomical Sciences and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran )
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) consumption in pregnancy on cortical volume and the levels of zinc and copper, two essential elements that affect brain development and function, in the brain tissues of mouse fetuses.
METHODS: Pregnant female mice were treated with either saline or 1.2 g/kg body weight valerian extract intraperitoneally daily on gestation days (GD) 7 to 17. On GD 20, mice were sacrificed and their fetuses were collected. Fetal brains were dissected, weighed and processed for histological analysis. The volume of cerebral cortex was estimated by the Cavalieri principle. The levels of zinc and copper in the brain tissues were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy.
RESULTS: The results indicated that valerian consumption in pregnancy had no significant effect on brain weight, cerebral cortex volume and copper level in fetal brain. However, it significantly decreased the level of zinc in the brain (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: Using valerian during midgestation do not have an adverse effect on cerebral cortex; however, it caused a significant decrease in zinc level in the fetal brain. This suggests that valerian use should be limited during pregnancy.

Received December 9, 2011; accepted December 28, 2011; published online April 15, 2012.
Full-text LinkOut at PubMed. Journal title in PubMed: Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao.

基金项目: This study was supported in part by a grant from the council of research, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran
Correspondence: Ziba Rajaei, PhD; Tel: +98-511-8828565; E-mail: rajaeiz@mums.ac.ir


     Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is a perennial plant native to the temperate areas of Americas, Europe and Asia[1]. Valerian is used as a hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and antidepressant drug[2-5]. The rhizomes of V. officinalis contain several components with demonstrable pharmacological activities. These include the essential oil and its sesquiterpenoids (valerenic acid), epoxy iridoid esters (valepotriates, valtrate, didravaltrate), amino acids (arginine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamine, tyrosine), and alkaloids[6]. It also has been reported that the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of valerian root could inhibit GABA reuptake[7,8]. Valerian is traditionally contraindicated in pregnancy, but there are no studies to support this warning.
     Zinc and copper are essential for normal brain development. Several studies have shown that zinc deficiency in lactating mothers leads to neuroanatomical malformations and functional abnormalities in suckling offsprings[9,10]. The effects of maternal zinc deficiency on postnatal development of the rat cerebellar cortex have been investigated by Dvergsten et al[11,12]. The number of granule cells was sharply reduced, Purkinje cell maturation was impaired, and differentiation of basket and stellate cell dendrites was reduced. In other studies, adult rats showed significant learning and memory deficits if their mothers were mildly or severely zinc-deficient during late pregnancy and lactation[13,14]. Copper is also essential for proper brain development, particularly the cerebellum. It functions as a cofactor for enzymes including mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase. In humans, deficiency of copper leads to severe mental retardation and could slow brain development especially in cerebellum[15,16]. In rats, copper deficiency in the cerebellum exhibited blunted development including a reduction in myelination and synaptogenesis as well as motor function disturbances[17-19].
     The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of valerian consumption in pregnancy on the volume of cerebral cortex and levels of zinc and copper in fetal brain of mice.


