Updated Sunday, June 25, 2017
 Journal Tools
RSS Feed
Sample Copy
Submit a Manuscript
Contact Us
Thanking Peer Reviewers
 Language Polishing
Journal of Integrative Medicine: Volume 13, 2015   Issue 6,  Pages: 391–399

DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(15)60197-2
Research Article
Effects of wet-cupping on blood pressure in hypertensive patients: a randomized controlled trial
1. Nouran A. Aleyeidi (Public Health Administration, Ministry of Health, Jeddah 21333, Saudi Arabia )
2. Khaled S. Aseri (Community and Preventive Medicine Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah 21523, Saudi Arabia )
3. Shadia M. Matbouli (General Practice Department, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah 21411, Saudi Arabia )
4. Albaraa A. Sulaiamani (Aviation Medicine Department, Medical Services Directorate of Security Aviation Command, Jeddah 21333, Saudi Arabia )
5. Sumayyah A. Kobeisy (Paediatric Department, Dr. Soliman Fakeeh Hospital, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia )
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Although cupping remains a popular treatment modality worldwide, its efficacy for most diseases, including hypertension, has not been scientifically evaluated. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the efficacy of wet-cupping for high blood pressure, and the incidence of the procedure’s side effects in the intervention group. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: This is a randomized controlled trial conducted in the General Practice Department at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between May 2013 and February 2014. There were two groups (40 participants each): intervention group undergoing wet-cupping (hijama) in addition to conventional hypertension treatment, and a control group undergoing only conventional hypertension treatment. Three wet-cupping sessions were performed every other day. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured using a validated automatic sphygmomanometer. The follow-up period was 8 weeks. RESULTS: Wet-cupping provided an immediate reduction of systolic blood pressure. After 4 weeks of follow-up, the mean systolic blood pressure in the intervention group was 8.4 mmHg less than in the control group (P = 0.046). After 8 weeks, there were no significant differences in blood pressures between the intervention and control groups. In this study, wet-cupping did not result in any serious side effects. CONCLUSION: Wet-cupping therapy is effective for reducing systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients for up to 4 weeks, without serious side effects. Wet-cupping should be considered as a complementary hypertension treatment, and further studies are needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01987583.
Welcome to JIM! You are the number 5003 reader of this article!
Download Article:
[Full Text]      [PDF]      [Next]      [This Issue]
Please cite this article as:
Aleyeidi NA, Aseri KS, Matbouli SM, Sulaiamani AA, Kobeisy SA. Effects of wet-cupping on blood pressure in hypertensive patients: a randomized controlled trial. J Integr Med. 2015; 13(6): 391–399.
1World Health Organization. Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. 2009.
2World Health Organization. World health statistics 2012. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. 2012.
3Saeed AA, Al-Hamdan NA, Bahnassy AA, Abdalla AM, Abbas MAF, Abuzaid LZ. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among Saudi adult population: a national survey[J].Int J Hypertens, 2011, 2011: 174135.  
4Khatib OMN, El Guindy MS. World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. Clinical guidelines for the management of hypertension. Cairo, Egypt: WHO Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. 2005.
5Mahdavi MRV, Ghazanfari T, Aghajani M, Danyali F, Naseri M. Evaluation of the effects of traditional cupping on the biochemical, hematological, and immunological factors of human venous blood. In: Bhattacharya A. A compendium of essays on alternative therapy[M]. Rijeka, Croatia: InTech, 2012. 67–88.  
6Lee MS, Choi TY, Shin BC, Kim JI, Nam SS. Cupping for hypertension: a systematic review[J].Clin Exp Hypertens, 2010, 32(7): 423–425.  
7Guo KR. Bloodletting and cupping radical treatment of 35 cases of hypertension[J].Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, 1999, 19(9): 548.  
8Zarei M, Hejazi S, Javadi SA, Farahani H. The efficacy of wet cupping in the treatment of hypertension[J].ARYA Atheroscler J, 2012, 8(Special Issue in National Hypertension Treatment): 1–4.  
9Lee MS, Kim JI, Kong JC, Lee DH, Shin BC. Developing and validating a sham cupping device[J].Acupunct Med, 2010, 28: 200–204.  
10Asiri Y, Abassam T, Bawazir S, Bsata W. Saudi hypertension management guidelines synopsis 2011. 3rd ed. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: the Saudi Hypertension Management Society. 2011.
11El-Wakil A. Observations of the popularity and religious significance of blood-cupping (al-h?ijāma) as an Islamic medicine. Contemp Islamic Stud. 2011; 2. doi: 10.5339/cis.2011.2.
12Wan Y, Heneghan C, Stevens R, McManus RJ, Ward A, Perera R, Thompson M, Tarassenko L, Mant D. Determining which automatic digital blood pressure device performs adequately: a systematic review[J].J Hum Hypertens, 2010, 24(7): 431–438.  
13Coleman A, Freeman P, Steel S, Shennan A. Validation of the Omron 705IT (HEM-759-E) oscillometric blood pressure monitoring device according to the British Hypertension Society protocol[J].Blood Press Monit, 2006, 11(1): 27–32.  
14El Assaad MA, Topouchian JA, Asmar RG. Evaluation of two devices for self-measurement of blood pressure according to the international protocol: the Omron M5-I and the Omron 705IT[J].Blood Press Monit, 2003, 8(3): 127–133.  
15Qasim Ali Al-Rubaye K. The clinical and histological skin changes after the cupping therapy (al-hijamah)[J].J Turk Acad Dermatol, 2012, 6(1): 1261a1.  
16Aleyeidi N, Aseri K. The efficacy of wet cupping on blood pressure among hypertension patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: A randomised controlled trial pilot study[J].Altern Integr Med, 2015, 4: 183.  
17Krousel-Wood M, Islam T, Webber LS, Re RN, Morisky DE, Muntner P. New medication adherence scale versus pharmacy fill rates in seniors with hypertension[J].Am J Manag Care, 2009, 15(1): 59–66.  
18Morisky DE, Ang A, Krousel-Wood M, Ward HJ. Predictive validity of a medication adherence measure in an outpatient setting[J].J Clin Hypertens, 2008, 10(5): 348–354.  
19Morisky DE, DiMatteo MR. Improving the measurement of self-reported medication nonadherence: response to authors[J].J Clin Epidemiol, 2011, 64(3): 255–257.  
20Chakraborty U, Ghosh T. A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects[J].Int J Biometeorol, 2013, 57(5): 769–774.  
21El Sayed SM, Mahmoud HS, Nabo MMH. Medical and scientific bases of wet cupping therapy (al-hijamah): in light of modern medicine and prophetic medicine[J].Altern Integr Med, 2013, 2: 122.  
 Home | Current Issue | Past Issues | SearchRSS
Copyright © 2013-2018 by JIM Editorial Office. All rights reserved. ISSN 2095-4964; CN 31-2083/R. 沪ICP备110264号