Updated Friday, December 15, 2017
 Journal Tools
RSS Feed
Sample Copy
Submit a Manuscript
Contact Us
Thanking Peer Reviewers
 Language Polishing
Journal of Integrative Medicine: Volume 15, 2017   Issue 6,  Pages: 442–449

DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(17)60367-4
Research Article
Incorporation of integrative medicine education into undergraduate medical education: a longitudinal study.
1. Saswati Mahapatra (Division of General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA )
2. Anjali Bhagra (Division of General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA )
3. Bisrat Fekadu (Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA )
4. Zhuo Li (Biostatistics Unit, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida 32224, USA )
5. Brent A. Bauer (Division of General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA )
6. Dietlind L. Wahner-Roedler (Division of General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA )
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Integrative medicine (IM) combines complementary medical approaches into conventional medicine and considers the whole person. We implemented a longitudinal IM short-course curriculum into our medical school education. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the curriculum via knowledge and attitude surveys regarding IM among students. METHODS: A mandatory short IM curriculum across all years of medical school was created and taught by IM professionals and physician faculty members with expertise in integrative therapies. Graduating classes of 2015 and 2016 completed the same survey in their first and third years of medical school. Paired data analysis was done, and only students who completed surveys at both time points were included in final analyses. RESULTS: Of 52 students in each class, 17 (33%) in the class of 2015 and 22 (42%) in the class of 2016 completed both surveys. After the IM curriculum, students’ knowledge of and comfort with several IM therapies—biofeedback, mindfulness, and the use of St. John’s wort—improved significantly. Students’ personal health practices also improved, including better sleep, exercise, and stress management for the class of 2015. Students graduating in 2016 reported decreased alcohol use in their third year compared with their first year. CONCLUSION: It is feasible to incorporate IM education into undergraduate medical education, and this is associated with improvement in students’ knowledge of IM and personal health practices.
Welcome to JIM! You are the number 217 reader of this article!
Download Article:
[Full Text]      [PDF]      [Previous]      [Next]      [This Issue]
Please cite this article as:
Mahapatra S, Bhagra A, Fekadu B, Li Z, Bauer BA, Wahner-Roedler DL. Incorporation of integrative medicine education into undergraduate medical education: a longitudinal study. J Integr Med. 2017; 15(6): 442–449.
1Eisenberg DM, Kaptchuk TJ, Post DE, Hrbek AL, O’Connor BB, Osypiuk K, Wayne PM, Buring JE, Levy DB. Establishing an integrative medicine program within an academic health center: essential considerations[J].Acad Med, 2016, 91(9): 1223–1230.  
2Kligler B, Maizes V, Schachter S, Park CM, Gaudet T, Benn R, Lee R, Remen RN; Education Working Group, Consortium of Academic Health Centers for Integrative Medicine. Core competencies in integrative medicine for medical school curricula: a proposal[J].Acad Med, 2004, 79(6): 521–531.  
3Alwhaibi M, Bhattacharya R, Sambamoorthi U. Type of multimorbidity and complementary and alternative medicine use among adults[J].Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2015, 2015: 362582.  
4Clarke TC, Black LI, Stussman BJ, Barnes PM, Nahin RL. Trends in the use of complementary health approaches among adults: United States, 2002–2012[J].Natl Health Stat Report, 2015, 10(79): 1–16.  
5Elewonibi BR, BeLue R. Prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine in immigrants[J].J Immigr Minor Health, 2016, 18(3): 600–607.  
6Burke A, Nahin RL, Stussman BJ. Limited health knowledge as a reason for non-use of four common complementary health practices[J].PLoS One, 2015, 10(6): e0129336.  
7Astin JA. Why patients use alternative medicine: results of a national study[J].JAMA, 1998, 279(19): 1548–1553.  
8Nahin RL, Stussman BJ, Herman PM. Out-of-pocket expenditures on complementary health approaches associated with painful health conditions in a nationally representative adult sample[J].J Pain, 2015, 16(11): 1147–1162.  
9Giordano J, Boatwright D, Stapleton S, Huff L. Blending the boundaries: steps toward an integration of complementary and alternative medicine into mainstream practice[J].J Altern Complement Med, 2002, 8(6): 897–906.  