1  Materials and methods
1.1  Valerian preparation 
The valerian preparation used in the present study was donated by Gol Ghatreh-Toos Pharmaceutical Company (Mashhad, Iran). The supplied extract contained 6.2% valerian.
1.2  Experimental protocol  Adult female bulb/C mice ((25±5) g, 10 to 12 weeks old) bred in the Animal House Facility Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, were used. Animals were housed as 3 to 4 mice per cage in a temperature-controlled colony room under a 12∶12 light-dark cycle. Food and water were available ad libitum. The experiments were conducted in accordance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the study was approved by the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
     Female mice were mated with one male mouse overnight. The presence of vaginal plaque at the next morning was taken as evidence of mating. This day was designated as gestation day (GD) 0. The pregnant mice were randomly assigned into two groups. Control group (n=15): animals received 0.5 mL normal saline intraperitoneally once a day on GD7 to GD17. Valerian group (n=15): animals were treated with 1.2 g/kg valerian extract intraperitoneally once a day on GD7 to GD17.
1.3  Histological procedures  On the last day of pregnancy (GD20), the pregnant mice were anesthetized by chloroform and their pups were collected after abdominal incision. Fetal brains were dissected carefully using a stereomicroscope (Olympus SZ30, Japan). Then, the brains were fixed in 10% formalin and dehydrated in a gradient of ethanol, embedded in paraffin and cut into 10 μm serial coronal sections. After deparaffinization, the brain sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and examined by a light microscope (Zeiss, Germany).
1.4  Stereological study  The volume of cerebral cortex was estimated by the Cavalieri principle[20]. In the Cavalieri principle, the object under study is cut into a series of parallel plane sections at a constant distance apart. The surface areas of the cut sections are estimated and multiplied by the mean section thickness to provide a volume of the examined object. The cut surface area of each section is estimated with point counting grids (PCG). The PCG, which has sets of points at specific densities on a transparent sheet, is randomly superimposed on sections, and the numbers of points that cover the region of interest are counted. Finally, the volume of the object (V) is estimated with the following equation: V = t × (a/p) × [(ΣP) – 1/2Pmax], where t is the section thickness, a/p represents the area of each point on the point counting grid (corrected with the reduction ratio of the printed films), ΣP is the total number of the points hitting the section’s cut surface, and 1/2Pmax is half of the maximal number of points counted on the largest section of the examined subject[21].
1.5  Zinc and copper measurements  The concentrations of zinc and copper in the cerebral cortex were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Perkin-Elmer 3030, USA) according to Parker et al[22]. Metal levels were expressed as microgram per gram tissue.
1.6  Statistical analysis  Results were expressed as mean±standard deviation. Data were analyzed by independent sample t-test using SPSS Version 13.0 software. The differences were considered significant when P<0.05.


2  Results
2.1  Effects of valerian on the number of mouse fetuses 
There was no significant difference in the number of fetuses born between the valerian group (9.0±2.4) and the control group (9.8±1.9).
2.2  Effects of valerian on brain weight and cortical volume in mouse fetuses  Considering the fetal brain weight and the volume of cerebral cortex, as shown in Table 1, there were no significant differences between the two groups. Figure 1 presents the histological results of brain sections stained with hematoxylin-eosin and examined by a light microscope.

Table 1  Effects of valerian on brain weight and cortical volume in fetal mouse

(Mean±standard deviation)



Brain weight (mg)

Cortical volume (mm3)









Figure 1  Photographs of cerebral cortex sections from mouse fetuses stained with hematoxylin-eosin (Light microscopy, ×40)

A: Control group; B: Valerian group. Cortical regions are pointed by star signs.

2.3  Effects of valerian on the levels of zinc and copper in fetal mouse brain  The level of zinc in fetuses of the valerian group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in copper level between the valerian group and the control group (Table 2).

Table 2  Effects of valerian on levels of zinc and copper in fetal mouse brain

(Mean±standard deviation, μg/g)



Zinc level

Copper level










*P<0.05, vs control group.

