Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2012, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (5): 493-503.doi: 10.3736/jcim20120503

• Review • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Cancer stem cells and the impact of Chinese herbs, isolates and other complementary medical botanicals: A review

Daniel A. Weber 1,2,3(), Janelle M. Wheat1,4,5, Geoffrey M. Currie1,4,5   

  1. 1. Faculty of Science, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia;
    2. Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, China;
    3. Oncology Section, World Federation of Chinese Medical Societies, Beijing 100101, China;
    4. Centre for Research in Complex Systems, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia;
    5. Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2113, Australia;
  • Received:2012-02-05 Accepted:2012-02-29 Online:2012-05-20 Published:2018-06-15
  • Contact: A. Weber Daniel E-mail:drdweber@panaxea.com

To elucidate the connection between the origin of certain cancers and stem cells, cancer stem cells, the stem cell niche and the tumor microenvironment, and to examine the ability of traditional Chinese herbal medicines and isolates in treating these types of cancers, the existing literature was examined and eight studies regarding Chinese herbal medicines and the prevention of cancer recurrence were critically analyzed and evaluated. Tumor stem cells may be the final target of traditional Chinese medicine. Soy flavones, ginsenoside Rg3, parthenolide, berbamine and curcumin are several examples of Chinese herbal medicines, which have been shown to be effective in the treatment of cancer, and seem to act by targeting cancer stem cells and associated pathways resulting in tumorigenesis. The treatment approaches combined with an overall treatment protocol for the tumor microenvironment and chronic systemic inflammation are likely to provide a more successful outcome than a single tactical approach. As shown in numerous studies in the literature, using complementary disciplines with orthodox treatments may enhance treatment outcomes.

Key words: neoplastic stem cells, DNA methylation, cell hypoxia, telomere, telomerase, drugs, Chinese herbal, review

"

Cancer Stem cell marker
Acute myeloid leukemia CD34+ CD38-[76]
Brain tumor (human
glioblastomas)
CD133+, U87[77,78,79,80,81]
Breast cancer CD44+ CD24-/low Lineage-[1,3]
Prostate cancer CD44+α2 β1hi CD133+[82]
Retinoblastoma ABCG2+[83]
Lung cancer SP-C+CCA+[84]
Colorectal cancer CD133+, SW1222, LS180, CCK81[85,86]
[1] Al-Hajj M, Wicha MS, Benito-Hernandez A, Morrison SJ, Clarke MF . Prospective identification of tumorigenic breast cancer cells[J]. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2003,100(7):3983-3988.
doi: 10.1073/pnas.0530291100 pmid: 12629218
[2] Ginestier C, Hur MH, Charafe-Jauffret E, Monville F, Dutcher J, Brown M, Jacquemier J, Viens P, Kleer CG, Liu S, Schott A, Hayes D, Birnbaum D, Wicha MS, Dontu G . ALDH1 is a marker of normal and malignant human mammary stem cells and a predictor of poor clinical outcome[J]. Cell Stem Cell, 2007,1(5):555-567.
doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2007.08.014
[3] Marcato P, Dean CA, Pan D, Araslanova R, Gillis M, Joshi M, Helyer L, Pan L, Leidal A, Gujar S, Giacomantonio CA, Lee PW . Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity of breast cancer stem cells is primarily due to isoform ALDH1A3 and its expression is predictive of metastasis[J]. Stem Cells, 2011,29(1):32-45.
doi: 10.1002/stem.563
[4] Lyko F, Brown R . DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and the development of epigenetic cancer therapies[J]. J Natl Cancer Inst, 2005,97(20):1498-1506.
doi: 10.1093/jnci/dji311 pmid: 16234563
[5] Quante M, Wang TC . Inflammation and stem cells in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis[J]. Physiology (Bethesda), 2008,23:350-359.
doi: 10.1152/physiol.00031.2008 pmid: 19074742
[6] Saebøe-Larssen S, Fossberg E, Gaudernack G . Characterization of novel alternative splicing sites in human telomerase reverse transcriptase(hTERT): analysis of expression and mutual correlation in mRNA isoforms from normal and tumour tissues[J]. BMC Mol Biol, 2006,7:26.
doi: 10.1186/1471-2199-7-26
[7] Scadden DT . The stem-cell niche as an entity of action[J]. Nature, 2006,441(7097):1075-1079.
