Updated Sunday, January 21, 2018
 Journal Tools
RSS Feed
Sample Copy
Submit a Manuscript
Contact Us
Thanking Peer Reviewers
 Language Polishing
Journal of Integrative Medicine: Volume 11, 2013   Issue 1,  Pages: 11-16

DOI: 10.3736/jintegrmed2013003
Pharmacological characteristics of Kampo medicine as a mixture of constituents and ingredients
Hiroyasu Satoh (Health Life Science, Shitennoji University, Habikino, Osaka 583-8501, Japan E-mail: hysat@shitennoji.ac.jp)

ABSTRACT: Herbal medicine in Japan is termed as Kampo medicine, which is derived from traditional Chinese medicine. Shakuyakukanzoto (Shao-Yao-Gan-Cao-Tang) as a kind of Kampo formulations is composed of just two components; Paeoniae Radix and Glycyrrhizae Radix, which produced marked relaxation of intestinal tract. Mokuboito (Mu-Fang-Ji-Tang) inhibited cardiac ionic channel currents, and as a mixture also produced great vasodilatation. Sinomenine (a main ingredient of Mokuboito) as a single compound also caused the vasodilatation, but decreased it along with ageing. Gypsum containing in Mokuboito and Chotosan (Diao-Teng-San) caused more marked effects, as compared with those without Gypsum. On the other hand, Rokumigan (Liu-Wei-Wan), Hachimijiogan (Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan) and Goshajinkigan (Niu-Che-Shen-Qi-Wan) increase in order the number of contained ingredients. The formulations with more herbs (ingredients) produced much more effective actions on rat aorta, presumably due to compensation of the decline of pharmacological sensitivity with ageing. Thus, there are some important differences between single chemical drugs and mixture drugs with many ingredients. The effects of Kampo medicine (mixture) are never just a sum of each effect induced by a lot of ingredients. For elder persons, furthermore, Kampo medicine exerts more effective actions.

