Updated Saturday, July 21, 2018
 Journal Tools
RSS Feed
Sample Copy
Submit a Manuscript
Contact Us
Thanking Peer Reviewers
 Language Polishing
Journal of Integrative Medicine: Volume 15, 2017   Issue 4

DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(17)60342-X
Exercise and gut microbiota: clinical implications for the feasibility of Tai Chi
Hidetaka Hamasaki (Hamasaki Clinic, 2-21-4 Nishida, Kagoshima 890-0046, Japan )


 Recent studies have shown exercise is associated with changes in the gut microbiota in humans as well as in experimental animals. Tai Chi is an exercise that integrates a martial art, deep breathing and mediation, and has various beneficial effects for health. This review summarizes current knowledge and recent literature on the association between exercise and gut microbiota, and explores the feasibility of Tai Chi for improving gut microbiota composition and function. PubMed/MEDLINE was used to search the English literature for the keywords exercise and gut microbiota. Fourteen relevant studies were identified. In humans, exercise increases the gut microbial diversity. However, the evidence for this association is weak, as previous studies were small-scale, non-controlled studies of short duration or cross-sectional design. In animals, exercise alters the composition of gut microbiota, with some studies suggesting exercise increases the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio. However, these results are controversial, partly because host genetics and physical fitness also influence gut microbiota. Furthermore, the intensity of exercise may play a key role in how exercise affects gut microbiota. Tai Chi is a moderate-intensity exercise that improves immune function and inflammation of the gut. Tai Chi may also affect gut microbiota through vagal modulation and mediating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, no studies have investigated the association between Tai Chi and gut microbiota. Well designed studies exploring the effects of Tai Chi on gut microbiota are needed.

Welcome to JIM! You are the number 2648 reader of this article!
Download Article:
[Full Text]      [PDF]      [Previous]      [Next]      [This Issue]
Please cite this article as:
Hamasaki H. Exercise and gut microbiota: clinical implications for the feasibility of Tai Chi. J Integr Med. 2017; 15(4): 270–281
1Thorogood A, Mottillo S, Shimony A, Filion KB, Joseph L, Genest J, Pilote L, Poirier P, Schiffrin EL, Eisenberg MJ. Isolated aerobic exercise and weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials[J].Am J Med, 2011, 124(8): 747–755.  
2Chudyk A, Petrella RJ. Effects of exercise on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis[J].Diabetes Care, 2011, 34(5): 1228–1237.  
3Robsahm TE, Aagnes B, Hjart?ker A, Langseth H, Bray FI, Larsen IK. Body mass index, physical activity, and colorectal cancer by anatomical subsites: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies[J].Eur J Cancer Prev, 2013, 22(6): 492–505.  
4Kvam S, Kleppe CL, Nordhus IH, Hovland A. Exercise as a treatment for depression: a meta-analysis[J].J Affect Disord, 2016, 202: 67–86.  
5Larun L, Brurberg KG, Odgaard-Jensen J, Price JR. Exercise therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome[J].Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2016, (6): CD003200.  
6Hawley JA, Hargreaves M, Joyner MJ, Zierath JR. Integrative biology of exercise[J].Cell, 2014, 159(4): 738–749.  
7Clarke SF, Murphy EF, O’Sullivan O, Lucey AJ, Humphreys M, Hogan A, Hayes P, O’Reilly M, Jeffery IB, Wood-Martin R, Kerins DM, Quigley E, Ross RP, O’Toole PW, Molloy MG, Falvey E, Shanahan F, Cotter PD. Exercise and associated dietary extremes impact on gut microbial diversity[J].Gut, 2014, 63(12): 1913–1920.  
8Rosenbaum M, Knight R, Leibel RL. The gut microbiota in human energy homeostasis and obesity[J].Trends Endocrinol Metab, 2015, 26(9): 493–501.  
9Human Microbiome Project Consortium. Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome[J].Nature, 2012, 486(7402): 207–214.  