doi: 10.1038/nature04957 pmid: 16810242
[8] Watt FM, Hogan BL . Out of Eden: stem cells and their niches[J]. Science, 2000,287(5457):1427-1430.
doi: 10.1126/science.287.5457.1427 pmid: 10688781
[9] Li F, Tiede B, Massagué J, Kang Y . Beyond tumorigenesis: cancer stem cells in metastasis[J]. Cell Res, 2007,17(1):3-14.
doi: 10.1038/sj.cr.7310118 pmid: 17179981
[10] Xin ZT, Beauchamp AD, Calado RT, Bradford JW, Regal JA, Shenoy A, Liang Y, Lansdorp PM, Young NS, Ly H . Functional characterization of natural telomerase mutations found in patients with hematologic disorders[J]. Blood, 2007,109(2):524-532.
doi: 10.1182/blood-2006-07-035089
[11] Galli R, Binda E, Orfanelli U, Cipelletti B, Gritti A, De Vitis S, Fiocco R, Foroni C, Dimeco F, Vescovi A . Isolation and characterization of tumorigenic, stem-like neural precursors from human glioblastoma[J]. Cancer Res, 2004,64(19):7011-7021.
doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1364
[12] Momparler RL, Bovenzi V . DNA methylation and cancer[J]. J Cell Physiol, 2000,183(2):145-154.
doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1097-4652
[13] Iwasaki H, Suda T . Cancer stem cells and their niche[J]. Cancer Sci, 2009,100(7):1166-1172.
doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01177.x pmid: 19432904
[14] Odorico JS, Kaufman DS, Thomson JA . Multilineage differentiation from human embryonic stem cell lines[J]. Stem Cells, 2001,19(3):193-204.
doi: 10.1634/stemcells.19-3-193
[15] Jordan CT, Guzman ML, Noble M . Cancer stem cells[J]. N Engl J Med, 2006,355(12):1253-1261.
doi: 10.1056/NEJMra061808
[16] Dick JE . Stem cell concepts renew cancer research[J]. Blood, 2008,112(13):4793-4807.
doi: 10.1182/blood-2008-08-077941 pmid: 19064739
[17] Dalerba P, Cho RW, Clarke MF . Cancer stem cells: models and concepts[J]. Annu Rev Med, 2007,58:267-284.
doi: 10.1146/annurev.med.58.062105.204854
[18] Clarke R. Regulation of human breast cancer stem-like cells. In: European School of Molecular Medicine. Abstract book of the International Workshop on Cancer Stem Cells.2nd ed[M]. Milan: IFOM-IEO Campus, 2007: 19.
[19] Clarke MF, Dick JE, Dirks PB, Eaves CJ, Jamieson CH, Jones DL, Visvader J, Weissman IL, Wahl GM . Cancer stem cells–perspectives on current status and future directions: AACR workshop on cancer stem cells[J]. Cancer Res, 2006,66(19):9339-9344.
doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-3126
[20] Pollina EA, Brunet A . Epigenetic regulation of aging stem cells[J]. Oncogene, 2011,30(28):3105-3126.
doi: 10.1038/onc.2011.45 pmid: 21441951
[21] Boyle M, Wong C, Rocha M, Jones DL . Decline in self-renewal factors contributes to aging of the stem cell niche in the Drosophila testis[J]. Cell Stem Cell, 2007,1(4):470-478.
doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2007.08.002
[22] Jones DL . Aging and the germ line: where mortality and immortality meet[J]. Stem Cell Rev, 2007,3(3):192-200.
doi: 10.1007/s12015-007-0009-3 pmid: 17917132
[23] Biteau B, Hochmuth CE, Jasper H . JNK activity in somatic stem cells causes loss of tissue homeostasis in the aging Drosophila gut[J]. Cell Stem Cell, 2008,3(4):442-455.
doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2008.07.024
[24] Scaffidi P, Misteli T . Cancer epigenetics: from disruption of differentiation programs to the emergence of cancer stem cells[J]. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 2010,75:251-258.
doi: 10.1101/sqb.2010.75.007
[25] Borovski T, De Sousa E Melo F, Vermeulen L, Medema JP . Cancer stem cell niche: the place to be[J]. Cancer Res, 2011,71(3):634-639.
doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-3220 pmid: 21266356
[26] Beachy PA, Karhadkar SS, Berman DM . Tissue repair and stem cell renewal in carcinogenesis[J]. Nature, 2004,432(7015):324-331.
