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Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2012, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (11): 1198-1205.doi: 10.3736/jcim20121102

• Review • Previous Articles     Next Articles

A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple formations of herbal property (Part 1)

Rui Jin, Bing Zhang()   

  1. School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100102, China
  • Received:2012-05-13 Accepted:2012-05-31 Online:2012-11-20 Published:2018-11-15

Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT) is the fundamental characteristic of Chinese materia medica different from modern medicines. It reflects the herbal properties associated with efficacy and formed the early framework of four properties and five flavors in Shennong’ s Classic of Materia Medica. After the supplement and improvement of CHPT in the past thousands of years, it has developed a theory system including four properties, five flavors, meridian entry, direction of medicinal actions (ascending, descending, floating and sinking) and toxicity. However, because of the influence of philosophy about yin-yang theory and five-phase theory and the difference of cognitive approach and historical background at different times, CHPT became complex. One of the complexity features was the multiple methods for determining herbal property, which might include the inference from herbal efficacy, the thought of Chinese Taoist School and witchcraft, the classification thinking according to manifestations, etc. Another complexity feature was the multiselection associations between herbal property and efficacy, which indicated that the same property could be inferred from different kinds of efficacy. This paper analyzed these complexity features and provided the importance of cognitive approaches and efficacy attributes corresponding to certain herbal property in the study of CHPT.

Key words: properties and flavous (TCD), concept formation, complexity, diversity, review

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确定途径 举例
通过药物的质地?形色?生长环境等自然属性

凝水石“置水中,夏月能为冰”,如此则大寒[35];青芝味酸益肝气,赤芝味苦益心气,黄芝味甘益脾气等[35];蝉蜕质清,发表而升浮;朱砂质重,安神而沉降等[36];藤能通络利关节,皮能利水消肿,仁能润下通便等[37];甘肃黄芪的性效优于山东黄芪[38];药性之温者,于时为春;药性之热者,于时为夏[39];天门冬正秉大寒之气以生,得地之阴精独厚,味微苦甘气大寒[40]
通过药材加工处理过程 “晴日则从热,阴雨则从寒”[41]
通过简单口尝 干姜?蜀椒入口即知热,朴硝?石膏入口即知寒[35];酸苦甘辛咸五味[35,42]
通过正常人长期服用 蒺藜子“久服不冷而壅热,则其温也”[35];丹参“时人服多眼赤,故应为热”[39]
其他 学术流派?学术水平[43]

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关联规则类型 内容
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功效?平 腰痛?平,肥健?平,安魂魄?平,不饥?平,痉病?平,阴痿不起?平,强志?平,通血脉?平,益子精?平,痂疥?平,和五脏?平,痔?平,解毒?平,补中?平,轻身延年?平,养精神?平,益精气?平,坚筋骨?平
功效?寒 消渴?寒,臌胀?寒,黄疸?寒,杀虫虱毒?寒,淋病?寒,身面浮肿?寒,泄泻?寒,除热?寒,烦满?寒,消水?寒,利水道?寒,目赤痛?寒,折跌绝筋?寒,荡涤蓄结饮食?寒
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功效?苦 瘿瘤瘰疬?苦,黄疸?苦,臌胀?苦,结气?苦,身面浮肿?苦,除热?苦,消渴?苦,痔?苦,消水?苦,痈疽疮疡?苦,止痛?苦,疥瘙?苦,通血脉?苦,痿病?苦,痉病?苦,目赤痛?苦,荡涤蓄结饮食?苦
功效?辛温 温中?辛温,风头眩痛?辛温
功效?甘平 不饥?甘平,安魂魄?甘平
功效?苦寒 荡涤蓄积饮食?苦寒,消渴?苦寒,黄疸?苦寒,臌胀?苦寒,身面浮肿?苦寒
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