10Wu GD, Chen J, Hoffmann C, Bittinger K, Chen YY, Keilbaugh SA, Bewtra M, Knights D, Walters WA, Knight R, Sinha R, Gilroy E, Gupta K, Baldassano R, Nessel L, Li H, Bushman FD, Lewis JD. Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes[J].Science, 2011, 334(6052): 105–108.  
11Cook MD, Allen JM, Pence BD, Wallig MA, Gaskins HR, White BA, Woods JA. Exercise and gut immune function: evidence of alterations in colon immune cell homeostasis and microbiome characteristics with exercise training[J].Immunol Cell Biol, 2016, 94(2): 158–163.  
12Sallam N, Laher I. Exercise modulates oxidative stress and inflammation in aging and cardiovascular diseases[J].Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2016, 2016: 7239639.  
13O’Mahony SM, Clarke G, Dinan TG, Cryan JF. Early-life adversity and brain development: is the microbiome a missing piece of the puzzle? Neuroscience. 2017; 342: 37–54.
14Grimonprez A, Raedt R, Baeken C, Boon P, Vonck K. The antidepressant mechanism of action of vagus nerve stimulation: evidence from preclinical studies[J].Neurosci Biobehav Rev, 2015, 56: 26–34.  
15Pellissier S, Dantzer C, Mondillon L, Trocme C, Gauchez AS, Ducros V, Mathieu N, Toussaint B, Fournier A, Canini F, Bonaz B. Relationship between vagal tone, cortisol, TNF-α, epinephrine and negative affects in Crohn’s disease and irritable bowel syndrome[J].PloS One, 2014, 9(9): e105328.  
16Liu Q, Wang EM, Yan XJ, Chen SL. Autonomic functioning in irritable bowel syndrome measured by heart rate variability: a meta-analysis[J].J Dig Dis, 2013, 14(12): 638–646.  
17Burokas A, Arboleya S, Moloney RD, Peterson VL, Murphy K, Clarke G, Stanton C, Dinan TG, Cryan JF. Targeting the microbiota-gut-brain axis: prebiotics have anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects and reverse the impact of chronic stress in mice. Biol Psychiatry. 2017; Epub ahead of print.
18Ott SJ, Musfeldt M, Wenderoth DF, Hampe J, Brant O, F?lsch UR, Timmis KN, Schreiber S. Reduction in diversity of the colonic mucosa associated bacterial microflora in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease[J].Gut, 2004, 53(5): 685–693.  
19Ringel Y. The gut microbiome in irritable bowel syndrome and other functional bowel disorders[J].Gastroenterol Clin North Am, 2017, 46(1): 91–101.  
20Balducci S, Zanuso S, Nicolucci A, Fernando F, Cavallo S, Cardelli P, Fallucca S, Alessi E, Letizia C, Jimenez A, Fallucca F, Pugliese G. Anti-inflammatory effect of exercise training in subjects with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome is dependent on exercise modalities and independent of weight loss[J].Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 2010, 20(8): 608–617.  
21Caspersen CJ, Powell KE, Christenson GM. Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research[J].Public Health Rep, 1985, 100(2): 126–131.  
22Hamasaki H. Martial arts and metabolic diseases[J].Sports, 2016, 4: 28.  
23Chen SC, Ueng KC, Lee SH, Sun KT, Lee MC. Effect of T’ai chi exercise on biochemical profiles and oxidative stress indicators in obese patients with type 2 diabetes[J].J Altern Complement Med, 2010, 16(11): 1153–1159.  
24Shi N, Han X, Yu W, Wang L, Lu A. Adoption in China of clinical practice guidelines for hypertension using traditional Chinese medical approaches: a literature review based on clinical studies[J].J Altern Complement Med, 2013, 19(1): 1–8.  
25Ehrenpreis ED, Swamy RS, Zaitman D, Noth I. Short duration exercise increases breath hydrogen excretion after lactulose ingestion: description of a new phenomenon[J].Am J Gastroenterol, 2002, 97(11): 2798–2802.  
26Quigley EM. The enteric microbiota in the pathogenesis and management of constipation[J].Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol, 2011, 25(1): 119–126.  