10Flaherty G, Fitzgibbon J, Cantillon P. Attitudes of medical students toward the practice and teaching of integrative medicine[J]. J Integr Med, 2015, 13(6): 412–415.  
11Pearson NJ, Chesney MA. The CAM education program of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine: an overview[J].Acad Med, 2007, 82(10): 921–926.  
12Marcus DM. How should alternative medicine be taught to medical students and physicians? Acad Med. 2001; 76(3): 224–229.
13Cook DA, Gelula MH, Lee MC, Bauer BA, Dupras DM, Schwartz A. A web-based course on complementary medicine for medical students and residents improves knowledge and changes attitudes[J].Teach Learn Med, 2007, 19(3): 230–238.  
14Chez RA, Jonas WB, Crawford C. A survey of medical students’ opinions about complementary and alternative medicine[J].Am J Obstet Gynecol, 2001, 185(3): 754–757.  
15Xu S, Levine M. Medical residents’ and students’ attitudes towards herbal medicines: a pilot study[J].Can J Clin Pharmacol, 2008, 15(1): e1–e4.  
16Templeman K, Robinson A, McKenna L. Student identification of the need for complementary medicine education in Australian medical curricula: a constructivist grounded theory approach[J].Complement Ther Med, 2015, 23(2): 257–264.  
17Teixeira MZ, Lin CA, Martins Mde A. Homeopathy and acupuncture teaching at Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de S?o Paulo: the undergraduates’ attitudes[J].Sao Paulo Med J, 2005, 123(2): 77–82.  
18Rampes H, Sharples F, Maragh S, Fisher P. Introducing complementary medicine into the medical curriculum[J].J R Soc Med, 1997, 90(1): 19–22.  
19Frye AW, Sierpina VS, Boisaubin EV, Bulik RJ. Measuring what medical students think about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM): a pilot study of the complementary and alternative medicine survey[J].Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract, 2006, 11(1): 19–32.  
20Forjuoh SN, Rascoe TG, Symm B, Edwards JC. Teaching medical students complementary and alternative medicine using evidence-based principles[J].J Altern Complement Med, 2003, 9(3): 429–439.  
21Lie DA, Boker J. Comparative survey of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) attitudes, use, and information-seeking behaviour among medical students, residents & faculty[J].BMC Med Educ, 2006, 6: 58.  
22Lie D, Rucker L, Cohn F. Using literature as the framework for a new course[J].Acad Med, 2002, 77(11): 1170.  
23Karpa K. Development and implementation of an herbal and natural product elective in undergraduate medical education[J].BMC Complement Altern Med, 2012, 12: 57.  
24Hoellein AR, Lineberry MJ, Kifer E. A needs assessment of complementary and alternative medicine education at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine[J].Med Teach, 2008, 30(3): e77–e81.  
25Nicolao M, T?uber MG, Heusser P. How should complementary and alternative medicine be taught to medical students in Switzerland? A survey of medical experts and students[J].Med Teach, 2010, 32(1): 50–55.  
26Chaterji R, Tractenberg RE, Amri H, Lumpkin M, Amorosi SB, Haramati A. A large-sample survey of first- and second-year medical student attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine in the curriculum and in practice[J].Altern Ther Health Med, 2007, 13(1): 30–35.  
27Brinkhaus B, Joos S, Lindner M, Kohnen R, Witt C, Willich SN, Hahn EG. Integration of complementary and alternative medicine into German medical school curricula—contradictions between the opinions of decision makers and the status quo[J].Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd, 2005, 12(3): 139–143.  
28Dogas Z, Kardum G, Miri? L, Sevo V, Toli? T, Ursi? A, Vasiljevi? P, Zeki? S. Attitudes towards science and alternative medicine of medical, economics and business, and electrical engineering students in Split, Croatia[J].Croat Med J, 2003, 44(1): 75–79.  
29Kanadiya MK, Klein G, Shubrook JH Jr. Use of and attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine among osteopathic medical students[J].J Am Osteopath Assoc, 2012, 112(7): 437–446.  
