Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2011, Vol. 9 ›› Issue (11): 1170-1178.doi: 10.3736/jcim20111103

• Review • Previous Articles     Next Articles

An updated review on medicinal herb genus Spilanthes

Kishan Lal Tiwari, Shailesh Kumar Jadhav(), Veenu Joshi   

  1. School of Studies in Biotechnology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, Chhattisgarh 492010, India
  • Received:2011-06-26 Accepted:2011-09-16 Online:2011-11-20 Published:2011-11-15

Herbal medicine has been used in medical practice for thousands of years and recognized especially as a valuable and readily available resource for healthcare in Asian nations. India is a vast repository of medicinal plants that can be developed as a safe and economical system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. Unfortunately, most of the traditionally used medicinal plants are yet unexplored or have not been fully examined by modern medical science. Therefore, exploring traditionally reported medicinal plants to leverage their potential for the betterment of human health is of great importance. The present review examines a promising medicinal plant genus Spilanthes. In recent years, many new compounds and activities of this plant genus have been established. The present review therefore, aims to compile up-to-date and comprehensive information of genus Spilanthes with special emphasis on phytochemical and ethnomedical uses, scientifically documented pharmacological activities and tissue culture methods for conservation.

Key words: Spilanthes, plant extracts, spilanthol, medicine, traditional, herbal drugs, review

Figure 1

Structure of some alkamides present in SpilanthesRecently, the LC-electrospray ionisation-MS method has been developed for the identification and quantification of spilanthol in S. acmella (L.) Murr.[16]."


Spilanthes species Reported secondary metabolites and their chemical nature
S. acmella N-isobutylamide: spilanthol[17], undeca-2E,7Z,9E-trienoic acid isobutylamide[17], undeca-2E-en-8,10-diyonic acid isobutylamide[17], 2E-N-(2-methylbutyl)-2-undecene-8,10-diynamide[14], 2E,7Z-N-isobutyl-2,7-tridecadiene-10,12-diynamide[14], 7Z-N-isobutyl-7-tridecene-10,12-diynamide[14]
Phytosterol: β-sitosterol[18], stigmasterol[18, 19], α- and β-amyrins[18]
Essential oil: limonene[20], β-caryophyllene[20], (Z)-β-ocimene[20], germacrene D[20], myrcene[20]
Hydrocarbon: mixture of C22 to C35 normal hydrocarbons[21]
Alcohol: myricyl alcohol[18, 19]
S. alba N-isobutylamide: spilanthol[22], undeca-2E,7Z,9E-trienoic acid isobutylamide[22], acetylenic amides, acetylenes[22]
S. oleracea N-isobutylamide: spilanthol[23], 2-methyl-butylamide[23], (Z)-non-2-en-6,8-diynoic acid isobutylamide[23], (Z)-dec-2-en-6,8-diynoic acid isobutylamide[23]
S. ocymifolia Phenylethylamide: N-2-phenylethylcinnamamide[24]
S. calva Flavonoid glucoside: tetrahydroxdihydrochalcone 3′-0-glucoside[25]
S. leiocarpa Eudesmanolide[26]
S. americana Sesquiterpene: α- and β-bisabolenes[9], caryophyllene[9], cadinenes[9]
N-isobutylamide: N-(isobutyl)-2E,6Z,8E-decatrienamide[9], N-(isobutyl)-6Z,83-decadienamide[9]
Phenylethylamide: N-(2-phenelethyl)2E,6Z,8E-decatrienamide[9]


Part used Traditional uses
Flowers Relieve toothache[30], in stomatitis and throat complaints[30], cure paralysis of tongue[31], remedy for stammering[31], as spice[32]
Leaves Stimulant[33], sialagogue[7], local anaesthetic[33], in bacterial and fungal skin diseases[34], as diuretic and lithotriptic[4], as salad[35]
Roots Purgative and laxative[27], in cold and flu[27], in headache, asthma and rheumatism[19]


Pharmacological activity Species Part used Type of extract Models used Reference
Diuretic S. acmella Flowers CWE Hydrated rats 36