Welcome to JIM! You are the number 16873 reader of this article!
Download Article:
[Full Text]      [PDF]      [Previous]      [Next]      [This Issue]
Please cite this article as:
Satoh H. Pharmacological characteristics of Kampo medicine as a mixture of constituents and ingredients. J Integr Med. 2013; 11(1): 11-16.
1Satoh H. Basics of evidences-based herbal medicine. Kerala: Research Signpost. 2010.
2Sato Y, Hanawa T, Arai M. Introduction to KAMPO: Japanese traditional medicine. Tokyo: Elsevier Japan K.K. 2005.
3Kimura M, Kimura I, Nojima H. Depolarizing neuromuscular blocking action induced by electropharmacological coupling in the combined effect of paeoniflorin and glycyrrhizin[J].Jpn J Pharmacol, 1985, 37(4): 395-399.  
4Kimura M, Kimura I, Kimura M. Decreasing effects by glycyrrhizin and paeoniflorin on intracellular Ca2+-aequorin luminescence transients with or without caffeine in directly stimulated-diaphragm muscle of mouse[J].Jpn J Pharmacol, 1985, 39(3): 387-390.  
5Kimura M, Kimura I, Takahashi K, Muroi M, Yoshizaki M, Kanaoka M, Kitagawa I. Blocking effects of blended paeoniflorin or its related compounds with glycyrrhizin on neuromuscular junctions in frog and mouse[J].Jpn J Pharmacol, 1984, 36(3): 275-282.  
6He JX, Goto E, Akao T, Tani T. Interaction between Shaoyao-Gancao-Tang and a laxative with respect to alteration of paeoniflorin metabolism by intestinal bacteria in rats[J].Phytomedicine, 2007, 14(7-8): 452-459.  
7Saegusa Y, Sugiyama A, Takahara A, Nagasawa Y, Hashimoto K. Relationship between phosphodiesterase inhibition induced by several Kampo medicines and smooth muscle relaxation of gastrointestinal tract tissues of rats[J].J Pharmacol Sci, 2003, 93(1): 62-68.  
8Takeda Y, Ward SM, Sanders KM, Koh SD. Effects of the gap junction blocker glycyrrhetinic acid on gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells[J].Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol, 2005, 288(4): G832-G841.  
9Gajda Z, Hermesz E, Gyengési E, Szupera Z, Szente M. The functional significance of gap junction channels in the epileptogenicity and seizure susceptibility of juvenile rats[J].Epilepsia, 2006, 47(6): 1009-1022.  
10Daniel EE, Yazbi AE, Mannarino M, Galante G, Boddy G, Livergant J, Oskouei TE. Do gap junctions play a role in nerve transmissions as well as pacing in mouse intestine? Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007; 292(3): G734-G745.
11Kasahara Y, Goto H, Shimada Y, Sekiya N, Yang Q, Terasawa K. Inhibitory effects of Cinnamomi Cortex and cinnamaldehyde on oxygen-derived free radical-induced vasocontraction in isolated aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats[J].J Trad Med, 2002, 19(2): 51-57.  
12Fukuda K, Kido T, Miura N, Yamamoto M, Komatsu Y. Increase in nitric oxide synthase and cyclic GMP in vascular smooth muscle cells by treatment with aqueous extracts of Astragali Radix, Ginseng Radix and Scutellariae Radix[J].J Trad Med, 1995, 12(1): 38-44.  
13Yakubo S, Kinoshita Y, Arakawa Y, Takahashi M, Kitanaka S. Clinical evaluation of Moku-boi-to (Mu-Fang-Yi-Tang): A Japanese and Chinese traditional medicine for heart failure[J].J Trad Med, 2002, 19(5): 159-163.  
14Li Y, Cui S, Cheng Y, Chen X, Hu Z. Application of nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis for quantitative analysis of quinolizidine alkaloids in Chinese herbs[J].Anal Chim Acta, 2004, 508(1): 17-22.  
15Yamasaki H. Pharmacology of sinomenine, an anti-rheumatic alkaloid from Sinomenium acutum[J].Acta Med Okayama, 1976, 30(1): 1-20.  
16Liu L, Riese J, Resch K, Kaever V. Impairment of macrophage eicosanoid and nitric oxide production by an alkaloid from Sinomenium acutum[J].Arzneimittelforschung, 1994, 44(11): 1223-1226.  
17Mark W, Schneeberger S, Seiler R, Stroka DM, Amberger A, Offner F, Candinas D, Margreiter R. Sinomenine blocks tissue remodeling in a rat model of chronic cardiac allograft rejection[J].Transplantation, 2003, 75(7): 940-945.  
18Liu L, Buchner E, Beitze D, Schmidt-Weber CB, Kaever V, Emmrich F, Kinne RW. Amelioration of rat experimental arthritides by treatment with the alkaloid sinomenine[J].Int J Immunopharmacol, 1996, 18(10): 529-543.  
19Satoh H. Electropharmacological actions of the constituents of Sinomeni Caulis et Rhizome and Mokuboi-to in guinea pig heart[J].Am J Chin Med, 2005, 33(6): 967-979.  
20Nishida S, Satoh H. In vitro pharmacological actions of sinomenine on the smooth muscle and the endothelial cell activity in rat aorta[J].Life Sci, 2006, 79(12): 1203-1206.  
21Nishida S, Satoh H. Vascular pharmacology of mokuboito (mu-fang-yi-tang) and its constituents on the smooth muscle and the endothelium in rat aorta[J].Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2007, 4(3): 335-341.  
22Satoh H. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract and bilobalide, a main constituent, on the ionic currents in guinea pig ventricular cardiomyocytes[J].Arzneimittelforschung, 2003, 53(6): 407-413.  
23Nishida S, Satoh H. Comparative vasodilating actions among terpenoids and flavonoids contained in Ginkgo biloba extract[J].Clin Chim Acta, 2004, 339(1-2): 129-133.  
24Nishida S, Satoh H. Mechanisms for the vasodilations induced by Ginkgo biloba extract and its main constituent, bilobalide, in rat aorta[J].Life Sci, 2003, 72(23): 2659-2667.  
25Nishida S, Satoh H. Age-related changes in the vasodilating actions of Ginkgo biloba extract and its main constituent, bilobalide, in rat aorta[J].Clin Chim Acta, 2005, 354(1-2): 141-146.  
26Tschudi MR, Barton M, Bersinger NA, Moreau P, Cosentino F, Noll G, Malinski T, Lüscher TF. Effect of age on kinetics of nitric oxide release in rat aorta and pulmonary artery[J].J Clin Invest, 1996, 98(4): 899-905.  
27Nishida S, Satoh H. Vascular modulation of anti-oketsu formulations of Kampo on rat aorta[J].J Trad Med, 2008, 25(Supl): 120.  
28Iwasaki K, Satoh-Nakagawa T, Maruyama M, Monma Y, Nemoto M, Tomita N, Tanji H, Fujiwara H, Seki T, Fujii M, Arai H, Sasaki H. A randomized, observer-blind, controlled trial of the traditional Chinese medicine Yi-Gan San for improvement of behavioral and psychological symptoms and activities of daily living in dementia patients[J].J Clin Psychiatry, 2005, 66(2): 248-252.  
29Shinno H, Inami Y, Inagaki T, Nakamura Y, Horiguchi J. Effect of Yi-Gan San on psychiatric symptoms and sleep structure at patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia[J].Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry, 2008, 32(3): 881-885.  
30Hikiami H, Kohta K, Sekiya N, Shimada Y, Itoh T, Terasawa K. Erythrocyte deformability in “Oketsu” syndrome and its relations to erythrocyte viscoelasticity[J].J Trad Med, 1996, 13: 156-164.  
31Terasawa K, Toriizuka K, Tosa H, Ueno M, Hayashi T, Shimizu M. Rheological studies on “Oketsu” syndrome I. The blood viscosity and diagnostic criteria[J].J Med Pharm Soc, 1986, 3: 98-104.  
32Kohta K, Hikoami H, Terasawa K, Hamazaki T, Itoh T, Tosa H. Hemorheological studies of “Oketsu” syndrome. Erythrocyte aggregation in “Oketsu” syndrome[J].J Med Pharm Soc, 1992, 9: 221-228.  
33Shibahara N, Sekiya N, Sakai S, Goto H, Kita T, Shimada Y, Shintani T, Terasawa K. Correlation between “Oketsu” syndrome and autonomic nervous activity. A diachronic study on the same subjects[J].J Trad Med, 2002, 19(3): 81-86.  
34Terasawa K, Itoh T, Morimoto Y, Hiyama Y, Tosa H. The characteristics of the microcirculation of bulbar conjunctive in “Oketsu” syndrome[J].J Med Pharm Soc, 1988, 5: 200-205.  
 Home | Current Issue | Past Issues | SearchRSS
Copyright © 2013-2018 by JIM Editorial Office. All rights reserved. ISSN 2095-4964; CN 31-2083/R. 沪ICP备110264号