27Moses FM. Exercise-associated intestinal ischemia[J].Curr Sports Med Rep, 2005, 4(2): 91–95.  
28Choi SC, Choi SJ, Kim JA, Kim TH, Nah YH, Yazaki E, Evans DF. The role of gastrointestinal endoscopy in long-distance runners with gastrointestinal symptoms[J].Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2001, 13(9): 1089–1094.  
29Shukla SK, Cook D, Meyer J, Vernon SD, Le T, Clevidence D, Robertson CE, Schrodi SJ, Yale S, Frank DN. Changes in gut and plasma microbiome following exercise challenge in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)[J].PLoS One, 2015, 10(12): e0145453.  
30Mayer EA, Tillisch K, Gupta A. Gut/brain axis and the microbiota[J].J Clin Invest, 2015, 125(3): 926–938.  
31Clemente JC, Ursell LK, Parfrey LW, Knight R. The impact of the gut microbiota on human health: an integrative view[J].Cell, 2012, 148(6): 1258–1270.  
32Le Chatelier E, Nielsen T, Qin J, Prifti E, Hildebrand F, Falony G, Almeida M, Arumugam M, Batto JM, Kennedy S, Leonard P, Li J, Burgdorf K, Grarup N, J?rgensen T, Brandslund I, Nielsen HB, Juncker AS, Bertalan M, Levenez F, Pons N, Rasmussen S, Sunagawa S, Tap J, Tims S, Zoetendal EG, Brunak S, Clément K, Doré J, Kleerebezem M, Kristiansen K, Renault P, Sicheritz-Ponten T, de Vos WM, Zucker JD, Raes J, Hansen T; MetaHIT consortium, Bork P, Wang J, Ehrlich SD, Pedersen O. Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers[J].Nature, 2013, 500(7464): 541–546.  
33Claesson MJ, Jeffery IB, Conde S, Power SE, O’Connor EM, Cusack S, Harris HM, Coakley M, Lakshminarayanan B, O’Sullivan O, Fitzgerald GF, Deane J, O’Connor M, Harnedy N, O’Connor K, O’Mahony D, van Sinderen D, Wallace M, Brennan L, Stanton C, Marchesi JR, Fitzgerald AP, Shanahan F, Hill C, Ross RP, O’Toole PW. Gut microbiota composition correlates with diet and health in the elderly[J].Nature, 2012, 488(7410): 178–184.  
34Everard A, Belzer C, Geurts L, Ouwerkerk JP, Druart C, Bindels LB, Guiot Y, Derrien M, Muccioli GG, Delzenne NM, de Vos WM, Cani PD. Cross-talk between Akkermansia muciniphila and intestinal epithelium controls diet-induced obesity[J].Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2013, 110(22): 9066–9071.  
35Matsumoto M, Inoue R, Tsukahara T, Ushida K, Chiji H, Matsubara N, Hara H. Voluntary running exercise alters microbiota composition and increases n-butyrate concentration in the rat cecum[J].Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 2008, 72(2): 572–576.  
36Leonel AJ, Alvarez-Leite JI. Butyrate: implications for intestinal function[J].Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2012, 15(5): 474–479.  
37Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JI. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity[J].Nature, 2006, 444(7122): 1022–1023.  
38Turnbaugh PJ, Ley RE, Mahowald MA, Magrini V, Mardis ER, Gordon JI. An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest[J].Nature, 2006, 444(7122): 1027–1031.  
39Ley RE, B?ckhed F, Turnbaugh P, Lozupone CA, Knight RD, Gordon JI. Obesity alters gut microbial ecology[J].Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2005, 102(31): 11070–11075.  
40Queipo-Ortu?o MI, Seoane LM, Murri M, Pardo M, Gomez-Zumaquero JM, Cardona F, Casanueva F, Tinahones FJ. Gut microbiota composition in male rat models under different nutritional status and physical activity and its association with serum leptin and ghrelin levels[J].PLoS One, 2013, 8(5): e65465.  