S. acmella Leaves Petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol Hydrated Wistar albino rats 37
Antimalarial, larvicidal S. acmella Murr. Flowers Ethanol Anopheles, Aedes, Culex larvae 38
S. acmella, S. calva,S. paniculata Flowers Hexane A. stephensi, A. culicifacies, C. quinquefasciatus larvae

S. mauritiana Aerial parts Methanol extract Aedes aegypti larvae 40
S. mauritiana Leaves Crude powder A. gambiae, Culex larvae 41
Insecticidal S. calva Leaves and flowers Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol Helopeltis theivora 42
S. acmella Murr. Leaves and flowers Aqueous Chilo partellus 43
S. acmella NA NA Periplaneta Americana 44
Vasorelaxant S. acmella Murr. Aerial parts Chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol Phnenylephrine-induced rat 45
Antioxidant S. acmella Murr. Aerial parts Chloroform, hexane, ethyl actate, methanol 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)
and superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay
S. acmella Leaves, stems Methanol DPPH, SOD assay 46
Antinociception, antihyperalgesic S. acmella Flowers CWE Formalin test of nociception and
carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia
in rats
Acmella uliginosa (Sw.) Cass Flowers Methanol Chemicals (acetic acid-induced abdominal
constriction and formalin-, capsaicin-,
glutamate-induced paw-licking test) and
thermal models (hot-plate test) of
nociception in mice
Anti-inflammatory S. acmella Aerial parts Aqueous Carragenan-induced paw edema in rats 49
S. acmella Aerial parts Ethanol Lipopolysaccharide-activated murine
macrophage model
Antimicrobial S. paniculata Leaves NA Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus,
Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Candida
albicans and Microsporum gypseum
S. americana Whole plant Aqueous, ethanol and hexane Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus
hemolytic, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa and Escherichia coli
S. mauritiana Roots and flowers NA Staphylococcus, Enterococcus,
Pseudomonas, Escherichia and
Klebsiella, Salmonella
S. acmella
Flower heads Petroleum ether Fusarium oxysporium, F. moniliformis,
Aspergillus niger and A. paraciticus
S. mauritiana Roots and flowers NA Candida species and Aspergillus species 55
S. calva Roots Methanol Oral microflora: Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans 56
Immunomodulatory S. acmella Murr. Leaves Ethanol Macrophage function in mice 57
S. acmella Leaves Ethanol Neutrophil adhesion test in rat 58
HIV-1 protease inhibitor S. acmella L. Whole plant Chloroform, methanol and water In vitro HIV-1 protease solution assay
Convulsant S. acmella Whole plant Hexane Electroencephalo-graph behaviour of rats 60
Antiviral S. americana Flowers NA NA 32
Antimutagenic S. calva NA Chloroform Ames Salmonella/microsome assay 61
Pancreatic lipase-inhibitory S. acmella Flowers Ethanol In vitro test 62
Antihepatoxic S. ciliata Whole plant Ethanol Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in rats 63
Antipyretic S. acmella Murr. NA Aqueous Aspirin-treated rats 64
Local anaesthetic S. acmella Murr. NA Aqueous Xylocaine-induced guinea pig and frog 64
Aphrodisiac S. acmella L. Murr. Flowers Ethanol Nitric oxide release in human corpus
cavernosum cell line and penile erection in rats
Analgesic S. acmella Aerial parts Aqueous Acetic acid-induced writhing response in albino mice 49
[1] Jansen RK . Systematics of Spilanthes( Compositae : Heliantheae). Syst Bot. 1981; 6(3):231-257.
doi: 10.2307/2418284
[2] Council of Scientific Industrial Research. The wealth of India : a dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products. New Delhi: Council of Scientific Industrial Research. 1989; 10:11-12.
