Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2012, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (8): 932-938.doi: 10.3736/jcim20120815

Previous Articles     Next Articles

Antiperoxidative potential of p-coumaric acid, a common dietary phenol, in adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats

Samuel Joshua Pragasam, Vachana Murunikara, Sabina Evan Prince, Mahaboobkhan Rasool()   

  1. School of Bio Sciences and Technology, Vellore Institute of Technology University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu, India
  • Received:2012-01-25 Accepted:2012-02-17 Online:2012-08-20 Published:2018-08-15
  • Contact: Rasool Mahaboobkhan

Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the antiperoxidative potential of p-coumaric acid, a common dietary phenol, in adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

Methods: Arthritis was induced by an intradermal injection of 0.1 mL complete Freund’s adjuvant in the foot pad of right hind limb of rats. p-Coumaric acid (100 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) and the reference drug indomethacin (3 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) were administered to arthritic rats for 8 d from the 11th day to the 18th day after adjuvant injection. The antiperoxidative effect of p-coumaric acid was investigated by assessing changes in lipid peroxidation levels and antioxidant status in liver, spleen and plasma of the adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. In addition, radiological changes in hind limbs of the arthritic rats were also analyzed.

Results: : p-Coumaric acid treatment reversed the altered lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status observed in arthritic rats to near normal levels. Soft swelling, bone erosion, and joint space narrowing noticed in arthritic rats were found to be mitigated in p-coumaric acid-treated arthritic rats.

Conclusion: The study clearly exhibits the antiperoxidative potential of p-coumaric acid against adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.

Key words: arthritis, experimental, coumaric acid, plant extracts, antioxidant, lipid peroxidation, rats


Group n Lipid peroxidation
Liver (μmol/g) Spleen (μmol/g) Plasma (mg/L)
Normal control 6 11.0±1.3 66.7±6.9 305±27
Model control 6 25.8±4.0* 108.3±14.8* 607±80*
Model rats treated by p-coumaric acid 100 mg/kg 6 12.0±1.4 73.7±6.2 405±34*△
Model rats treated by indomethacin 3 mg/kg 6 12.5±1.1*△ 78.3±10.3*△ 367±39*△
Normal rats treated by p-coumaric acid 100 mg/kg 6 11.7±1.4 60.5±5.7 317±81


Normal control 6 3.0±0.6 69.7±7.1 449.2±42.6 30.7±2.9 309.8±25.3
Model control 6 1.5±0.4* 38.3±5.2* 225.0±21.0* 17.8±0.8* 226.2±16.0*
Model rats treated by p-coumaric
acid 100 mg/kg
6 2.2±0.5*△ 46.7±5.3*△ 324.3±39.7*△ 23.0±5.4*△ 283.0±18.9
Model rats treated by indomethacin 3 mg/kg 6 2.4±0.4 49.7±3.7*△ 388.3±27.9*△▲ 22.2±6.4* 290.5±12.9
Normal rats treated by p-coumaric
acid 100 mg/kg
6 2.7±0.6 58.2±8.4* 443.3±33.3 29.8±6.8 329.2±20.1


Normal control 6 7.8±0.7 35.5±7.9 466.0±25.1 14.8±3.9 264.8±33.8
Model control 6 4.6±0.6* 15.7±3.4* 277.3±19.5* 7.8±0.8* 187.8±37.9*
Model rats treated by p-coumaric
acid 100 mg/kg
6 6.6±0.7*△ 23.3±8.2* 365.0±31.6*△ 9.7±2.1* 241.3±54.0
Model rats treated by indomethacin 3 mg/kg 6 7.0±0.9 25.3±6.1*△ 386.7±32.8*△ 11.1±1.8 257.2±50.5
Normal rats treated by p-coumaric
acid 100 mg/kg
6 7.7±0.5 33.3±6.1 444.2±28.4 14.8±2.5 289.2±36.9


Normal control 6 1.8±0.4 19.7±2.7 116.0±11.0 11.8±1.9 193.2±7.6
Model control 6 0.7±0.2* 7.5±0.6* 68.4±7.6* 7.0±0.7* 92.3±7.7*
Model rats treated by p-coumaric
acid 100 mg/kg
6 1.4±0.4 16.4±3.9 91.5±5.2*△ 8.7±2.2* 165.8±30.1
Model rats treated by indomethacin 3 mg/kg 6 1.3±0.3*△ 12.5±2.9*△ 102.8±11.1△▲ 9.9±1.1 165.7±21.1*△
Normal rats treated by p-coumaric
acid 100 mg/kg
6 1.9±0.2 19.8±3.9 113.3±12.1 11.7±2.1 188.0±17.4