doi: 10.1038/nature03100 pmid: 15549094
[27] Zimmermann S, Voss M, Kaiser S, Kapp U, Waller CF, Martens UM . Lack of telomerase activity in human mesenchymal stem cells[J]. Leukemia, 2003,17(6):1146-1149.
doi: 10.1038/sj.leu.2402962
[28] Hiyama E, Hiyama K . Telomere and telomerase in stem cells[J]. Br J Cancer, 2007,96(7):1020-1024.
doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6603671 pmid: 17353922
[29] Armanios M, Greider CW . Telomerase and cancer stem cells[J]. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol, 2005,70:205-208.
doi: 10.1101/sqb.2005.70.030 pmid: 16869755
[30] Kim NW, Piatyszek MA, Prowse KR, Harley CB, West MD, Ho PL, Coviello GM, Wright WE, Weinrich SL, Shay JW . Specific association of human telomerase activity with immortal cells and cancer[J]. Science, 1994,266(5193):2011-2015.
doi: 10.1126/science.7605428
[31] Harley CB . Telomerase therapeutics for degenerative diseases[J]. Curr Mol Med, 2005,5(2):205-211.
doi: 10.2174/1566524053586671 pmid: 15974874
[32] Ju Z, Rudolph KL . Telomeres and telomerase in cancer stem cells[J]. Eur J Cancer, 2006,42(9):1197-1203.
doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2006.01.040
[33] Singh SK, Hawkins C, Clarke ID, Squire JA, Bayani J, Hide T, Henkelman RM, Cusimano MD, Dirks PB . Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells[J]. Nature, 2004,432(7015):396-401.
doi: 10.1038/nature03128
[34] Balkwill F, Mantovani A . Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow? Lancet. 2001; 357(9255):539-545.
doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04046-0 pmid: 11229684
[35] Tannock IF, Rotin D . Acid pH in tumors and its potential for therapeutic exploitation[J]. Cancer Res, 1989,49(16):4373-4384.
doi: 10.1002/1097-0142(19890815)64:4<975::AID-CNCR2820640434>3.0.CO;2-W pmid: 2545340
[36] Raghunand N , Gillies RJ.pH and drug resistance in tumors[J]. Drug Resist Updat, 2000,3(1):39-47.
doi: 10.1054/drup.2000.0119 pmid: 11498364
[37] Müller A, Homey B, Soto H, Ge N, Catron D, Buchanan ME, McClanahan T, Murphy E, Yuan W, Wagner SN, Barrera JL, Mohar A, Verastegui E, Zlotnik A . Involvement of chemokine receptors in breast cancer metastasis[J]. Nature, 2001,410(6824):50-56.
doi: 10.1038/35065016 pmid: 11242036
[38] Griffiths EA, Pritchard SA, Welch IM, Price PM, West CM . Is the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway important in gastric cancer? Eur[J] Cancer. 2005; 41(18):2792-2805.
doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2005.09.008 pmid: 16290133
[39] Frezza C, Pollard PJ, Gottlieb E . Inborn and acquired metabolic defects in cancer[J]. J Mol Med (Berl), 2011,89(3):213-220.
doi: 10.1007/s00109-011-0728-4 pmid: 21301796
[40] Zhang M, Li X, Lewis MT, Chang JC, Rosen JM. Therapeutic resistance of breast cancer tumor-initiating cells. In: European School of Molecular Medicine. Abstract book of the International Workshop on Cancer Stem Cells.2nd ed[M]. Milan: IFOM-IEO Campus, 2007: 20.
[41] Vander Heiden MG, Cantley LC, Thompson CB . Understanding the Warburg effect: the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation[J]. Science, 2009,324(5930):1029-1033.
doi: 10.1126/science.1160809
[42] Ahuja N, Issa JP . Aging, methylation and cancer[J]. Histol Histopathol, 2000,15(3):835-842.
