Updated Saturday, July 21, 2018
 Journal Tools
RSS Feed
Sample Copy
Submit a Manuscript
Contact Us
Thanking Peer Reviewers
 Language Polishing
Journal of Integrative Medicine: Volume 15, 2017   Issue 4,  Pages: 302–309

DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(17)60332-7
Research Article
Comparison of antioxidant activity of insulin, Ocimum gratissimum L., and Vernonia amygdalina L. in type 1 diabetic rat model
1. Uduak Akpan Okon (Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State 520001, Nigeria )
2. Idorenyin Udo Umoren (Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State 520001, Nigeria )
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to be associated with increase of oxidative stress products. The direction of effect of any treatment on these products could therefore be a reliable measure of its efficacy on DM. So the aim of this study was to investigate the activity of insulin, Ocimum gratissimum L. (OG) and Vernonia amygdalina L. (VA) on oxidative stress products. METHODS: Thirty-six female Wistar rats weighing 150–200 g were randomly divided into six groups of six rats each. Thirty rats were induced for type 1 DM (DM1) with a single intraperitoneal administration of 65 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin. Group 1 was normal control and was administered distilled water while Group 2 served as DM1 control group; Groups 3, 4, 5 and 6 were diabetic rats treated with 208 mg/kg OG (DM1 + OG), 52 mg/kg VA (DM1 + VA), 208 mg/kg OG + 52 mg/kg VA (DM1+OG +VA) and 0.16 IU insulin (DM1 + insulin) respectively. Determination of methemoglobin and sulfhemoglobin was achieved by the absorption spectrum principle. Red blood cell (RBC) catalase was assayed by continuous spectrophotometric method. RESULTS: The RBC catalase concentration was significantly decreased in the DM1 and DM1+VA groups when compared with the normal control. DM1 + OG significantly increased RBC-catalase when compared to DM1. The methemoglobin concentration was significantly reduced in the DM1, DM1 + VA, DM1 + OG + VA and DM1 + insulin groups when compared to the normal control group. The sulfhemoglobin concentration was significantly increased in the diabetic control and the diabetic treated groups when compared to the normal control. DM1 + OG reduced the sulfhemoglobin concentration when compared to DM1. The blood glucose concentration of all the diabetic groups was significantly raised compared to normal control. OG, VA and insulin significantly reduced the blood glucose concentration with the efficacy of OG and VA higher than insulin. CONCLUSION: Adverse alteration of oxidative indices were observed in type 1 DM model. Treatment with OG and insulin showed potent antioxidant activity, while the hypoglycemic efficacy of OG and VA were higher than insulin. Keywords: oxidative stress; diabetes mellitus, type 1; insulin; Ocimum gratissimum L.; Vernonia amygdalina L.
Welcome to JIM! You are the number 905 reader of this article!
Download Article:
[Full Text]      [PDF]      [Next]      [This Issue]
Please cite this article as:
Okon UA, Umoren IU. Comparison of antioxidant activity of insulin, Ocimum gratissimum L., and Vernonia amygdalina L. in type 1 diabetic rat model. J Integr Med. 2017; 15(4): 302–309.
1Okon U, Owu D, Udokang N, Udobang J, Ekpenyong C. Oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum ameliorates polyphagia, polydipsia and weight loss in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats[J].Am J Med Sci, 2012, 2(3): 45–49.  
2Asuquo O, Edet A, Mesembe O, Atanghwo J. Ethanolic extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum enhance testicular improvement in diabetic Wistar rats[J].Int J Alt Med, 2009, 8(2): 432–440.  
3Egesie U, Adelaiye A, Ibu J, Egesie O. Safety and hypoglycaemic properties of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats[J].Niger J Physiol Sci, 2006, 21(1–2): 31–35.  
4Fatmah A, Siti B, Zariyantey A, Nasar A, Jamaludin M. The role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in diabetic complications[J].Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J, 2012, 12(1): 5–18.  
5Giugliano D, Ceriello A, Paolisso G. Oxidative stress and diabetic vascular complications[J].Diabetes Care, 1996, 19(3): 257–267.  
6Pandey A, Tripathi P, Pandey R, Srivatava R, Goswami S. Alternative therapies useful in the management of diabetes: a systematic review[J].J Pharm Bioall Sci, 2011, 3: 504–512.  
7Guzik T, Mussa S, Gastaldi D, Sadowski J, Ratnatunga C, Pillai R, Channon K. Mechanisms of increased vascular superoxide production in human diabetes mellitus: role of NAD(P)H and endothelial nitric oxide synthase[J].Circulation, 2002, 105: 1656–1662.  
8Ergul A, Schultz J, Stromhang C, Harris A, Tawfik A, Wells B, Caldwell R. Vascular dysfunction of venous bypass conduits is mediated by reactive oxygen species in diabetes: role of endothelium-1[J].J Pharmacol Res Ther, 2004, 313: 70–77.  
9Amiri F, Shaw S, Wang X, Tang J, Waller J, Eaton D, Marrero M. Angiotensin II activation of JAK/STAT pathway in mesangial cells is altered by high glucose[J].Kidney Int, 2002, 61: 1605–1616.  
10Maritim A, Sanders R, Watkins J. Diabetes, oxidative stress and antioxidants: a review. J Biochem Mol Toxicol, 2003; 17: 24–38.
11Shihana F, Dawson AH, Buckley NA. A bedside test for methemoglobinemia, Sri Lanka[J].Bull World Health Organ, 2016, 94(8): 622–625.  
12Sato K, Tamaki K, Okajima H, Katsumata Y. Longterm storage of blood samples as whole blood at extremely low temperature for methemoglobin determination[J].Forensic Sci Int, 1988, 37: 99–104.  