41Evans CC, LePard KJ, Kwak JW, Stancukas MC, Laskowski S, Dougherty J, Moulton L, Glawe A, Wang Y, Leone V, Antonopoulos DA, Smith D, Chang EB, Ciancio MJ. Exercise prevents weight gain and alters the gut microbiota in a mouse model of high fat diet-induced obesity[J].PLoS One, 2014, 9(3): e92193.  
42Mika A, Van Treuren W, González A, Herrera JJ, Knight R, Fleshner M. Exercise is more effective at altering gut microbial composition and producing stable changes in lean mass in juvenile versus adult male F344 rats[J].PLoS One, 2015, 10(5): e0125889.  
43Petriz BA, Castro AP, Almeida JA, Gomes CP, Fernandes GR, Kruger RH, Pereira RW, Franco OL. Exercise induction of gut microbiota modifications in obese, non-obese and hypertensive rats[J].BMC Genomics, 2014, 15: 511.  
44Welly RJ, Liu TW, Zidon TM, Rowles JL 3rd, Park YM, Smith TN, Swanson KS, Padilla J, Vieira-Potter VJ. Comparison of diet versus exercise on metabolic function and gut microbiota in obese rats[J].Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2016, 48(9): 1688–1698.  
45Allen JM, Berg Miller ME, Pence BD, Whitlock K, Nehra V, Gaskins HR, White BA, Fryer JD, Woods JA. Voluntary and forced exercise differentially alters the gut microbiome in C57BL/6J mice[J].J Appl Physiol (1985), 2015, 118(8): 1059–1066.  
46Denou E, Marcinko K, Surette MG, Steinberg GR, Schertzer JD. High-intensity exercise training increases the diversity and metabolic capacity of the mouse distal gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity[J].Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2016, 310(11): E982–E993.  
47Liu TW, Park YM, Holscher HD, Padilla J, Scroggins RJ, Welly R, Britton SL, Koch LG, Vieira-Potter VJ, Swanson KS. Physical activity differentially affects the cecal microbiota of ovariectomized female rats selectively bred for high and low aerobic capacity[J].PLoS One, 2015, 10(8): e0136150.  
48Campbell SC, Wisniewski PJ, Noji M, McGuinness LR, H?ggblom MM, Lightfoot SA, Joseph LB, Kerkhof LJ. The effect of diet and exercise on intestinal integrity and microbial diversity in mice[J].PLoS One, 2016, 11(3): e0150502.  
49Kang SS, Jeraldo PR, Kurti A, Miller ME, Cook MD, Whitlock K, Goldenfeld N, Woods JA, White BA, Chia N, Fryer JD. Diet and exercise orthogonally alter the gut microbiome and reveal independent associations with anxiety and cognition[J].Mol Neurodegener, 2014, 9: 36.  
50Lambert JE, Myslicki JP, Bomhof MR, Belke DD, Shearer J, Reimer RA. Exercise training modifies gut microbiota in normal and diabetic mice[J].Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2015, 40(7): 749–752.  
51Choi JJ, Eum SY, Rampersaud E, Daunert S, Abreu MT, Toborek M. Exercise attenuates PCB-induced changes in the mouse gut microbiome[J].Environ Health Perspect, 2013, 121(6): 725–730.  
52Tehrani AB, Nezami BG, Gewirtz A, Srinivasan S. Obesity and its associated disease: a role for microbiota? Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2012; 24(4): 305–311.
53Cronin O, Molloy MG, Shanahan F. Exercise, fitness, and the gut[J].Curr Opin Gastroenterol, 2016, 32(2): 67–73.  
54Sonnenburg JL, B?ckhed F. Diet-microbiota interactions as moderators of human metabolism[J].Nature, 2016, 535(7610): 56–64.  
55Ussar S, Fujisaka S, Kahn CR. Interactions between host genetics and gut microbiome in diabetes and metabolic syndrome[J].Mol Metab, 2016, 5(9): 795–803.  
56D?browska K, Witkiewicz W. Correlations of host genetics and gut microbiome composition[J].Front Microbiol, 2016, 7: 1357.  