[43] Kim KM, Shibata D . Methylation reveals a niche: stem cell succession in human colon crypts[J]. Oncogene, 2002,21(35):5441-5449.
doi: 10.1002/hlca.200890133 pmid: 12154406
[44] Smith GH, Boulanger CA . Mammary stem cell repertoire: new insights in aging epithelial populations[J]. Mech Ageing Dev, 2002,123(11):1505-1519.
doi: 10.1016/S0047-6374(02)00114-8 pmid: 12425957
[45] Kim Y, Lin Q, Zelterman D, Yun Z . Hypoxia-regulated delta-like 1 homologue enhances cancer cell stemness and tumorigenicity[J]. Cancer Res, 2009,69(24):9271-9280.
doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-1605 pmid: 2828615
[46] Lengauer C, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B . DNA methylation and genetic instability in colorectal cancer cells[J]. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 1997,94(6):2545-2550.
doi: 10.1073/pnas.94.6.2545 pmid: 9122232
[47] de Sousa E Melo F, Colak S, Buikhuisen J, Koster J, Cameron K, de Jong JH, Tuynman JB, Prasetyanti PR, Fessler E, van den Bergh SP, Rodermond H, Dekker E, van der Loos CM, Pals ST, van de Vijver MJ, Versteeg R, Richel DJ, Vermeulen L, Medema JP . Methylation of cancer-stem-cell-associated Wnt target genes predicts poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients[J]. Cell Stem Cell, 2011,9(5):476-485.
doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2011.10.008
[48] Lie DC, Colamarino SA, Song HJ, Désiré L, Mira H, Consiglio A, Lein ES, Jessberger S, Lansford H, Dearie AR, Gage FH . Wnt signalling regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis[J]. Nature, 2005,437(7063):1370-1375.
doi: 10.1038/nature04108 pmid: 16251967
[49] Esteller M . Epigenetics in cancer[J]. N Engl J Med, 2008,358(11):1148-1159.
doi: 10.1056/NEJMra072067
[50] Ewald B, Sampath D, Plunkett W . Nucleoside analogs: molecular mechanisms signaling cell death[J]. Oncogene, 2008,27(50):6522-6537.
doi: 10.1534/genetics.107.083287 pmid: 18955977
[51] Issa JP . DNA methylation as a therapeutic target in cancer[J]. Clin Cancer Res, 2007,13(6):1634-1637.
doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-2076 pmid: 17363514
[52] Teschendorff AE, Menon U, Gentry-Maharaj A, Ramus SJ, Weisenberger DJ, Shen H, Campan M, Noushmehr H, Bell CG, Maxwell AP, Savage DA, Mueller-Holzner E, Marth C, Kocjan G, Gayther SA, Jones A, Beck S, Wagner W, Laird PW, Jacobs IJ, Widschwendter M . Age-dependent DNA methylation of genes that are suppressed in stem cells is a hallmark of cancer[J]. Genome Res, 2010,20(4):440-446.
doi: 10.1101/gr.103606.109
[53] Gieni RS, Hendzel MJ . Polycomb group protein gene silencing, non-coding RNA, stem cells, and cancer[J]. Biochem Cell Biol, 2009,87(5):711-746.
doi: 10.1139/O09-057 pmid: 19898523
[54] Bock C, Paulsen M, Tierling S, Mikeska T, Lengauer T, Walter J . CpG island methylation in human lymphocytes is highly correlated with DNA sequence, repeats, and predicted DNA structure[J]. PLoS Genet, 2006,2(3):e26.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0020026
[55] Hahn MA, Hahn T, Lee DH, Esworthy RS, Kim BW, Riggs AD, Chu FF, Pfeifer GP . Methylation of polycomb target genes in intestinal cancer is mediated by inflammation[J]. Cancer Res, 2008,68(24):10280-10289.
doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-1957 pmid: 19074896
[56] Doi A, Park IH, Wen B, Murakami P, Aryee MJ, Irizarry R, Herb B, Ladd-Acosta C, Rho J, Loewer S, Miller J, Schlaeger T, Daley GQ, Feinberg AP . Differential methylation of tissue- and cancer-specific CpG island shores distinguishes human induced pluripotent stem cells, embryonic stem cells and fibroblasts[J]. Nat Genet, 2009,41(12):1350-1353.
doi: 10.1038/ng.471
[57] Kucia M, Reca R, Miekus K, Wanzeck J, Wojakowski W, Janowska-Wieczorek A, Ratajczak J, Ratajczak MZ . Trafficking of normal stem cells and metastasis of cancer stem cells involve similar mechanisms: pivotal role of the SDF-1-CXCR4 axis[J]. Stem Cells, 2005,23(7):879-894.
doi: 10.1634/stemcells.2004-0342
[58] Grady WM . Genomic instability and colon cancer[J]. Cancer Metastasis Rev, 2004,23(1-2):11-27.