3  Discussion
In vitro studies have shown that valepotriates such as valtrate and didravaltrate, have significant cytotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic activities[23-27]. In contrast to in vitro studies, overt toxicity has not been demonstrated by in vivo studies. Oral administration of valepotriates (12 and 24 mg/kg per day) to rats for 30 d resulted in no change in the average length of the estrous cycle, the number of estrous phases and the fertility index[28]. Also, incidence of external and internal malformations in fetus did not increase. In a human study, oral administration of 2.5 g per day valerian (range 0.5 to 12 g per day) for 4 years to 23 patients resulted in no clinical evidence of acute hepatitis in 12 of these 23 patients[29]. Tortarolo et al[25] also found that while valepotriates were cytotoxic to mouse bone marrow early progenitor cells in their in vitro study, no significant changes were observed with oral administration, even at doses as high as 1 500 mg/kg. More recently, Yao et al[30] reported that valerian at dose of 2.79 g/kg per day on either GD 1 to GD 8 or GD 8 to GD 15 had no adverse effects on fertility or fetal development. Poor absorption and distribution of valepotriates in oral administration has been proposed as a possible explanation to explain this discrepancy between results from in vivo and in vitro studies[31]. However, there is no pharmacokinetic data for valepotriates to support this hypothesis.
     In consistent with in vivo studies, the present study showed that 11 d of intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 1.2 g/kg per day valerian extract to pregnant rats on GD 7 to GD 17 (as early fetal period and organogenesis) had no adverse effects on fetal brain, since fetal brain weight and fetal cerebral cortex volume did not significantly change. On the other hand, valerian extract injection significantly decreased zinc level in the fetal brain compared with the control, but it had no significant effect on copper level in the fetal brain.
     One negative consequence of zinc deficiency can be an increase in apoptosis in the fetus. It has been shown that cell death was increased in peri-implantation embryos that were cultured in low zinc medium[32]. Also, post-implantation embryos from zinc-deficient dams have shown increased apoptosis in the somites, pharyngeal arches, otic placode, optic vesicle, forelimb buds, and neural tube, compared to the controls[33,34]. Even a few days of zinc deficiency during midgestation is sufficient to produce cell death in the posterior dorsal midline, indicating that neural crest cells may be particularly sensitive to the adverse effects of zinc deficiency[35]. Zinc deficiency could have a long-term impact on brain health by alternating the finely tuned processes of neurogenesis, neuronal migration, differentiation, and apoptosis, which involve the developmental shaping of the nervous system[36].
     In our study, in spite of the decrease in the zinc levels in the cerebral cortex, the cortical volume did not change. This in part may be due to a low degree of zinc deficiency and its onset time. It has been indicated that active neuroblast multiplication coincides with the commencement of brain growth spurt which in rat it begins at birth and is over at postnatal day 25[37]. In our study the brain was removed on GD 20 prior to brain growth spurt; therefore, zinc deficiency (for a short period) did not have enough time to induce reductional impact especially in a windows of time just prior to active neuroblast multiplication.
     Zinc deficiency induces apoptotic cell death through the intrinsic pathway, which involves cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Cytochrome c can then activate the caspase cascade via its interaction into the apoptosome complex leading to activation of caspase-9 followed by caspase-3, with subsequent DNA fragmentation and inevitable cell death[38]. Zinc has also been shown to have a direct inhibitory effect on caspase-3 enzyme activity such that a lack of zinc can lead to its activation[39,40] and increased apoptosis.
     To our best of knowledge, this is the first study, reporting that using valerian on midgestation can change zinc homeostasis in the fetal brain and lead to zinc deficiency in the fetus. Animal studies have also demonstrated that zinc deficiency during prenatal development could increase the risk of numerous neurobehavioral defects, such as learning, attention and memory defects[41,42].


4  Conclusion
Although, using valerian during midgestation did not decrease cortical volume, it caused a significant decrease in zinc level in the fetal brain. This suggests that valerian use should be limited during pregnancy.


5  Acknowledgements
The results presented in this work has been taken from a student’s thesis. This study was supported in part by a grant from the council of research, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran. We are grateful to Dr. Hadjzadeh and Dr. Parizadeh for useful comments. We also acknowledge Gol Ghatre-Toos Co. for providing gift sample of valerian, and Toxicology Laboratory, Imam Reza Hospital for metal measurements.


