Updated Sunday, February 17, 2019
 Journal Tools
RSS Feed
Sample Copy
Submit a Manuscript
Contact Us
Thanking Peer Reviewers
 Language Polishing
Journal of Integrative Medicine: Volume 13, 2015   Issue 6,  Pages: 380–390

DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(15)60204-7
Research Article
The effect of acupuncture on mood and working memory in patients with depression and schizophrenia
1. Peggy Bosch (Donders Centre for Cognition, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 HR Nijmegen, The Netherlands )
2. Maurits van den Noort (Division of Acupuncture & Meridian, WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine, East-West Medical Research Institute and School of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Korea )
3. Sujung Yeo (Department of Acupuncture & Meridian of Oriental Medicine, Sang Ji University, Wonju, Korea )
4. Sabina Lim (Division of Acupuncture & Meridian, WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine, East-West Medical Research Institute and School of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Korea )
5. Anton Coenen (Donders Centre for Cognition, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 HR Nijmegen, The Netherlands )
6. Gilles van Luijtelaar (Donders Centre for Cognition, Radboud University Nijmegen, 6525 HR Nijmegen, The Netherlands )


BACKGROUND: In patients with depression, as well as in patients with schizophrenia, both mood and working memory performance are often impaired. Both issues can only be addressed and improved with medication to some extent.

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the mood and the working memory performance in patients with depression or schizophrenia and whether acupuncture can improve these.

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: A pragmatic clinical trial design was used. The study was conducted in a psychiatric clinic. Fifty patients with depression and 50 with schizophrenia were randomly divided into an experimental and a waiting-list group. Additionally, 25 healthy control participants were included. Twelve weeks of individualized acupuncture treatment was used as the clinical intervention.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All patients were tested before (T1) and after (T2) acupuncture treatment on a mood scale (Beck Depression Inventory-II, BDI-II), a simple working memory task (digit span), and a complex working memory task (letter-number sequencing); the healthy controls were tested at T1 only.

RESULTS: Patients with depression scored worse than the others on the BDI-II, and patients with schizophrenia scored worse than the healthy controls. On the digit span, patients with schizophrenia did not differ from healthy controls whereas they scored worse of all on the letter-number sequencing. With respect to the acupuncture findings, first, the present study showed that the use of acupuncture to treat patients with schizophrenia was both practical and safe. Moreover, acupuncture had a positive effect on the BDI-II for the depression group, but acupuncture had no effect on the digit span and on the letter-number sequencing performance for the two clinical groups.

CONCLUSION: The clinical improvement in patients with depression after acupuncture treatment was not accompanied by any significant change in a simple working memory task or in a more complex working memory task; the same was true for the patients with schizophrenia.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Dutch Trial Register NTR3132