doi: 10.1023/A:1025861527711 pmid: 15000146
[59] Hamburger AW, Salmon SE . Primary bioassay of human tumor stem cells[J]. Science, 1977,197(4302):461-463.
doi: 10.1126/science.560061 pmid: 560061
[60] Counter CM, Avilion AA , LeFeuvre CE, Stewart NG, Greider CW, Harley CB, Bacchetti S.Telomere shortening associated with chromosome instability is arrested in immortal cells which express telomerase activity[J]. EMBO J, 1992,11(5):1921-1929.
doi: 10.1002/embj.1992.11.issue-5
[61] Bodnar AG, Ouellette M, Frolkis M, Holt SE, Chiu CP, Morin GB, Harley CB, Shay JW, Lichtsteiner S, Wright WE . Extension of life-span by introduction of telomerase into normal human cells[J]. Science, 1998,279(5349):349-352.
doi: 10.1126/science.279.5349.349
[62] 张英, 林洪生 . 肿瘤干细胞是中医药防治恶性肿瘤复发转移的可能靶点[J]. 中国中西医结合杂志, 2009,29(5):461-463.
Zhang Y, Lin HS . Tumor stem cells may be the final target of traditional Chinese medicine in preventing cancer recurrence and metastasis[J]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi, 2009,29(5):461-463.
[63] 安玉会, 宋丹, 杨丽君, 毛红利, 张超 . 大豆黄酮对肝癌SMMC7721细胞及其CD133肿瘤干细胞增殖的影响[J]. 河南医学研究, 2010,19(4):385-388.
An YH, Song D, Yang LJ, Mao HL, Zhang C . Influence of soybean flavones to proliferation of liver cancer SMMC7721 cell lines and its tumor stem cells[J]. Henan Yi Xue Yan Jiu, 2010,19(4):385-388.
[64] Wei Y, Cao X, Ou Y, Lu J, Xing C, Zheng R . SeO2 induces apoptosis with down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of p53 expression in both immortal human hepatic cell line and hepatoma cell line[J]. Mutat Res, 2001,490(2):113-121.
doi: 10.1016/S1383-5718(00)00149-2
[65] 廖丹琼, 张建平, 付银根, 杨赣军 . 人参皂苷Rg3对大鼠脑胶质瘤肿瘤干细胞增殖的影响[J]. 河南职工医学院学报, 2011,23(2):131-134.
Liao DQ, Zhang JP, Fu YG, Yang GJ . The influence of ginsenoside Rg3 on the proliferation of glioma cancer stem cells in rats[J]. Henan Zhi Gong Yi Xue Yuan Xue Bao, 2011,23(2):131-134.
[66] Yue PY, Wong DY, Wu PK, Leung PY, Mak NK, Yeung HW, Liu L, Cai Z, Jiang ZH, Fan TP, Wong RN . The angiosuppressive effects of 20(R)- ginsenoside Rg3[J]. Biochem Pharmacol, 2006,72(4):437-445.
doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2006.04.034 pmid: 16793023
[67] Koprowska K, Czyz M . Molecular mechanisms of parthenolide’s action: Old drug with a new face[J]. Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online), 2010,64:100-114.
pmid: 20354259
[68] Guzman ML, Rossi RM, Neelakantan S, Li X, Corbett CA, Hassane DC, Becker MW, Bennett JM, Sullivan E, Lachowicz JL, Vaughan A, Sweeney CJ, Matthews W, Carroll M, Liesveld JL, Crooks PA, Jordan CT . An orally bioavailable parthenolide analog selectively eradicates acute myelogenous leukemia stem and progenitor cells[J]. Blood, 2007,110(13):4427-4435.
doi: 10.1182/blood-2007-05-090621
[69] Wei YL, Xu L, Liang Y, Xu XH, Zhao XY . Berbamine exhibits potent antitumor effects on imatinib-resistant CML cells in vitro and in vivo[J]. Acta Pharmacol Sin, 2009,30(4):451-457.
doi: 10.1038/aps.2009.19
[70] Wong CW, Seow WK , O’Callaghan JW, Thong YH.Comparative effects of tetrandrine and berbamine on subcutaneous air pouch inflammation induced by interleukin-1, tumour necrosis factor and platelet-activating factor[J]. Agents Actions, 1992,36(1-2):112-118.
doi: 10.1007/BF01991238
[71] Xie J, Ma T, Gu Y, Zhang X, Qiu X, Zhang L, Xu R, Yu Y . Berbamine derivatives: a novel class of compounds for anti-leukemia activity[J]. Eur J Med Chem, 2009,44(8):3293-3298.
doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2009.02.018 pmid: 19285759
[72] Xu R, Dong Q, Yu Y, Zhao X, Gan X, Wu D, Lu Q, Xu X, Yu XF . Berbamine: a novel inhibitor of bcr/abl fusion gene with potent anti-leukemia activity[J]. Leuk Res, 2006,30(1):17-23.
doi: 10.1016/j.leukres.2005.05.023 pmid: 16023722
[73] Wang S, Liu Q, Zhang Y, Liu K, Yu P, Liu K, Luan J, Duan H, Lu Z, Wang F, Wu E, Yagasaki K, Zhang G . Suppression of growth, migration and invasion of highly-metastatic human breast cancer cells by berbamine and its molecular mechanisms of action[J]. Mol Cancer, 2009,8:81.
doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-8-81
[74] Kakarala M, Brenner DE, Korkaya H, Cheng C, Tazi K, Ginestier C, Liu S, Dontu G, Wicha MS . Targeting breast stem cells with the cancer preventive compounds curcumin and piperine[J]. Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2010,122(3):777-785.
doi: 10.1007/s10549-009-0612-x
[75] Yu Y, Kanwar SS, Patel BB, Nautiyal J, Sarkar FH, Majumdar AP . Elimination of colon cancer stem-like cells by the combination of curcumin and FOLFOX[J]. Transl Oncol, 2009,2(4):321-328.
doi: 10.1593/tlo.09193 pmid: 19956394
[76] Bonnet D, Dick JE . Human acute myeloid leukemia is organized as a hierarchy that originates from a primitive hematopoietic cell[J]. Nat Med, 1997,3(7):730-737.
doi: 10.1038/nm0797-730
[77] Singh SK, Clarke ID, Terasaki M, Bonn VE, Hawkins C, Squire J, Dirks PB . Identification of a cancer stem cell in human brain tumors[J]. Cancer Res, 2003,63(18):5821-5828.
doi: 10.1002/cncr.11592 pmid: 14522905
[78] Singh SK, Hawkins C, Clarke ID, Squire JA, Bayani J, Hide T, Henkelman RM, Cusimano MD, Dirks PB . Identification of human brain tumour initiating cells[J]. Nature, 2004,432(7015):396-401.
doi: 10.1038/nature03128
[79] Tirino V, Desiderio V, d’Aquino R, De Francesco F, Pirozzi G, Graziano A, Galderisi U, Cavaliere C, De Rosa A, Papaccio G, Giordano A . Detection and characterization of CD133+ cancer stem cells in human solid tumours[J]. PLoS One, 2008,3(10):e3469.
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003469
[80] Dirks PB . Cancer stem cells and brain tumors[J]. Nature, 2006,444(7120):687-688.
doi: 10.1038/444687a
[81] Yu SC, Ping YF, Yi L, Zhou ZH, Chen JH, Yao XH, Gao L, Wang JM, Bian XW . Isolation and characterization of cancer stem cells from a human glioblastoma cell line U87[J]. Cancer Lett, 2008,265(1):124-134.
doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2008.02.010
[82] Collins AT, Berry PA, Hyde C, Stower MJ, Maitland NJ . Prospective identification of tumorigenic prostate cancer stem cells[J]. Cancer Res, 2005,65(23):10946-10951.
doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-2018
[83] Seigel GM, Campbell LM, Narayan M, Gonzalez-Fernandez F . Cancer stem cell characteristics in retinoblastoma[J]. Mol Vis, 2005,11:729-737.
doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2005.05.030 pmid: 16179903
[84] Kim CF, Jackson EL, Woolfenden AE, Lawrence S, Babar I, Vogel S, Crowley D, Bronson RT, Jacks T . Identification of bronchioalveolar stem cells in normal lung and lung cancer[J]. Cell, 2005,121(6):823-835.
doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2005.03.032
[85] Ricci-Vitiani L, Lombardi DG, Pilozzi E, Biffoni M, Todaro M, Peschle C, De Maria R . Identification and expansion of human colon-cancer-initiating cells[J]. Nature, 2007,445(7123):111-115.
doi: 10.1038/nature05384
[86] Yeung TM, Gandhi SC, Bodmer WF . Hypoxia and lineage specification of cell line-derived colorectal cancer stem cells[J]. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2011,108(11):4382-4387.
doi: 10.1073/pnas.1014519107 pmid: 21368208
[87] Cozzio A, Passegué E, Ayton PM, Karsunky H, Cleary ML, Weissman IL . Similar MLL-associated leukemias arising from self-renewing stem cells and short-lived myeloid progenitors[J]. Genes Dev, 2003,17(24):3029-3035.
doi: 10.1101/gad.1143403
[88] Bissell MJ, Labarge MA . Context, tissue plasticity, and cancer: are tumor stem cells also regulated by the microenvironment? Cancer Cell. 2005; 7(1):17-23.