[3] Shetty BV, Singh V . Flora of India, series 2: flora of Rajasthan. Calcutta: Botanical Survey of India. 1991 : 437-438.
[4] Sharma G, Gupta V, Sharma S, Shrivastava B, Bairva R . Toothache plant Spilanthes acmella Murr. : a review.[J] Natura Conscientia. 2010 ; 1(1) : 135-142.
[5] Willis JC. Dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns. 8th ed. Revised by Airy Shaw HK. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1973.
[6] Rao KN, Reddy KR. Threatened plants of Tirupati and its environs. In: Jain SK, Rao RR. An assessment of threatened plants of India. Howrah: Botanical Survey of India. 1983: 167-168.
[7] Rios-Chavez P, Ramirez-Chavez E, Armenta-Salinas C, Molina-Torres J . Acmella radicans var. radicans : in vitro culture establishment and alkamide content. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant. 2003; 39(1) : 37-41.
doi: 10.1079/IVP2002354
[8] Shanthi P, Amudha P . Evaluation of the phytochemical constituents of Acmella calva( DC) R. K. Jansen. Int J Pharma Bio Sci. 2010; 1(4):B308-B314.
[9] Stashenko EE, Puertas MA, Combariza MY . Volatile secondary metabolites from Spilanthes americana obtained by simultaneous steam distillation-solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction. J Chromatogr A. 1996; 752(1-2):223-232.
doi: 10.1016/S0021-9673(96)00480-3
[10] Yasuda I, Takeya K, Itokawa H . The geometric structure of spilanthol. Chem Pharm Bull. 1980; 28(7):2251-2253.
doi: 10.1021/cen-v058n046.p054
[11] Rani SA, Murty SU . Antifungal potential of flower head extract of Spilanthes acmella Linn. Afr[J] Biomed Res. 2006; 9(1):67-68.
[12] Nayak S, Chand R . Dynamics of spilanthol in Spilanthes acmella Murr. in plant growth and development. Indian Drugs. 2002; 39(8):419-421.
[13] Chakraborty A, Devi Bharati RK, Rita S, Singh IT . Local anaesthetic effect of Spilanthes acmella in experimental animal models. Indian[J] Pharmacol. 2002 ; 34:144-145.
[14] Nakatani N, Nagashima M . Pungent alkamides from Spilanthes acmella L var. oleracea Clarke. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1992; 56(5):759-762.
doi: 10.1271/bbb.56.759
[15] Nagashima M, Nakatant N . LC-MS analysis and structure determination of pungent alkamides from Spilanthes acmella Murr. flowers. Lebenson Wiss Technol. 1992; 25(5) : 417-421.
[16] Bae SS, Ehrmann BM, Ettefagh KA, Cech NB . A validated liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization- mass spectrometry method for quantification of spilanthol in Spilanthes acmella( L. ) Murr. Phytochem Anal. 2010; 21(5) : 438-443.
doi: 10.1002/pca.1215
[17] Ramsewak RS, Erickson AJ, Nair MG . Bioactive N- isobutylamides from the flower buds of Spilanthes acmella. Phytochemistry. 1999; 51(6):729-732.
doi: 10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00101-6 pmid: 10389272
[18] Krishnaswamy NR, Prasanna S, Seshadri TR, Vedantham TNC . α- and β-amyrin esters and sitosterol glucoside from Spilanthes acmella. Phytochemistry. 1975; 14(7):1666-1667.
doi: 10.1016/0031-9422(75)85386-6
[19] Tiwari HP, Kakkar A . Phytochemical examination of Spilanthes acmella Murr.[J] Indian Chem Soc. 1990; 67(9):784-785.
[20] Baruah RN, Leclercq PA . Characterization of essential oil from flower heads of Spilanthes acmella.[J] Essent Oil Res. 1993; 5(6) : 693-695.
doi: 10.1080/10412905.1993.9698310
[21] Baruah RN, Pathak MG . Hydrocarbons from the flower heads of Spilanthes acmella.[J] Med Aromat Plant Sci. 1999; 21(3) : 675-676.