13Adams V, Marley J, McCarrol C. Prilocaine induced methemoglobinemia in a medically compromised patients[J].Was this an inevitable consequence of the dose administered? Br Dent J, 2007, 203(10): 585–587.  
14Flexman AM, Del Vicario G, Schwarz SK. Dark green blood in the operating theatre[J].Lancet, 2007, 369(9577): 1972.  
15Lorke D. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing[J].Arch Toxicol, 1983, 54(4): 275–287.  
16Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. 2nd ed. Ibadan: Spectrum Book Ltd. 1993.
17Drabkin DL, Austin JR. Spectrophotometric studies. II. Preparations from washed blood cells; nitric oxide hemoglobin and sulfhaemoglobin. J Biol Chem 1935;112:51-65.
18Maedler K, Sergeev P, Ris F, Oberholzer J, Joller-Jemelka HI, Spinas GA, Kaiser N, Halban PA, Donath MY. Glucose-induced β cell production of IL-1β contributes to glucotoxicity in human pancreatic islets[J].J Clin Invest, 2002, 110(6): 851–60.  
19Tanaka Y, Tran PO, Harmon J, Robertson RP. A role of glutathione peroxidase in protecting pancreatic β cells against oxidative stress in a model of glucose toxicity[J].Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2002, 99: 12363–12368.  
20Gomathi D, Ravikumar G, Kalaiselvi M, Devaki K, Uma C. Efficacy of Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L. on insulin and antioxidants activity in pancreas of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats[J].J Diabetes Metab Disord, 2013, 12(1): 39.  
21Jung M, Park M, Lee HC, Kang YH, Kang ES, Kim SK. Antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants[J].Curr Med Chem, 2006, 13(10): 1203–1218.  
22Arivazhagan P, Thilagavathy T, Pannerselvam C. Antioxidant lipoate and tissue antioxidants in aged rats[J].J Nutr Biochem, 2000, 11(3): 122–127.  
23Cheng L, Kellogg EW 3rd, Packer L. Photo inactivation of catalase[J].Photochem Photobiol, 1981, 34(1): 125–129.  
24Gaetani GF, Ferraris AM, Rolfo M, Mangerini R, Arena S, Kirkman HN. Predominant role of catalase in the disposal of hydrogen peroxide within human erythrocytes[J].Blood, 1996, 87(4): 1595–1599.  
25Shabeer J, Srivastava RS, Singh SK. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of various fractions of Phyllanthus simplex in alloxan diabetic rats[J].J Ethnopharmacol, 2009, 124(1): 34–38.  
26Punitha R, Manoharan S. Antihyperglycemic and antilipidperoxidative effects of Pongamia pinnata (Linn.) Pierre flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats[J].J Ethnopharmacol, 2006, 105(1–2): 39–46.  
27Vina J, Borras C, Gomez-Cabrera MC, Orr WC. Part of the series: from dietary antioxidants to regulators in cellular signalling and gene expression. Role of reactive oxygen species and (phyto)oestrogens in the modulation of adaptive response to stress[J].Free Radic Res, 2006, 40(2): 111–119.  
28Góth L, Lenkey A, Bigler WN. Blood catalase deficiency and diabetes in Hungary[J].Diabetes Care, 2001, 24(10): 1839–1840.  
29Góth L, Bigler NW. Catalase deficiency may complicate urate oxidase (rasburicase) therapy[J].Free Radic Res, 2007, 41(9): 953–955.  
30Góth L, Tóth Z, Tarnai I, Bérces M, T?r?k P, Bigler WN. Blood catalase activity in gestational diabetes is decreased but not associated with pregnancy complications[J].Clin Chem, 2005, 51(12): 2401–2404.  
31Afolabi C, Akanimoladun E, Ibukun I, Emmanuel A, Obutor E, Foramb E. Phytochemical constituent and antioxidant activity of extract from the leaves of Ocimum gratissimum[J].Sci ResEssay, 2008, 2(5): 163–166.  
32Villines TC, Kim AS, Gore RS, Taylor AJ. Niacin: the evidence, clinical use, and future directions[J].Curr Atheroscler Rep, 2012, 14(1): 49–59.  
33Patil RN, Patil RY, Ahirwar B, Ahirwar D. Evaluation of antidiabetic and related actions of some Indian medicinal plants in diabetic rats[J].Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2011, 4(1): 20–23.  
34Moussa SA. Oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus[J].Romanian J Biophys, 2008, 18(3): 225–236.  
35Xu Z, Wang X, Zhou M, Ma L, Deng Y, Zhang H, Zhao A, Zhang Y, Jia W. The antidabetic activity of total lignin from Fructus Arctii against alloxan-induced diabetes in mice and rats[J].Phytother Res, 2008, 22(1): 97–101.  
36Hu X, Sato J, Oshida Y, Xu M, Bajotto G, Sato Y. Effect of Gosha-jinki-gan (Chinese herbal medicine) on insulin resistance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats[J].Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2003, 59(2): 103–111.  
37Kujur RS, Singh V, Ram M, Yadava HN, Singh KK, Kumari S, Roy BK. Antidiabetic and phytochemical screening of crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats[J].Pharmacognosy Res, 2010, 2(4): 258–263.  
38Akpan OU, Effiom OE. Ocimum gratissimum impairs gut glucose absorption but enhances water absorption in streptotozocin induced diabetic rats[J].Gaziantep Med J, 2015, 21(1): 43–50.  
 Home | Current Issue | Past Issues | SearchRSS
Copyright © 2013-2018 by JIM Editorial Office. All rights reserved. ISSN 2095-4964; CN 31-2083/R. 沪ICP备110264号