[89] Lobo NA, Shimono Y, Qian D, Clarke MF . The biology of cancer stem cells[J]. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol, 2007,23:675-699.
doi: 10.1146/annurev.cellbio.22.010305.104154 pmid: 17645413
[90] Shipitsin M, Campbell LL, Argani P, Weremowicz S, Bloushtain-Qimron N, Yao J, Nikolskaya T, Serebryiskaya T, Beroukhim R, Hu M, Halushka MK, Sukumar S, Parker LM, Anderson KS, Harris LN, Garber JE, Richardson AL, Schnitt SJ, Nikolsky Y, Gelman RS, Polyak K . Molecular definition of breast tumor heterogeneity[J]. Cancer Cell, 2007,11(3):259-273.
doi: 10.1016/j.ccr.2007.01.013 pmid: 17349583
[91] Park CH, Bergsagel DE , McCulloch EA.Mouse myeloma tumor stem cells: a primary cell culture assay[J]. J Natl Cancer Inst, 1971,46(2):411-422.
doi: 10.1093/jnci/46.2.411 pmid: 5115909
[92] Heng HH, Stevens JB, Liu G, Bremer SW, Ye KJ, Reddy PV . Stochastic cancer progression driven by non-clonal chromosome aberrations[J]. J Cell Physiol, 2006,208(2):461-472.
doi: 10.1002/jcp.20685 pmid: 16688757
[93] Bruce WR, van der Gaa H . A quantitative assay for the number of murine lymphoma cells capable of proliferation in vivo[J]. Nature, 1963,199:79-80.
doi: 10.1038/199079a0
[94] Pardal R, Clarke MF, Morrison SJ . Applying the principles of stem-cell biology to cancer[J]. Nat Rev Cancer, 2003,3(12):895-902.
doi: 10.1038/nrc1232
[1] Deng-hai Zhang, Kun-lun Wu, Xue Zhang, Sheng-qiong Deng, Bin Peng. In silico screening of Chinese herbal medicines with the potential to directly inhibit 2019 novel coronavirus. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(2): 152-158.
[2] Dona Nirmani Ann Wijewickrama Samarakoon, Deepthi Inoka Uluwaduge, Malith Aravinda Siriwardhene. Mechanisms of action of Sri Lankan herbal medicines used in the treatment of diabetes: A review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(1): 13-20.
[3] Lena Grönblom Lundström, Ulrika Aasa, Yan Zhang, Tobias Sundberg. Health care in light of different theories of health—A proposed framework for integrating a social humanistic perspective into health care. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(5): 321-327.
[4] Jia Xu, Fu-qing Zhang, Jian Pei, Jun Ji . Acupuncture for migraine without aura: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(5): 312-321.
[5] Carola Analía Torres, Cristina Marisel Pérez Zamora, María Beatriz Nuñez, Ana María Gonzalez. In vitro antioxidant, antilipoxygenase and antimicrobial activities of extracts from seven climbing plants belonging to the Bignoniaceae. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(4): 255-262.
[6] Wen-jie Xu, Ling-tai Wang, Zhi-ping Zhao, Li-ming Zhu, Liang-hua Zu, Qi Zhang, Dan-bo Dou. Prospects of a comprehensive evaluation system for traditional Chinese medicine services. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(6): 426-432.
[7] Naseem Akhtar Qureshi, Gazzaffi Ibrahim Ali, Tamer Shaban Abushanab, Ahmed Tawfik El-Olemy, Meshari Saleh Alqaed, Ibrahim S. El-Subai, Abdullah M.N. Al-Bedah. History of cupping (Hijama): A narrative review of literature. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(3): 172-181.
[8] Shui-jie Shen, Yong-hong Zhang, Xiao-xia Gu, Shui-ju Jiang, Ling-jun Xu. Yangfei Kongliu Formula, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, combined with cisplatin, inhibits growth of lung cancer cells through transforming growth factor-β1 signaling pathway. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(3): 242-251.
