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Journal of Integrative Medicine: Volume 16, 2018   Issue 2,  Pages: 132-140

DOI: 10.1016/j.joim.2018.02.007
Original Experimental Research
Medicinal properties of Ocotea bullata stem bark extracts: phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, cytotoxicity and inhibition of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes
1. Akintayo Lanre Ogundajo (Phytomedicine and Phytopharmacology Research Group, Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Phuthaditjhaba 9866, South Africa )
2. Lateef Apollo Adeniran (Phytomedicine and Phytopharmacology Research Group, Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Phuthaditjhaba 9866, South Africa )
3. Anofi Omotayo Ashafa (Phytomedicine and Phytopharmacology Research Group, Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Phuthaditjhaba 9866, South Africa E-mail: ashafaaot@ufs.ac.za)

Abstract
Objective

This study evaluates the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, cytotoxicity, and inhibitory activity against carbohydrate metabolism of extracts from Ocotea bullata stem bark.
Methods
Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water were used to extract the air-dried sample. The phytochemical investigation and antioxidant assays were carried out on the extracts using standard procedures. The antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory potentials were evaluated using α-amylase, α-glucosidase and 5-lipoxygenase enzymes respectively. Vero cells were employed to determine the cytotoxicity of the extracts.
Results
The ethyl acetate extract showed higher phenolic contents (8.97?mg/g gallic acid) while methanol displayed higher flavonoid (36.06?mg/g quercetin) and flavonol (153.44?mg/g rutin) contents than other extracts. Hexane extract had the greatest capacity to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (0.19?mg/mL), hydroxyl (25.77?mg/mL) and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (0.07?mg/mL) radicals, while ethyl acetate extract exhibited stronger inhibition (P?<?0.05) against superoxide anion (0.41?mg/mL) and ferric ion-reducing power (2.36?mg/mL) compared to other extracts and standards. Aqueous extract (27.02?mg/mL) exhibited strong metal-chelating activity (P?<?0.05) compared to other extracts and gallic acid. The aqueous extract demonstrated the greatest inhibition of α-glucosidase (1.45?mg/mL) and α-amylase (2.43?mg/mL) compared to other extracts and acarbose. There were no significant differences (P?<?0.05) in half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of all tested extracts and indomethacin in the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase activity. The aqueous extract was nontoxic to Vero cells with an IC50 value of 0.38?mg/mL.
Conclusion
O. bullata stem bark contains active phytochemicals with diverse pharmacological potentials that could be beneficial in managing diabetes and inflammation.

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Please cite this article as:
Akintayo Lanre Ogundajo, Lateef Apollo Adeniran, Anofi Omotayo Ashafa. Medicinal properties of Ocotea bullata stem bark extracts: phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, cytotoxicity and inhibition of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. J Integr Med. 2018; 16(2): 132-140.
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