30L?ngler A, Boeker R, Kameda G, Seifert G, Edelh?user F, Ostermann T. Attitudes and beliefs of paediatric oncologists regarding complementary and alternative therapies[J].Complement Ther Med, 2013, 21(Suppl 1): S10–S19.  
31Loh KP, Ghorab H, Clarke E, Conroy R, Barlow J. Medical students’ knowledge, perceptions, and interest in complementary and alternative medicine[J].J Altern Complement Med, 2013, 19(4): 360–366.  
32Greiner KA, Murray JL, Kallail KJ. Medical student interest in alternative medicine[J].J Altern Complement Med, 2000, 6(3): 231–234.  
33Oberbaum M, Notzer N, Abramowitz R, Branski D. Attitude of medical students to the introduction of complementary medicine into the medical curriculum in Israel[J].Isr Med Assoc J, 2003, 5(2): 139–142.  
34Silverstein DD, Spiegel AD. Are physicians aware of the risks of alternative medicine? J Community Health. 2001; 26(3): 159–174.
35Rees CE, Wearn AM, Dennis I, Amri H, Greenfield SM. Medical students’ attitudes to complementary and alternative medicine: further validation of the IMAQ and findings from an international longitudinal study[J].Med Teach, 2009, 31(2): 125–132.  
36Wahner-Roedler DL, Lee MC, Chon TY, Cha SS, Loehrer LL, Bauer BA. Physicians’ attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine and their knowledge of specific therapies: 8-year follow-up at an academic medical center[J].Complement Ther Clin Pract, 2014, 20(1): 54–60.  
37Wahner-Roedler DL, Vincent A, Elkin PL, Loehrer LL, Cha SS, Bauer BA. Physicians’ attitudes toward complementary and alternative medicine and their knowledge of specific therapies: a survey at an academic medical center[J].Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2006, 3(4): 495–501.  
38Harris PA, Taylor R, Thielke R, Payne J, Gonzalez N, Conde JG. Research electronic data capture (REDCap): a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support[J].J Biomed Inform, 2009, 42(2): 377–381.  
39Cowen VS, Cyr V. Complementary and alternative medicine in US medical schools[J].Adv Med Educ Pract, 2015, 6: 113–117.  
40Zakrzewska JM, Fry H, Larkin KE. A case study of methods used to tackle a common pedagogic problem in medical and dental education: time pressure[J].Med Teach, 2003, 25(4): 391–397.  
41Peluso M, Takizawa P. Student involvement in the development of integrated curricula[J].Med Educ, 2010, 44(11): 1120–1121.  
42Lehrer MD, Murray S, Benzar R, Stormont R, Lightfoot M, Hafertepe M, Welch G, Peters N, Maio A. Peer-led problem-based learning in interprofessional education of health professions students[J].Med Educ Online, 2015, 20: 28851.  
43Bulte C, Betts A, Garner K, Durning S. Student teaching: views of student near-peer teachers and learners[J].Med Teach, 2007, 29(6): 583–590.  
44Lin JA, Farrow N, Lindeman BM, Lidor AO. Impact of near-peer teaching rounds on student satisfaction in the basic surgical clerkship[J].Am J Surg, 2017, 213(6): 1163–1165.  
45Raty SR, Teal CR, Nelson EA, Gill AC. Near-peers improve patient safety training in the preclinical curriculum[J].Med Educ Online, 2017, 22(1): 1289315.  
46Bond AR, Mason HF, Lemaster CM, Shaw SE, Mullin CS, Holick EA, Saper RB. Embodied health: the effects of a mind-body course for medical students[J].Med Educ Online, 2013, 18: 1–8.  
47Greeson JM, Toohey MJ, Pearce MJ. An adapted, four-week mind-body skills group for medical students: reducing stress, increasing mindfulness, and enhancing self-care[J].Explore (NY), 2015, 11(3): 186–192.  
48Kraemer KM, Luberto CM, O’Bryan EM, Mysinger E, Cotton S. Mind-body skills training to improve distress tolerance in medical students: a pilot study[J].Teach Learn Med, 2016, 28(2): 219–228.  
 Home | Current Issue | Past Issues | SearchRSS
Copyright © 2013-2018 by JIM Editorial Office. All rights reserved. ISSN 2095-4964; CN 31-2083/R. 沪ICP备110264号