6  Competing interests
The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

1. Hadley S, Petry JJ. Valerian[J]. Am Fam Physician, 2003, 67(8) : 1755-1758.
2. Wagner H, Jurcic K, Schaette R. Comparative studies on the sedative action of Valeriana extracts, valepotriates and their degradation products[J]. Planta Med, 1980, 39(4) : 358-365.
3. Andreatini R, Sartori VA, Seabra ML, Leite JR. Effect of valepotriates (valerian extract) in generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled pilot study[J]. Phytother Res, 2002, 16(7) : 650-654.
4. Hiller KO, Zetler G. Neuropharmacological studies on ethanol extracts of Valeriana of ficinalis L.: behavioural and anticonvulsant properties[J]. Phytother Res, 1996, 10(2) : 145-151.
5. Oshima Y, Matsuoka S, Ohizumi Y. Antidepressant principles of Valeriana fauriei roots[J]. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 1995, 43(1) : 169-170.
6. Hendriks H, Bos R, Allersma DP, Malingré TM, Koster AS. Pharmacological screening of valerenal and some other components of essential oil of Valeriana of ficinalis[J]. Planta Med, 1981, 42(1) : 62-68.
7. Mennini T, Bernasconi P, Bombardelli E, Morazzoni P. In vitro study on the interaction of extracts and pure compounds from Valeriana officinalis roots with GABA, benzodiazepine and barbiturate receptors in rat brain. Fitoterapia. 1993; 64: 291-300.
8. Ortiz JG, Nieves-Natal J, Chavez P. Effects of Valeriana of ficinalis extracts on [3H] flunitrazepam binding, synaptosomal [3H] GABA uptake, and hippocampal [3H] GABA release[J]. Neurochem Res, 1999, 24(11) : 1373-1378.
9. Sandstead HH. W.O. Atwater memorial lecture. Zinc: essentiality for brain development and function[J]. Nutr Rev, 1985, 43(5) : 129-137.
10. Wallwork JC, Sandstead HH. Zinc and brain function[J]. Prog Clin Biol Res, 1993, 380: 65-80.
11. Dvergsten CL, Fosmire GJ, Ollerich DA, Sandstead HH. Alterations in the postnatal development of the cerebellar cortex due to zinc deficiency. Ⅱ. Impaired maturation of Purkinje cells[J]. Brain Res, 1984, 318(1) : 11-20.
12. Dvergsten CL, Johnson LA, Sandstead HH. Alterations in the postnatal development of the cerebellar cortex due to zinc deficiency. Ⅲ. Impaired dendritic differentiation of basket and stellate cells[J]. Brain Res, 1984, 318(1) : 21-26.
13. Halas ES, Eberhardt MJ, Diers MA, Sandstead HH. Learning and memory impairment in adult rats due to severe zinc deficiency during lactation[J]. Physiol Behav, 1983, 30(3) : 371-381.
14. Halas ES, Hunt CD, Eberhardt MJ. Learning and memory disabilities in young adult rats from mildly zinc deficient dams[J]. Physiol Behav, 1986, 37(3) : 451-458.
15. Danks DM, Campbell PE, Stevens BJ, Mayne V, Cartwright E. Menkes’s kinky hair syndrome. An inherited defect in copper absorption with widespread effects[J]. Pediatrics, 1972, 50(2) : 188-201.
16. Mercer JF. Menkes syndrome and animal models. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998; 67(5 Suppl): 1022S-1028S.
17. El Meskini R, Crabtree KL, Cline LB, Mains RE, Eipper BA, Ronnett GV. ATP7A (Menkes protein) functions in axonal targeting and synaptogenesis[J]. Mol Cell Neurosci, 2007, 34(3) : 409-421.
18. Penland JG, Prohaska JR. Abnormal motor function persists following recovery from perinatal copper deficiency in rats[J]. J Nutr, 2004, 134(8) : 1984-1988.
19. Zimmerman AW, Matthieu JM, Quarles RH, Brady RO, Hsu JM. Hypomyelination in copper-deficient rats. Prenatal and postnatal copper replacement[J]. Arch Neurol, 1976, 33(2) : 111-119.
20. Gundersen HJ, Jensen EB. The efficiency of systematic sampling in stereology and its prediction[J]. J Microsc, 1987, 147(3) : 229-263.
21. Sonmez OF, Odaci E, Bas O, Colakoglu S, Sahin B, Bilgic S, Kaplan S. A stereological study of MRI and the Cavalieri principle combined for diagnosis and monitoring of brain tumor volume[J]. J Clin Neurosci, 2010, 17(12) : 1499-1502.
22. Parker MM, Humoller FL, Mahler DJ. Determination of copper and zinc in biological material[J]. Clin Chem, 1967, 13(1) : 40-48.
23. Bounthanh C, Richert L, Beck JP, Haag-Berrurier M, Anton R. The action of valepotriates on the synthesis of DNA and proteins of cultured hepatoma cells[J]. Planta Med, 1983, 49(11) : 138-142.