[9] Liliana Zazueta-Beltrán, Lorena Medina-Aymerich, Nadia Estela Díaz-Triste, Aracely Evangelina Chávez-Piña, Gilberto Castañeda-Hernández, Leticia Cruz-Antonio. Evidence against the participation of a pharmacokinetic interaction in the protective effect of single-dose curcumin against gastrointestinal damage induced by indomethacin in rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(2): 151-157.
[10] Tom Fleischer, Tung-Ti Chang, Hung-Rong Yen. Post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with hematologic disorders: Chinese herbal medicine for an unmet need. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(5): 322-335.
[11] Eric Wei Chiang Chan, Siu Kuin Wong, Hung Tuck Chan. Apocynaceae species with antiproliferative and/or antiplasmodial properties: A review of ten genera. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(4): 269-284.
[12] JiaXia, Li-qunHe, XiaoSu. Interventional mechanisms of herbs or herbal extracts on renal interstitial fibrosis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(3): 165-173.
[13] Yu-fangLin, Zhi-danLiu, WenMa, Wei-dongShen. Hazards of insomnia and the effects of acupuncture treatment on insomnia. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(3): 174-186.
[14] Jesmin Mondal, Jayeeta Das, Rajesh Shah, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh. A homeopathic nosode, Hepatitis C 30 demonstrates anticancer effect against liver cancer cells in vitro by modulating telomerase and topoisomerase II activities as also by promoting apoptosis via intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(3): 209-218.
[15] Jason Yamaki, Kalyan C. Nagulapalli Venkata, Animesh Mandal, Piyali Bhattacharyya, Anupam Bishayee. Health-promoting and disease-preventive potential of Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Gadabani)—An Indian medicinal and dietary plant. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(2): 84-99.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Wei-xiong Liang. Problems-solving strategies in clinical treatment guideline for traditional Chinese medicine and integrative medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 1-4
[2] Zhao-guo Li. Discussion on English translation of commonly used sentences in traditional Chinese medicine: part one. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 107-110
[3] Jun Cai, Hua Wang, Sheng Zhou, Bin Wu, Hua-rong Song, Zheng-rong Xuan. Effect of Sijunzi Decoction and enteral nutrition on T-cell subsets and nutritional status in patients with gastric cancer after operation: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 37-40
[4] Dong Yang, Yong-ping Du, Qing Shen, Wei Chen, Yan Yu, Guang-lei Chen. Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in renal tubulointerstitium in patients with kidney collateral stasis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 41-44
[5] Wei Zhang, Xiang-feng Lu, Xiao-mei Zhang, Jian-jun Wu, Liang-duo Jiang. A rat model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by infusing bleomycin quickly through tracheal intubation. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 60-67
[6] A-gao Zhou, Yong Zhang, Gang Kui, De-Yun Kong, Hai-liang Ge, Qiu-hua Ren, Jia-rong Dong, Sheng Hong, Xu-ming Mao, Yin Wang, Hui-zheng Zhang, Shu-jun Wang. Influence of traditional Chinese compound recipes with different efficacy on body weight, tumor weight and immune function in H22 cancer-bearing mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 77-82
[7] Guo-hong Yuan, Xiao-jing Pang, He-chao Ma. Synergic effects of Danggui Buxue Decoction in reducing toxicity of cytoxan in tumor-bearing mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 83-88
[8] Jin-zhou Tian, Jing Shi, Xin-qing Zhang, Qi Bi, Xin Ma, Zhi-liang Wang, Xiao-bin Li, Shu-li Shen, Lin Li, Zhen-yun Wu, Li-yan Fang, Xiao-dong Zhao, Ying-chun Miao, Peng-wen Wang, Ying Ren, Jun-xiang Yin, Yong-yan Wang, Beijing United Study Group on MCI of the Capital Foundation of Medical Developments. Guiding principles of clinical research on mild cognitive impairment (protocol). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 9-14
[9] Daniel Weber, Janelle M Wheat, Geoffrey M Currie. Inflammation and cancer: Tumor initiation, progression and metastasis,and Chinese botanical medicines. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1006-1013
[10] Bo Wang , Wei Yan , Li-hui Hou, Xiao-ke Wu. Disorder of Tiangui (kidney essence) and reproductive dysfunction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1018-1022