Updated Friday, December 15, 2017
 Journal Tools
RSS Feed
Sample Copy
Submit a Manuscript
Contact Us
Subscription
Advertising
Thanking Peer Reviewers
 Language Polishing
Journal of Integrative Medicine: Volume 15, 2017   Issue 6,  Pages: 456–461

DOI: 10.1016/S2095-4964(17)60368-6
Research Article
Effectiveness of breathing exercises during the second stage of labor on labor pain and duration: a randomized controlled trial
1. Hilal Yuksel (Department of Family Medicine, Ataturk University Faculty of Medicine, Erzurum 25070, Turkey )
2. Yasemin Cayir (Department of Family Medicine, Ataturk University Faculty of Medicine, Erzurum 25070, Turkey )
3. Zahide Kosan (Department of Public Health, Ataturk University Faculty of Medicine, Erzurum 25070, Turkey )
4. Kenan Tastan (Department of Family Medicine, Ataturk University Faculty of Medicine, Erzurum 25070, Turkey )
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Some research exists on the effect of non-pharmacological approaches for labor pain relief. However, there is limited information about effectiveness of breathing exercises in pregnant women to reduce maternal pain during labor. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether breathing exercises for pregnant women during the second stage of labor have beneficial effects on maternal pain, duration of labor, and the first-minute Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity and Respiration (APGAR) scores. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: This randomized clinical trial involved 250 pregnant women, who were randomly divided into two groups: intervention group (IG; n = 125) and control group (CG; n = 125). IG received one session breathing exercise training and performed breathing exercises during the second stage of labor versus the CG that did not receive any breathing exercise training. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The effects of breathing exercises on maternal pain were determined by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), duration of the second stage of labor, and the first-minute APGAR scores. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was (23.2 ± 4.2) (range: 18 to 42) years. Both IG and CG had similar baseline characteristics in terms of age, education level, occupation, and smoking (P > 0.05). The mean VAS scores of IG and CG were (88.2 ± 6.3) and (90.5 ± 7.0), respectively (P < 0.001). The duration of the second stage of labor was (369.6 ± 92.0) s for IG and (440.7 ± 142.5) s for CG (P < 0.001). The mean first-minute APGAR scores were (8.84 ± 0.50) for IG and (8.73 ± 0.89) for CG (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Based on this study, breathing exercises with deep inhalation and exhalation in pregnant women are effective in reducing the perception of labor pain and shortening the duration of the second stage of delivery. Therefore, we recommend breathing exercises as an effective modality for labor pain management and shortening the duration of labor. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered on the website of ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) with the number of NCT03066973.
Welcome to JIM! You are the number 355 reader of this article!
Download Article:
[Full Text]      [PDF]      [Previous]      [Next]      [This Issue]
Please cite this article as:
Yuksel H, Cayir Y, Kosan Z, Tastan K. Effectiveness of breathing exercises during the second stage of labor on labor pain and duration: a randomized controlled trial. J Integr Med. 2017; 15(6): 456–461.
References:
1Marshall NE, Fu R, Guise JM. Impact of multiple cesarean deliveries on maternal morbidity: a systematic review[J].Am J Obstet Gynecol, 2011, 205(3): 262.e1– 262.e8.  
2Boaviagem A, Melo Junior E, Lubambo L, Sousa P, Arag?o C, Albuquerque S, Lemos A. The effectiveness of breathing patterns to control maternal anxiety during the first period of labor: a randomized controlled clinical trial[J].Complement Ther Clin Pract, 2017, 26: 30–35.  
3Adams ED, Bianchi AL. A practical approach to labor support[J].J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs, 2008, 37(1): 106–115.  
4Stjernholm YV, Petersson K, Eneroth E. Changed indications for cesarean sections[J].Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 2010, 89(1): 49–53.  
5Akarsu RH, Mucuk S. Turkish women’s opinions about cesarean delivery[J].Pak J Med Sci, 2014, 30(6): 1308–1313.  
6Saleh AM, Dudenhausen JW, Ahmed B. Increased rates of cesarean sections and large families: a potentially dangerous combination[J].J Perinat Med, 2017, 45(5): 517–521.  
7Kuczkowski KM. Labor pain and its management with the combined spinal-epidural analgesia: what does an obstetrician need to know? Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2007; 275(3): 183–185.
8Simkin P, Bolding A. Update on nonpharmacologic approaches to relieve labor pain and prevent suffering[J].J Midwifery Womens Health, 2004, 49(6): 489–504.  
9Smith CA, Collins CT, Crowther CA, Levett KM. Acupuncture or acupressure for pain management in labour[J].Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2011, (7): CD009232.  
10Miquelutti MA, Cecatti JG, Makuch MY. Evaluation of a birth preparation program on lumbopelvic pain, urinary incontinence, anxiety and exercise: a randomized controlled trial[J].BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 2013, 13: 154.  
11Jones L, Othman M, Dowswell T, Alfirevic Z, Gates S, Newburn M, Jordan S, Lavender T, Neilson JP. Pain management for women in labour: an overview of systematic reviews[J].Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2012, (3): CD009234.  
12Begg C, Cho M, Eastwood S, Horton R, Moher D, Olkin I, Pitkin R, Rennie D, Schulz KF, Simel D, Stroup DF. Improving the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials. The CONSORT statement[J].JAMA, 1996, 276(8): 637–639.  
13WMA declaration of Helsinki Serves as guide to physicians. Calif Med. 1966; 105(2): 149–150.
14Ahmadi Z, Torkzahrani S, Roosta F, Shakeri N, Mhmoodi Z. Effect of breathing technique of blowing on the extent of damage to the perineum at the moment of delivery: a randomized clinical trial[J].Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res, 2017, 22(1): 62–66.  
15Lemos A, Amorim MM, Dornelas de Andrade A, de Souza AI, Cabral Filho JE, Correia JB. Pushing/bearing down methods for the second stage of labour[J].Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2015, (10): CD009124.  
16Simpson KR, James DC. Effects of immediate versus delayed pushing during second-stage labor on fetal well-being: a randomized clinical trial[J].Nurs Res, 2005, 54(3): 149–157.  
17Yildirim G, Sahin NH. The effect of breathing and skin stimulation techniques on labour pain perception of Turkish women[J].Pain Res Manag, 2004, 9(4): 183–187.  
18Madden K, Middleton P, Cyna AM, Matthewson M, Jones L. Hypnosis for pain management during labour and childbirth[J].Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2016, (5): CD009356.  
19Henry DE, Cheng YW, Shaffer BL, Kaimal AJ, Bianco K, Caughey AB. Perinatal outcomes in the setting of active phase arrest of labor[J].Obstet Gynecol, 2008, 112(5): 1109–1115.  
20Anarado A, Ali E, Nwonu E, Chinweuba A, Ogbolu Y. Knowledge and willingness of prenatal women in Enugu Southeastern Nigeria to use in labour non-pharmacological pain reliefs[J].Afr Health Sci, 2015, 15(2): 568–575.  
21Lothian JA. Lamaze breathing: what every pregnant woman needs to know[J].J Perinat Educ, 2011, 20(2): 118–120.  
22Bankowski JB, Hearne AE. John Hopkins gynecology and obstetric handbook. Ankara: Atlas Kitap??l?k. 2005.
 Home | Current Issue | Past Issues | SearchRSS
Copyright © 2013-2018 by JIM Editorial Office. All rights reserved. ISSN 2095-4964; CN 31-2083/R. 沪ICP备110264号