[22] Bohlmann F, Ziesche J, Robinson H, King RM . Neue amide aus Spilanthes alba . Phytochemistry. 1980 ; 19(7):1535-1537.
doi: 10.1016/0031-9422(80)80212-3
[23] Greger H, Hofer O, Werner A . New amides from Spilanthes oleraceae. Monatshefte für Chemie. 1985 ; 116(2):273-277.
doi: 10.1007/BF00798463
[24] Borges-Del-Castillo J, Vazquez-Bueno P, Secundino-Lucas M, Martinez-Martir AI, Joseph-Nathan P . The N-2- phenylethylcinnamamide from Spilanthes ocy mi folia. Phytochemistry. 1984; 23(11):2671-2672.
doi: 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)84123-0
[25] Remeo JT, Saunders JA, Matthews BF. Regulation of phytochemicals by molecular techniques. Oxford: Pergamon Press Ltd. 2001.
[26] Bohlmann F, Jakupovic J, Hartono L, King RM, Robinson H . A further steiractinolide derivative from Spilanthes leiocarpa . Phytochemistry. 1985 ; 24(5):1100-1101.
doi: 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)83194-5
[27] Santesson CG . Several drugs of the Cameroon District and their native uses. Arkiv für Bot. 1926; 20A (3) : 1-34.
[28] Storey C, Salem JI . Lay use of Amazonian plants for the treatment of tuberculosis. Acta Amaz. 1997 ; 27(3):175-182.
doi: 10.1590/1809-43921997273182
[29] Frahm E, Gudat K . Percutaneous treatment of acute sport injuries with an extract of Spilanthes oleraceae. Therapiewoche. 1980; 30(48):8186-8190.
[30] Deka P, Kalita MC . In vitro clonal propagation and organogenesis in Spilanthes acmella( L. ) Murray : a herbal pesticidal plant of north-east India. J Plant Biochem Biotechnol. 2005; 14:69-71.
doi: 10.1007/BF03263230
[31] Council of Scientific Industrial Research. The wealth of India, raw materials. New Delhi: Publication and Information Directorate, Council of Scientific Industrial Research. 1976 ; 2 : 11-12.
[32] Ospina De Nigrinis LS, Olarte J, Nunez OE . Phyto- pharmacologic study of flower lipid soluble fractions from Spilanthes americana( Mutis). Parti. Phytochemical study. Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Quimico-Farma- ceutics. 1986 ; 15:37-47.
[33] Senthilkumar P, Paulsamy S, Vijayakumar KK, Kalimuthu K . In vitro regeneration of the medicinal herb of Nilgiri shola , Acmella calva L. from leaf derived callus. Plant Tissue Cult Biotech. 2007; 17(2):109-114.
[34] Tan CL, Ang BH, Chan LK . Effect of reduced N 6- Benzyladenine, explant type, explant orientation, culture temperature and culture vessel type on regeneration of adventitious shoot and in vitro plantlets of Spilanthes acmella. [J] Plant Biol. 2004; 47(1):15-20.
doi: 10.1007/BF03030222
[35] Facciola S . Cornucopia : a source book of edible plants. Vista, CA: Kampong Publications. 1990: 676.
[36] Ratnasooriya WD, Pieris KP, Samaratunga U, Jayakody JR . Diuretic activity of Spilanthes acmella flowers in rats.[J] Ethnopharmacol. 2004; 91(2-3):317-320.
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2004.01.006 pmid: 15120455
[37] Yadav R, Yadav N, Kharya MD, Savadi R . Preliminary studies on diuretic effect of Spilanthes acmella leaves extracts in rats. [J] Int Pharm Pharm Sci. 2011 ; 3(3):245-247.