57Murphy K, O’Shea CA, Ryan CA, Dempsey EM, O’Toole PW, Stanton C, Ross RP. The gut microbiota composition in dichorionic triplet sets suggests a role for host genetic factors[J].PLoS One, 2015, 10(4): e0122561.  
58Rehrer NJ, Smets A, Reynaert H, Goes E, De Meirleir K. Effect of exercise on portal vein blood flow in man[J].Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2001, 33(9): 1533–1537.  
59van Wijck K, Lenaerts K, Grootjans J, Wijnands KA, Poeze M, van Loon LJ, Dejong CH, Buurman WA. Physiology and pathophysiology of splanchnic hypoperfusion and intestinal injury during exercise: strategies for evaluation and prevention[J].Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 2012, 303(2): G155–G168.  
60ter Steege RW, Geelkerken RH, Huisman AB, Kolkman JJ. Abdominal symptoms during physical exercise and the role of gastrointestinal ischaemia: a study in 12 symptomatic athletes[J].Br J Sports Med, 2012, 46(13): 931–935.  
61Field T. Tai Chi research review[J].Complement Ther Clin Pract, 2011, 17(3): 141–146.  
62Wang XQ, Pi YL, Chen PJ, Liu Y, Wang R, Li X, Chen BL, Zhu Y, Yang YJ, Niu ZB. Traditional Chinese exercise for cardiovascular diseases: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials[J].J Am Heart Assoc, 2016, 5(3): e002562.  
63Chen BL, Guo JB, Liu MS, Li X, Zou J, Chen X, Zhang LL, Yue YS, Wang XQ. Effect of traditional Chinese exercise on gait and balance for stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis[J].PLoS One, 2015, 10(8): e0135932.  
64Ni X, Liu S, Lu F, Shi X, Guo X. Efficacy and safety of Tai Chi for Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials[J].PLoS One, 2014, 9(6): e99377.  
65Zeng Y, Luo T, Xie H, Huang M, Cheng AS. Health benefits of qigong or tai chi for cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analyses[J].Complement Ther Med, 2014, 22(1): 173–186.  
66Fan D. Holistic integrative medicine: toward a new era of medical advancement. Front Med. 2017; Epub ahead of print.
67Chan AW, Yu DS, Choi KC, Chan HY, Wong EM. Effects of a peer-assisted tai-chi-qigong programme on social isolation and psychological wellbeing in Chinese hidden elders: a pilot randomised controlled trial[J].Lancet, 2016, 388(Suppl 1): S23.  
68Li G, Yuan H, Zhang W. Effects of Tai Chi on health related quality of life in patients with chronic conditions: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials[J].Complement Ther Med, 2014, 22(4): 743–755.  
69Rieder R, Wisniewski PJ, Alderman BL, Campbell SC. Microbes and mental health: a review. Brain Behav Immun. 2017; Epub ahead of print.
70Wang C, Collet JP, Lau J. The effect of Tai Chi on health outcomes in patients with chronic conditions: a systematic review[J].Arch Intern Med, 2004, 164(5): 493–501.  
71Chen YW, Hunt MA, Campbell KL, Peill K, Reid WD. The effect of Tai Chi on four chronic conditions—cancer, osteoarthritis, heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analyses[J].Br J Sports Med, 2016, 50(7): 397–407.  
72Zheng G, Li S, Huang M, Liu F, Tao J, Chen L. The effect of Tai Chi training on cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis[J].PLoS One, 2015, 10(2): e0117360.  
73Estaki M, Pither J, Baumeister P, Little JP, Gill SK, Ghosh S, Ahmadi-Vand Z, Marsden KR, Gibson DL. Cardiorespiratory fitness as a predictor of intestinal microbial diversity and distinct metagenomic functions[J].Microbiome, 2016, 4(1): 42.  
74Lan C, Chen SY, Lai JS. The exercise intensity of Tai Chi Chuan[J].Med Sport Sci, 2008, 52: 12–19.  
75Bermon S, Petriz B, Kaj?nien? A, Prestes J, Castell L, Franco OL. The microbiota: an exercise immunology perspective[J].Exerc Immunol Rev, 2015, 21: 70–79.  