24. Bos R, Hendriks H, Scheffer JJC, Woerdenbag HJ. Cytotoxic potential of valerian constituents and valerian tinctures[J]. Phytomedicine, 1998, 5(3) : 219-225.
25. Tortarolo M, Braun R, Hübner GE, Maurer HR. In vitro effects of epoxide-bearing alepotriates on mouse early hematopoietic progenitor cells and human T-lymphocytes[J]. Arch Toxicol, 1982, 51(1) : 37-42.
26. von der Hude W, Scheutwinkel-Reich M, Braun R. Bacterial mutagenicity of the tranquilizing constituents of Valerianaceae roots[J]. Mutat Res, 1986, 169(1-2) : 23-27.
27. Bounthanh C, Bergmann C, Beck JP, Haag-Berrurier M, Anton R. Valepotriates, a new class of cytotoxic and antitumor agents[J]. Planta Med, 1981, 41(1) : 21-28.
28. Tufik S, Fujita K, Seabra Mde L, Lobo LL. Effects of a prolonged administration of valepotriates in rats on the mothers and their offspring[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 1994, 41(1-2) : 39-44.
29. Chan TY, Tang CH, Critchley JA. Poisoning due to an over-the-counter hypnotic, Sleep-Qik (hyoscine, cyproheptadine, valerian)[J]. Postgrad Med J, 1995, 71(834) : 227-228.
30. Yao M, Ritchie HE, Brown-Woodman PD. A developmental toxicity-screening test of valerian[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2007, 113(2) : 204-209.
31. Houghton PJ. Valerian: the genus Valeriana. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers. 1997.
32. Hanna LA, Clegg MS, Momma TY, Daston GP, Rogers JM, Keen CL. Zinc influences the in vitro development of peri-implantation mouse embryos[J]. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol, 2003, 67(6) : 414-420.
33. Jankowski MA, Uriu-Hare JY, Rucker RB, Rogers JM, Keen CL. Maternal zinc deficiency, but not copper deficiency or diabetes, results in increased embryonic cell death in the rat: implications for mechanisms underlying abnormal development[J]. Teratology, 1995, 51(2) : 85-93.
34. Rogers JM, Taubeneck MW, Daston GP, Sulik KK, Zucker RM, Elstein KH, Jankowski MA, Keen CL. Zinc deficiency causes apoptosis but not cell cycle alterations in organogenesis-stage rat embryos: effect of varying duration of deficiency[J]. Teratology, 1995, 52(3) : 149-159.
35. Lopez V, Keen CL, Lanoue L. Prenatal zinc deficiency: influence on heart morphology and distribution of key heart proteins in a rat model[J]. Biol Trace Elem Res, 2008, 122(3) : 238-255.
36. Adamo AM, Oteiza PI. Zinc deficiency and neurodevelopment: the case of neurons[J]. Biofactors, 2010, 36(2) : 117-124.
37. Dobbing J, Smart JL. Vulnerability of developing brain and behaviour[J]. Br Med Bull, 1974, 30(2) : 164-168.
38. Clegg MS, Hanna LA, Niles BJ, Momma TY, Keen CL. Zinc deficiency-induced cell death[J]. IUBMB Life, 2005, 57(10) : 661-669.
39. Hashemi M, Ghavami S, Eshraghi M, Booy EP, Los M. Cytotoxic effects of intra and extracellular zinc chelation on human breast cancer cells[J]. Eur J Pharmacol, 2007, 557(1) : 9-19.
40. Perry DK, Smyth MJ, Stennicke HR, Salvesen GS, Duriez P, Poirier GG, Hannun YA. Zinc is a potent inhibitor of the apoptotic protease, caspase-3. A novel target for zinc in the inhibition of apoptosis[J]. J Biol Chem, 1997, 272(30) : 18530-18533.
41. Golub MS, Keen CL, Gershwin ME, Hendrickx AG. Developmental zinc deficiency and behavior. J Nutr. 1995; 125(8 Suppl): 2263S-2271S.
42. Golub MS, Takeuchi PT, Keen CL, Hendrickx AG, Gershwin ME. Activity and attention in zinc-deprived adolescent monkeys[J]. Am J Clin Nutr, 1996, 64(6) : 908-915.
Reader's comments
1. Voui, le truc c??est juste que les scientifiques pay??s par le gouvernement, tu sais , ceux des organismes officiels de lutte contre le tabac , mais si, ceux qui sont financ??s par les taxes sur le tabac??. replica montres rolex occasion http://www.finewristwatchshop.com/fr/rolex-datejust-36mm-steel-c143/ (2015-10-24 0:00:00)
2. I actually hardly leave a response, nonetheless i had a couple of looking as well as wild the following Joel Fights Rear » Share Your personal Report. And I possess different inquiries in your case in case you really don't imagination. Would it be merely me personally or perhaps could it look like some of the opinions appear to be they are really written by head deceased site visitors? In addition to, in case you are leaving your 2 cents at more online sites, Let me adhere to something fresh you should publish. Will you make a list on the full web addresses of the discussed websites the Fb web page, bebo give food to, or maybe linkedin account? nike kd vii http://www.gnosislab.com/wp-content/temp/index.php?ID=6 (2015-10-27 0:00:00)