[38] Saraf DK, Dixit VK . Spilanthes acmella Murr. : study on its extract spilanthol as larvicidal compound. [J] Asian Exp Sci. 2002; 16(1-2) : 9-19.
[39] Pandey V, Agrawal V, Raghavendra K, Dash AP . Strong larvicidal activity of three species of Spilanthes ( Akarkara) against malaria (^Anopheles stephensi Liston, Anopheles culicifacies, species C) and filaria vector(Culex quinquefasciatus Say). Parasitol Res. 2010 ; 102(1):171-174.
[40] Jondiko IJO . A mosquito larvicide in Spilanthes mauri- tiana. Phytochemistry. 1986; 25(10):2289-2290.
doi: 10.1016/S0031-9422(00)81681-7
[41] Ohaga SO, Ndiege IO, Kubasu SS, Beier JC, Mbogo CM . Larvicidal activity of Piper guineense and Spilanthes mauritiana crude-powder against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus in Kilifi District, Kenya.[J] Biol Sci. 2007; 7(7):1215-1220.
doi: 10.3923/jbs.2007.1215.1220
[42] Dolui AK, Debnath M . Antifeedant activity of plant extracts to an insect Helopeltis theivora.[J] Environ Biol. 2010; 31(5) : 557-559.
[43] Raghuvanshi VS, Singh JK, Singh M, Paul R, Rana KS . Insecticidal activity of Spilanthes acmella Murr. against Chilo partellu( Swinhoe.) . Int J Entomol. 2010; 1(1):13-18.
[44] Kadir HA, Zakaria MB, Kechil AA, Azirun MDS . Toxicity and electrophysiological effects of Spilanthes amelia Murr. extracts on Periplaneta americana L. Pestic Sci. 1989; 25(4):329-335.
doi: 10.1002/ps.v25:4
[45] Wongsawatkul O, Prachayasittikul S , Isarankura-Na- Ayudhya C, Satayavivad J, Ruchirawat S, Prachayasittikul V. Vasorelaxant and antioxidant activities of Spilanthes acmella Murr. Int[J] Mol Sci. 2008; 9(12):2724-2744.
doi: 10.3390/ijms9122724 pmid: 19330100
[46] Tanwer BS, Choudhary R, Vijayvergia R . In vitro and in vivo comparative study of primary metabolites and antioxidant activity in Spilanthes acmella Murr. [J] Int Ind Electron Control. 2010 ; 2(1) : 1-7.
[47] Ratnasooriya WD, Pieris KPP . Attenuation of persistent pain and hyperalgesia by Spilanthus acmella . flowers in rats. Pharm Biol. 2005; 43(7):614-619.
doi: 10.1080/13880200500301944
[48] Ong HM, Mohamad AS, Makhtar N, Khalid MH, Khalid S, Perimal EK, Mastuki SN, Zakaria ZA, Lajis N, Israf DA, Sulaiman MR . Antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Acmella uliginosa( Sw. ) Cass. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 ; 133(1) : 227-233.
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.09.030 pmid: 20920570
[49] Chakraborty A, Devi RKB, Rita S, Sharatchandra K, Singh TI . Preliminary studies on antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of Spilanthes acmella in experimental animal models. Indian[J] Pharmacol. 2004 ; 36(3) : 148-150.
[50] Wu LC, Fan NC, Lin MH, Chu IR, Huang SJ, Hu CY, Han SY . Anti-inflammatory effect of spilanthol from Spilanthes acmella on murine macrophage by down-regulating LPS-induced inflammatory mediators.[J] Agric Food Chem. 2008; 56(7):2341-2349.
doi: 10.1021/jf073057e
[51] Trikunakornwong A, Sriubolmas N, De-Eknamkul W, Ruangrungsi N . Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils from Thai Spilanthes paniculata and S. acmella. 25th Congress on Science and Technology of Thailand. Phitsanulok, Thailand, October, 1999.