76Morgan N, Irwin MR, Chung M, Wang C. The effects of mind-body therapies on the immune system: meta-analysis[J].PLoS One, 2014, 9(7): e100903.  
77Furusawa Y, Obata Y, Fukuda S, Endo TA, Nakato G, Takahashi D, Nakanishi Y, Uetake C, Kato K, Kato T, Takahashi M, Fukuda NN, Murakami S, Miyauchi E, Hino S, Atarashi K, Onawa S, Fujimura Y, Lockett T, Clarke JM, Topping DL, Tomita M, Hori S, Ohara O, Morita T, Koseki H, Kikuchi J, Honda K, Hase K, Ohno H. Commensal microbe-derived butyrate induces the differentiation of colonic regulatory T cells[J].Nature, 2013, 504(7480): 446–450.  
78Yeh SH, Chuang H, Lin LW, Hsiao CY, Eng HL. Regular tai chi chuan exercise enhances functional mobility and CD4CD25 regulatory T cells[J].Br J Sports Med, 2006, 40(3): 239–243.  
79Yeh SH, Chuang H, Lin LW, Hsiao CY, Wang PW, Liu RT, Yang KD. Regular Tai Chi Chuan exercise improves T cell helper function of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with an increase in T-bet transcription factor and IL-12 production[J].Br J Sports Med, 2009, 43(11): 845–850.  
80Zhang YJ, Wang R, Chen PJ, Yu DH. Effects of Tai Chi Chuan training on cellular immunity in post-surgical non-small cell lung cancer survivors: a randomized pilot trial[J].J Sport Health Sci, 2013, 2(1): 104–108.  
81Chiang J, Chen YY, Akiko T, Huang YC, Hsu ML, Jang TR, Chen YJ. Tai Chi Chuan increases circulating myeloid dendritic cells[J].Immunol Invest, 2010, 39(8): 863–873.  
82Goon JA, Aini AH, Musalmah M, Anum MY, Nazaimoon WM, Ngah WZ. Effect of Tai Chi exercise on DNA damage, antioxidant enzymes, and oxidative stress in middle-age adults[J].J Phys Act Health, 2009, 6(1): 43–54.  
83Petersen AM, Pedersen BK. The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise[J].J Appl Physiol (1985), 2005, 98(4): 1154–1162.  
84Bonaz BL, Bernstein CN. Brain-gut interactions in inflammatory bowel disease[J].Gastroenterology, 2013, 144(1): 36–49.  
85Bailey MT, Dowd SE, Galley JD, Hufnagle AR, Allen RG, Lyte M. Exposure to a social stressor alters the structure of the intestinal microbiota: implications for stressor-induced immunomodulation[J].Brain Behav Immun, 2011, 25(3): 397–407.  
86Jin P. Changes in heart rate, noradrenaline, cortisol and mood during Tai Chi[J].J Psychosom Res, 1989, 33(2): 197–206.  
87Campo RA, Light KC, O’Connor K, Nakamura Y, Lipschitz D, LaStayo PC, Pappas LM, Boucher KM, Irwin MR, Hill HR, Martins TB, Agarwal N, Kinney AY. Blood pressure, salivary cortisol, and inflammatory cytokine outcomes in senior female cancer survivors enrolled in a tai chi chih randomized controlled trial[J].J Cancer Surviv, 2015, 9(1): 115–125.  
88Cole AR, Wijarnpreecha K, Chattipakorn SC, Chattipakorn N. Effects of Tai Chi exercise on heart rate variability[J].Complement Ther Clin Pract, 2016, 23: 59–63.  
89Pavlov VA, Tracey KJ. The vagus nerve and the inflammatory reflex—linking immunity and metabolism[J].Nat Rev Endocrinol, 2012, 8(12): 743–754.  
 Home | Current Issue | Past Issues | SearchRSS
Copyright © 2013-2018 by JIM Editorial Office. All rights reserved. ISSN 2095-4964; CN 31-2083/R. 沪ICP备110264号