Welcome to JIM! You are the number 7896 reader of this article!
Download Article:
[Full Text]      [PDF]      [Previous]      [Next]      [This Issue]
Please cite this article as:
Citation: Bosch P, van den Noort M, Yeo S, Lim S, Coenen A, van Luijtelaar G. The effect of acupuncture on mood and working memory in patients with depression and schizophrenia. J Integr Med. 2015; 13(6): 380–390.
1Samuels N, Gropp C, Singer SR, Oberbaum M. Acupuncture for psychiatric illness: a literature review[J].Behav Med, 2008, 34(2): 55–64.  
2Wang H, Qi H, Wang BS, Cui YY, Zhu L, Rong ZX, Chen HZ. Is acupuncture beneficial in depression: a meta-analysis of 8 randomized controlled trials? J Affect Disord. 2008; 111(2–3): 125–134.
3Bosch P, van Luijtelaar G, van den Noort M, Lim S, Egger J, Coenen A. Sleep ameliorating effects of acupuncture in a psychiatric population[J].Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2013, 2013: 969032.  
4Reshev A, Bloch B, Vadas L, Ravid S, Kremer I, Haimov I. The effects of acupuncture treatment on sleep quality and on emotional measures among individuals living with schizophrenia: a pilot study[J].Sleep Disord, 2013, 2013: 327820.  
5Kim H, Park HJ, Han SM, Hahm DH, Lee HJ, Kim KS, Shim I. The effects of acupuncture stimulation at PC6 (Neiguan) on chronic mild stress-induced biochemical and behavioral responses[J].Neurosci Lett, 2009, 460(1): 56–60.  
6Kim H, Park HJ, Shim HS, Han SM, Hahm DH, Lee H, Shim I. The effects of acupuncture (PC6) on chronic mild stress-induced memory loss[J].Neurosci Lett, 2011, 488(3): 225–228.  
7Soliman N. Auricular acupuncture microsystem approach to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder[J].Med Acupunct, 2008, 20(2): 103–108.  
8Zhong XY, Su XX, Liu J, Zhu GQ. Clinical effects of acupuncture combined with nimodipine for treatment of vascular dementia in 30 cases[J].J Tradit Chin Med, 2009, 29(3): 174–176.  
9Bowles RP, Salthouse TA. Assessing the age-related effects of proactive interference on working memory tasks using the Rasch model[J].Psychol Aging, 2003, 18(3): 608–615.  
10Kyllonen PC, Christal RE. Reasoning ability is (little more than) working memory capacity?! Intelligence. 1990; 14(4): 389–433.
11Salthouse TA, Babcock RL, Mitchell DRD, Palmon R, Skovronek E. Sources of individual differences in spatial visualization ability[J].Intelligence, 1990, 14(2): 187–230.  
12Baddeley AD, Hitch G. Working memory. In: Brower GH. The psychology of learning and motivation: advances in research and theory. Vol 8[J].New York: Academic Press, 1974, 8: 47–89.  
13Baddeley AD. The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory? Trends Cogn Sci. 2000; 4(11): 417–423.
14Bussell J. The effect of acupuncture on working memory and anxiety[J].J Acupunct Meridian Stud, 2013, 6(5): 241–246.  
15Mayer JS, Fukada K, Vogel EK, Park S. Impaired contingent attentional capture predicts reduced working memory capacity in schizophrenia[J].PLoS One, 2012, 7(11): e48586.  
16Christopher G, MacDonald J. The impact of clinical depression on working memory[J].Cogn Neuropsychiatry, 2005, 10(5): 379–399.  
17World Health Organization. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization Press. 1992.
18MacPherson H. Pragmatic clinical trials[J].Complement Ther Med, 2004, 12(2–3): 136–140.  
19Godwin M, Ruhland L, Casson I, MacDonald S, Delva D, Birtwhistle R, Lam M, Seguin R. Pragmatic controlled clinical trials in primary care: the struggle between external and internal validity[J].BMC Med Res Methodol, 2003, 3: 28.  
20MacPherson H, White A, Cummings M, Jobst KA, Rose K, Niemtzow RC; STRICTA Group. Standards for Reporting Interventions in Controlled Trials of Acupuncture: the STRICTA recommendations[J].J Altern Complement Med, 2002, 8(1): 85–89.  
21Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation. 1996.
22Berna C, Lang TJ, Goodwin GM, Holmes EA. Developing a measure of interpretation bias for depressed mood: an ambiguous scenarios test[J].Pers Individ Dif, 2011, 51(3): 349–354.  
23Peirson AR, Heuchert JW. The relationship between personality and mood: comparison of the BDI and the TCI[J].Pers Individ Dif, 2001, 30(3): 391–399.  
24Sprinkle SD, Lurie D, Insko SL, Atkinson G, Jones GL, Logan AR, Bissada NN. Criterion validity, severity cut scores, and test-retest reliability of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in a university counseling center sample[J].J Couns Psychol, 2002, 49(3): 381–385.  
25Wechsler D. WAIS-III Nederlandstalige bewerking: Afname- en scoringshandleiding [WAIS-III Dutch version: User manual]. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger. 2000.
26Groth-Marnat G. Handbook of Psychological Assessment. New York: John Wiley & Son. 1997.