[52] Mathur A, Bhat R, Prasad GBKS, Dua VK, Verma SK, Agarwal PK . Antimicrobial activity of plants traditionally used as medicines against some pathogens. [J] R AS AY AN Chem. 2010; 3(4):615-620.
[53] Fabry W, Okemo PO, Ansorg R . Antibacterial activity of East African medicinal plants.[J] Ethnopharmacol. 1998; 60(1) : 79-84.
doi: 10.1016/S0378-8741(97)00128-1 pmid: 9533435
[54] Rani SA, Murty SU . Antifungal potential of flower head extract of Spilanthes acmella Linn. [J] Afr Biomed Res. 2006; 9(1):67-68.
[55] Fabry W, Okemo P, Ansorg R . Fungistatic and fungicidal activity of east African medicinal plants. Mycoses. 1996; 39(1-2):67-70.
doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0507.1996.tb00087.x pmid: 8786762
[56] Vyas YK, Chandrashekhra KT, Bhatnagar M, Sharma K . Effect of Spilanthes calva DC. root extract, herbal and synthetic dentifrices on oral microflora using in vitro human tooth model.[J] Herb Med Toxicol. 2009 ; 3(1):141-148.
[57] Savadi RV, Yadav R, Yadav N . Study on immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of Spilanthes acmella Murr. leaves. [J] Indian Nat Prod Res. 2010; 1(2):204-207.
[58] Yadav R, Kharya DM, Yadav N, Savadi R . Immunomodulatory potential of ethanol extract of Spilanthus acmella leaves. [J] Int Biol Med Res. 2011; 2(3):631-635.
[59] Tewtrakul S, Subhadhirasakul S, Kummee S . HIV-1 protease inhibitory effects of medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients. Songklanakarin[J] Sci Technol. 2003; 25(2):239-243.
[60] Moreira VM, Maia JG, de Souza JM, Bortolotto ZA, Cavalheiro EA . Characterization of convulsions induced by a hexanic extract of Spilanthes acmella var. oleracea in rats. Braz[J] Med Biol Res. 1989; 22(1) : 65-67.
[61] Sukumaran K, Kuttan R . Inhibition of tobacco-induced mutagenesis by eugenol and plant extracts. Mutat Res. 1995; 343(1) : 25-30.
doi: 10.1016/0165-1218(95)90059-4 pmid: 7753104
[62] Ekanem AP, Wang M, Simon JE, Moreno DA . Antiobesity properties of two African plants (^Afromomum meleguetta and Spilanthes acmella ) by pancreatic lipase inhibition. Phytother Res. 2007; 21(12):1253-1255.
doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1099-1573
[63] Suja SR, Rajasekharan S, Pushpangadan P . Antihepa- totoxic activity of Spilanthes ciliata. Pharm Biol. 2003; 41(7) : 536-541.
doi: 10.1080/13880200308951349
[64] Chakraborty A, Devi BR, Sanjebam R, Khumbong S, Thokchom IS . Preliminary studies on local anesthetic and antipyretic activities of Spilanthes acmella Murr. in experimental animal models. Indian[J] Pharmacol. 2010; 42(5) : 277-279.
[65] Sharma V, Boonen J, Chauhan NS, Thakur M, De Spiegeleer B, Dixit VK . Spilanthes acmella ethanolic flower extract : LC-MS alkylamide profiling and its effects on sexual behavior in male rats. Phytomedicine. 2011; 18(13) : 1161-1169.
doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2011.06.001
[66] Prachayasittikul S, Suphapong S, Worachartcheewan A, Lawung R, Ruchirawat S, Prachayasittikul V . Bioactive metabolites from Spilanthes acmella Murr. Molecules. 2009; 14(2):850-867.
doi: 10.3390/molecules14020850 pmid: 19255544
[67] Belfer WA. Cosmetic composition to accelerate repair of functional wrinkles. Compiler: US, 7566464. 2009-07- 28[ 2011-05-20] . .