3. Lately nothing of unseen band function adequately. the presents display imperceptable seeing that traditional. Can someone demonstrate several a good just one??? jordan 11 cool grey http://www.elf-kosmetyki.pl/wp-content/temp/index.php?ID=1 (2015-10-27 0:00:00)
4. Excellent blog you could have right here nevertheless I had been wondering should you learned connected with just about any forums that cover exactly the same topics spoken of below? I'd really like to become portion of class where I am able to obtain thoughts from the other experienced those who talk about the same curiosity. Should you have virtually any tips, remember to i want to understand. Thanks a lot! jordan 10 http://dirksbigbunnies.com/wp-content/tmp/index.php?ID=91 (2015-10-27 0:00:00)
5. Amazing, and its doing work? I used to be receiving all kinds of iSCSI period outs if we upgraded a new good friends items to 5. 0... nevertheless it had been an early launch associated with 5 various. 0 maybe they also have since predetermined the idea. nike air max femme 90 http://www.mostam-transport.fr/tag/nike-air-max-femme-90 (2015-12-22 0:00:00)
6. Have you heard involving anyone who is usually poorley accused of pirating skill? This ISP threatened myself; however the information he will never incriminated me. The IP address they explained has been my very own really more than likely is a school region 36 mile after mile n . involving me. Because the film I am just accused of pirating had been Harry Potter, that will appear essentially the most plausible place to try to find the root cause. Certainly not in my family... the fifty four year old who else definitely isn't going to including Harry Potter so much... Is it possible to assist? I depend upon my laptop or computer to get employment, to reduce our web would be a problem in my life! stylo mont blanc http://www.coiffuremaquillage.fr (2015-12-23 0:00:00)
7. Great write-up! My spouse and i, far too commenced workboxes the final few days of school not too long ago due to the fact I merely am not able to hold out. I posted these days on my weblog with regards to them, too! Such a wonderful idea, and yes it seems to work regarding several styles of homeschool parents! air max 90 homme http://www.mostam-transport.fr (2015-12-31 0:00:00)
8. I have on the other hand expertise several technical troubles making use of this internet site, since i have seasoned to help charge the web page many times before I can understand it to launch correctly. I used to be wondering if the hosting company is definitely ALL RIGHT? Definitely not that we am complaining, nevertheless slow-moving recharging situations occasions can often have an impact on your current location on the internet and can damage your current level of quality credit score if ads and also advertising together with Adwords. Well I am introducing that FEED in order to this e-mail and may also consider countless other within your fascinating written content. Make certain you upgrade this particular once again shortly.. stylo plume mont blanc pas cher http://www.locations-fouras.fr/tag/stylo-plume-mont-blanc-pas-cher (2015-12-31 0:00:00)
9. hi!, I like your personal creating incredibly a good deal! ratio most of us find out more much more your own personal content with AMERICA ONLINE? I require a skilled within this room in order to disentangle my challenge. Could be that is certainly you! Getting excited about expert a person. nike tn requin http://www.la-rouette.fr/tag/nike-tn-requin (2016-1-3 0:00:00)
10. we live making use of iscsi targeted with a get is actually a erectile dysfunction container, so it is not simply regarding storage space machine. privately, i recommend steering clear of storage area hardware. nobis doudoune http://www.tofoo.fr/tag/nobis-doudoune (2016-1-3 0:00:00)