27Redick TS, Broadway JM, Meier ME, Kuriakose PS, Unsworth N, Kane MJ, Engle RW. Measuring working memory capacity with automated complex span tasks[J].Eur J Psychol Assess, 2012, 28(3): 164–171.  
28van den Noort M, Bosch P, Hugdahl K. Foreign language proficiency and working memory capacity[J].Eur Psychol, 2006, 11(4): 289–296.  
29Bosch P, Staudte H, van den Noort M, Lim S. A case study on acupuncture in the treatment of schizophrenia[J].Acupunct Med, 2014, 32(3): 286–289.  
30Kay SR, Fiszbein A, Opler LA. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia[J].Schizophr Bull, 1987, 13(2): 261–276.  
31Bosch P, Van Luijtelaar G, Van den Noort M, Schenkwald J, Kueppenbender N, Lim S, Egger J, Coenen A. The MMPI-2 in chronic psychiatric illness[J].Scand J Psychol, 2014, 55(5): 513–519.  
32World Medical Organization. Declaration of Helsinki. [2015-01-10]. http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html.
33Joe S, Woolley ME, Brown GK, Ghahramanlou-Holloway M, Beck AT. Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in low-income, African American suicide attempters[J].J Pers Assess, 2008, 90(5): 521–523.  
34Lyons Z, van der Watt G, Shen Z, Janca A. Acupuncture and Chinese herbs as treatments for depression: an Australian pilot study[J].Complement Ther Clin Pract, 2012, 18(4): 216–220.  
35Corigliano V, De Carolis A, Trovini G, Dehning J, Di Pietro S, Curto M, Donato N, De Pisa E, Girardi P, Comparelli A. Neurocognition in schizophrenia: from prodrome to multi-episode illness[J].Psychiatry Res, 2014, 220(1–2): 129–134.  
36Lett TA, Voineskos AN, Kennedy JL, Levine B, Daskalakis ZJ. Treating working memory deficits in schizophrenia: a review of the neurobiology[J].Biol Psychiatry, 2014, 75(5): 361–370.  
37Herold CJ, L?sser MM, Schmid LA, Seidl U, Kong L, Fellhauer I, Thomann PA, Essig M, Schr?der J. Neuropsychology, autobiographical memory, and hippocampal volume in “younger” and “older” patients with chronic schizophrenia[J].Front Psychiatry, 2015, 6: 53.  
38Van den Noort M, Bosch P, Haverkort M, Hugdahl K. A standard computerized version of the reading span test in different languages[J].Eur J Psychol Assess, 2008, 24(1): 35–42.  
39Nutt DJ. The role of dopamine and norepinephrine in depression and antidepressant treatment[J].J Clin Psychiatry, 2006, 67(suppl 6): 3–8.  
40Dunlop BW, Nemeroff CB. The role of dopamine in the pathophysiology of depression[J].Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2007, 64(3): 327–337.  
41Young SN. How to increase serotonin in the human brain without drugs[J].J Psychiatry Neurosci, 2007, 32(6): 394–399.  
42Lee SH, Chung SH, Lee JS, Kim SS, Shin HD, Lim BV, Jang MH, Kim H, Kim EH, Kim CJ. Effects of acupuncture on 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis and tryptophan hydrozylase expression in the dorsal raphe of exercised rats[J].Neurosci Lett, 2002, 332(1): 17–20.  
43Chang YH, Hsieh MT, Cheng JT. Increase of locomotor activity by acupuncture on Bai-Hui point in rats[J].Neurosci Lett, 1996, 211(2): 121–124.  
44Han JS. Electroacupuncture: an alternative to antidepressants for treating affective diseases? Int J Neurosci. 1986; 29(1–2): 79–92.
45Bosch P, Van den Noort M, Staudte H, Lim S. Schizophrenia and depression: a systematic review of the effectiveness and the working mechanisms behind acupuncture[J].Explore, 2015, 11(4): 281–291.  
46Zhang ZJ, Chen HY, Yip KC, NG R, Wong VT. The effectiveness and safety of acupuncture therapy in depressive disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis[J].J Affect Disord, 2010, 124(1–2): 9–21.  
47Bosch P, van Luijtelaar G, Groetelaers L, Van den Noort M, Lim S, Egger J, Coenen A. The Munich parasomnia screening in psychiatry[J].Somn Sleep Res Sleep Med, 2012, 16(4): 257–262.  
48Seeman, P. Atypical antipsychotics: mechanism of action[J].Can J Psychiatry, 2002, 47(1): 27–38.  
49Carlsson C. Acupuncture mechanisms for clinically relevant long-term effects: reconsideration and a hypothesis[J].Acupunct Med, 2002, 20(2–3): 82–99.  
50Fulford KW, Howse K. Ethics of research with psychiatric patients: principles, problems and the primary responsibilities of researchers[J].J Med Ethics, 1993, 19(2): 85–91.  
51Streiner DL. Sample size and power in psychiatric research[J].Can J Psychiatry, 1990, 35(7): 616–620.  
52Patel MX, Doku V, Tennakoon L. Challenges in recruitment of research participants[J].Adv Psychiatr Treat, 2003, 9(3): 229–238.  
This article has been cited by other articles ( within jim ) :
1Traditional Chinese medicine in psychiatry: the fruit-basket-problem20164
 Home | Current Issue | Past Issues | SearchRSS
Copyright © 2013-2018 by JIM Editorial Office. All rights reserved. ISSN 2095-4964; CN 31-2083/R. 沪ICP备110264号