[68] Schubnel L . A different approach to lifting efficacy based on a natural active ingredient. SOFW J. 2007 ; 133(9) : 34-39.
[69] Demarne F, Passaro G. Use of an Acmella oleracea extract for the botulinum toxin-like effect thereof in an anti-wrinkle cosmetic composition. Compiler: US, 7531193. 2009-05-12[ 2011-05-20]. .
[70] Pandey V, Agrawal V . Efficient micropropagation protocol of Spilanthes acmella L. possessing strong antimalarial activity. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant. 2009; 45(4):491-499.
[71] Saritha KV, Naidu CV . Direct shoot regeneration from leaf explants of Spilanthes acmella. Biol Plant. 2008; 52(2):334-338.
doi: 10.1007/s10535-008-0068-6
[72] Bais HP, Green JB, Walker TS, Okemo PO, Vivanco JM . In vitro propagation of Spilanthes mauritiana DC.,an endangered medicinal herb, through axillary bud cultures. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant. 2002; 38(6):598-601.
doi: 10.1079/IVP2002345
[73] Ang BH, Chan LK . Micropropagation of Spilanthes acmella L. , a bio-insecticide plant, through proliferation of multiple shoots.[J] Appl Hortic. 2003; 5(2) : 65-68.
[74] Singh SK, Rai MK, Asthana P, Pandey S, Jaiswal VS, Jaiswal U . Plant regeneration from alginate-encapsulated shoot tips of Spilanthes acmella( L. ) Murr. , a medicinally important and herbal pesticidal plant species. Acta Physiol Plant. 2009; 31(3):649-653.
doi: 10.1007/s11738-008-0250-7
[75] Tan CL, Ning SP, Boey PL, Chan LK . Detection of bioactive compounds from Spilanthes acmella( L.) plants and its various in vitro culture products. J Med Plant Res. 2011; 5(3):371-378.
[1] Brody Slostad, Tejinder Khalsa, Kathleen Young, Hildalicia Guerra, Anjali Bhagra. A case-based approach to integrative medicine for cardiovascular disease prevention. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(2): 159-162.
[2] Ameena Yasmeen, Ghulamuddin Sofi, Kaleemullah Khan. Aamar-e-Advia (shelf-lives) of drugs in Unani system of medicine: A conceptual review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(2): 114-124.
[3] Louisa Sylvia, Emerson West, Allyson M. Blackburn, Carina Gupta, Eric Bui, Tara Mahoney, Geraldine Duncan, Edward C. Wright, Simon Lejeune, Thomas J. Spencer. Acceptability of an adjunct equine-assisted activities and therapies program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and/or traumatic brain injury. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(2): 169-173.
[4] Sherman Gu, Arthur Yin Fan. Controversial conclusions from two randomized controlled trials for acupuncture's effects on polycystic ovary syndrome or in vitro fertilization support. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(2): 89-91.
[5] Xue-qing Yu, Shu-guang Yang, Yang Xie, Jian-sheng Li. Traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis based on syndrome differentiation: Study protocol of exploratory trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(2): 163-168.
[6] Chang-quan Ling. Traditional Chinese medicine is a resource for drug discovery against 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(2): 87-88.
[7] Sajjad Sadeghi, Farzaneh Ghaffari, Ghazaleh Heydarirad, Mehdi Alizadeh. Galen’s place in Avicenna’s The Canon of Medicine : Respect, confirmation and criticism. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(1): 21-25.
[8] Dona Nirmani Ann Wijewickrama Samarakoon, Deepthi Inoka Uluwaduge, Malith Aravinda Siriwardhene. Mechanisms of action of Sri Lankan herbal medicines used in the treatment of diabetes: A review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(1): 13-20.
[9] Maryam Naeimia, Narjes Gorjib, Zahra Memarianib, Reihaneh Moeinib, Mohammad Kamalinejadc, Fatemeh Kolangid. Gastroprotective herbs for headache management in Persian medicine: A comprehensive review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(1): 1-13.