11. Jesse, fantastic posting. About launching the actual hyperlink I assumed to help myself, when i generally complete, this will be some sort of unproductive post. However I have to are in agreement with you actually regarding these types of usually have missed on-page features. I realize all of them botched continuously! parajumpers homme pas cher http://www.lespipos.fr (2016-1-3 0:00:00)
12. My partner and i inspected stumpleaudio and located new decent artists, however Items keep with Grooveshark for now. In my opinion I do believe is actually more advanced than some of the additional on the list. parajumpers homme http://www.saltainmente.eu/tag/parajumpers-homme (2016-1-3 0:00:00)
13. christian louboutin sale outlet cheap christian louboutin shoes canada http://christianlouboutincanadaoutlet.blogspot.com/ (2016-1-20 0:00:00)
14. christian louboutin sale outlet christian louboutin cheapest http://christianlouboutincanadaoutlet.blogspot.com/ (2016-1-22 0:00:00)
15. I loved your blog.Really looking forward to read more. Want more. fake cartier bracelets love http://www.bestcalovebracelet.cn/en/ (2016-1-24 0:00:00)
16. louboutin bianca christian louboutin shoes online http://canadachristianlouboutinoutlet.blogspot.com/ (2016-1-25 0:00:00)
17. christian louboutin wedges cheap christian louboutin canada http://christianlouboutincanadaoutlet.blogspot.com/ (2016-1-28 0:00:00)
18. christian louboutin outlet online christian louboutin shoes canada http://canadachristianlouboutin.blogspot.com/ (2016-2-22 0:00:00)
19. mens christian louboutin flats cheap christian louboutin http://christianlouboutincanadaoutlet.blogspot.com/ (2016-2-24 0:00:00)
20. cheap christian louboutin daffodile christian louboutin outlet store http://christianlouboutincanadaoutlet.blogspot.com/ (2016-2-25 0:00:00)
21. Journal of Integrative Medicine cheap christian louboutin shoes http://www.christianlouboutins-outlet.com/index.php (2016-3-15 0:00:00)
22. Journal of Integrative Medicine christian louboutin outlet http://www.christianlouboutins-outlet.com/index.php (2016-3-15 0:00:00)
23. ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Щ?????????????????? ??????????? http://okdgg.com (2016-3-27 0:00:00)
24. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine Free Full Text wholsale nike nfl jerseys http://smbsmgu.org/images/nikenfl.html (2016-4-24 0:00:00)
25. You've got wonderful knowlwdge in this case COUNTERSTRIKE http://www.cyzj6666.com/comment/html/index.php?page=1&id=27690 (2016-5-26 0:00:00)
26. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine Free Full Text Michael kors outlet online http://www.mk4us.com/michael-kors-2016-c-3.html (2016-7-7 0:00:00)
27. yGx4RN http://www.FyLitCl7Pf7kjQdDUOLQOuaxTXbj5iNG.com (2016-10-14 0:00:00)
28. yGx4RN http://www.FyLitCl7Pf7kjQdDUOLQOuaxTXbj5iNG.com (2016-10-14 0:00:00)
29. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine Free Full Text roger vivier shoes http://www.vivierparis.com/roger-vivier-flats-c-2.html (2016-11-23 0:00:00)
30. It is really sad if this site actually does it. I have not encountered just yet. tag heuer for women fake http://www.watchheuer.ru/ (2016-12-5 0:00:00)
31. In short our services come under the umbrella of corporate branding services. You would have rejected her as well, wouldnt you? But would you make fun of her, laugh and mock at her? I should believe not? Instead, you would have felt happy and thankful to her; it is just a pity that she is not your type of girl? That is exactly how the girl whom rejected you would have felt too; it is just a pity that you are not her type of guy. The technology to bolster your online business should function on the customer-satisfaction premise.While the game has been played, the simulator tracks the rate of each throw or kick, the proportion of successful field goals or pass completions and generates a report summary at the end of each game. The characteristics of football simulators include life-size receivers and defenders each with realistic responses. love bracelet cartier occasion replique http://www.toplevejewelry.com.ru/fr/ (2017-4-9 0:00:00)
32. http://www.lunasa.ie/index1.htmlray ban montature occhiali da vista ray ban occhiali da sole modelli http://gecoetfo.ca/ (2017-5-4 0:00:00)

Send a comment

 Home | Current Issue | Past Issues | SearchRSS
Copyright © 2013-2018 by JIM Editorial Office. All rights reserved. ISSN 2095-4964; CN 31-2083/R. 沪ICP备110264号