[10] Mohadeseh Ostovar, Abolfazl Akbari, Mohammad Hossein Anbardar, Aida Iraji, Mohsen Salmanpour, Salar Hafez Ghoran, Mojtaba Heydari, Mesbah Shams. Effects of Citrullus colocynthis L. in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(1): 59-67.
[11] Preecha Nootim, Nattiya Kapol, Waranee Bunchuailua, Panoopat Poompruek, Parankul Tungsukruthai . Current state of cancer patient care incorporating Thai traditional medicine in Thailand: A qualitative study. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(1): 41-45.
[12] Md. Anzar Alam, Mohd Aleemuddin Quamri, Ghulamuddin Sofi, Barkati Md.Tarique. Understanding hypothyroidism in Unani medicine. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(6): 387-391.
[13] Naghmeh Yazdi, Alireza Salehi, Mina Vojoud, Mohammad Hossein Sharifi, Ayda Hoseinkhani. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women: a cross-sectional survey in the south of Iran. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(6): 392-395.
[14] Wen Qiang Lee, Jeremy Teoh, Pei Zheng Kenneth Lee, Zhi Xiong Gerard Low, Xueling Sim, Foong Fong Mary Chong, Norbert Ludwig Wagner. Factors influencing communication of traditional Chinese medicine use between patients and doctors: a multisite cross-sectional study. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(6): 396-403.
[15] Lena Grönblom Lundström, Ulrika Aasa, Yan Zhang, Tobias Sundberg. Health care in light of different theories of health—A proposed framework for integrating a social humanistic perspective into health care. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(5): 321-327.
Full text



[1] Wei-xiong Liang. Problems-solving strategies in clinical treatment guideline for traditional Chinese medicine and integrative medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 1-4
[2] Zhao-guo Li. Discussion on English translation of commonly used sentences in traditional Chinese medicine: part one. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 107-110
[3] Jin-zhou Tian, Jing Shi, Xin-qing Zhang, Qi Bi, Xin Ma, Zhi-liang Wang, Xiao-bin Li, Shu-li Shen, Lin Li, Zhen-yun Wu, Li-yan Fang, Xiao-dong Zhao, Ying-chun Miao, Peng-wen Wang, Ying Ren, Jun-xiang Yin, Yong-yan Wang, Beijing United Study Group on MCI of the Capital Foundation of Medical Developments. An explanation on "guiding principles of clinical research on mild cognitive impairment (protocol)". Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 15-21
[4] Jin-rong Fu. Establishment of multivariate diagnosis and treatment system of modern gynecology of traditional Chinese medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 22-24
[5] Hao Li, Ming-jiang Yao, Wen-ming Zhao, Jie Guan, Lin-lin Cai, Ling Cui. A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of Huannao Yicong capsule in senile patients with mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 25-31
[6] Jun Hu, Jian-ping Liu. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 31
[7] Yi-ting He, Qing-lin Zha, Jian-ping Yu, Yong Tan, Cheng Lu, Ai-ping Lv. Principal factor analysis of symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and their correlations with efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 32-36
[8] Jun Cai, Hua Wang, Sheng Zhou, Bin Wu, Hua-rong Song, Zheng-rong Xuan. Effect of Sijunzi Decoction and enteral nutrition on T-cell subsets and nutritional status in patients with gastric cancer after operation: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 37-40
[9] Dong Yang, Yong-ping Du, Qing Shen, Wei Chen, Yan Yu, Guang-lei Chen. Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in renal tubulointerstitium in patients with kidney collateral stasis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 41-44
[10] Xue-mei Liu, Qi-fu Huang, Yun-ling Zhang, Jin-li Lou, Hong-sheng Liu, Hong Zheng. Effects of Tribulus terrestris L. saponion on apoptosis of cortical neurons induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation in rats. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 45-50