Figure 1

Radiographic changes in adjuvant-induced arthritic ratsNormal control; B: Model control; C: Model rats treated by p-coumaric acid 100 mg/kg; D: Model rats treated by indomethacin 3 mg/kg. "

[1] Mulherin D, Fitzgerald O, Bresnihan B . Synovial tissue macrophage populations and articular damage in rheumatoid arthritis[J]. Arthritis Rheum, 1996,39(1):115-124
doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1529-0131
[2] Doan T, Massarotti E . Rheumatoid arthritis: an overview of new and emerging therapies[J]. J Clin Pharmacol, 2005,45(7):751-762
doi: 10.1177/0091270005277938
[3] Callahan LF . The burden of rheumatoid arthritis: facts and figures[J]. J Rheumatol Suppl, 1998,53, 8-12
doi: 10.2105/AJPH.21.6.704-c pmid: 9666412
[4] Kunsch C, Sikorski JA, Sundell CL . Oxidative stress and the use of antioxidants for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis[J]. Curr Med Chem Immunol Endocr Metab Agents, 2005,5(3):249-258
doi: 10.2174/1568013054022490
[5] Mapp PI, Grootveld MC, Blake DR . Hypoxia, oxidative stress and rheumatoid arthritis[J]. Br Med Bull, 1995,51(2):419-436
doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.bmb.a072970 pmid: 7552073
[6] Mahajan A, Tandon VR . Antioxidants and rheumatoid arthritis[J]. J Indian Rheumatol Assoc, 2004,12, 139-142
[7] Karlson EW, Shadick NA, Cook NR, Buring JE, Lee IM . Vitamin E in the primary prevention of rheumatoid arthritis: the Women’s Health Study[J]. Arthritis Rheum, 2008,59(11):1589-1595
doi: 10.1002/art.24194 pmid: 18975365
[8] Lee SJ, Mun GI, An SM, Boo YC . Evidence for the association of peroxidases with the antioxidant effect of p-coumaric acid in endothelial cells exposed to high glucose plus arachidonic acid. BMB Rep. 2009; 42(9):561-567.
doi: 10.5483/BMBRep.2009.42.9.561
[9] Scalbert A, Williamson G . Dietary intake and bioavailability of polyphenols.[J] Nutr. 2000; 130(8S Suppl):2073S-2085S.
doi: 10.1093/jn/130.8.2073S
[10] Foley S, Navaratnam S , McGarvey DJ , Land EJ ,Truscott TG , Rice-Evans CA.Singlet oxygen quenching and the redox properties of hydroxycinnamic acids[J]. Free Radic Biol Med, 1999,26(9-10):1202-1208
doi: 10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00313-X pmid: 10381191
[11] Zang LY, Cosma G, Gardner H, Shi X, Castranova V, Vallyathan V . Effect of antioxidant protection by p-coumaric acid on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol oxidation. Am[J] Physiol Cell Physiol. 2000; 279(4):C954-C960.
doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.2000.279.4.C954
[12] Castelluccio C, Paganga G, Melikian N, Bolwell GP, Pridham J, Sampson J, Rice-Evans C . Antioxidant potential of intermediates in phenylpropanoid metabolism in higher plants[J]. FEBS Lett, 1995,368(1):188-192
doi: 10.1016/0014-5793(95)00639-Q pmid: 7615079
[13] Niwa T , Doi U , Kato Y , Osawa T . Inhibitory mechanism of sinapinic acid against peroxynitrite-mediated tyrosine nitration of protein in vitro. FEBS Lett. 1999; 459(1): 43-46.
doi: 10.1016/S0014-5793(99)01216-8
[14] Swaroop A, Ramasarma T . Inhibition of H2O2 generation in rat liver mitochondria by radical quenchers and phenolic compounds[J]. Biochem J, 1981,194(3):657-665
doi: 10.1042/bj1940657
[15] Hudson EA, Dinh PA, Kokubun T, Simmonds MS, Gescher A . Characterization of potentially chemopreventive phenols in extracts of brown rice that inhibit the growth of human breast and colon cancer cells[J]. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2000,9(11):1163-1170
[16] Abdel-Wahab MH, El-Mahdy MA, Abd-Ellah MF, Helal GK, Khalifa F, Hamada FM . Influence of p-coumaric acid on doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress in rat’s heart. Pharmacol Res. 2003; 48(5):461-465.
doi: 10.1016/S1043-6618(03)00214-7 pmid: 12967591
[17] An SM, Koh JS , Boo YC . p-Coumaric acid not only inhibits human tyrosinase activity in vitro but also melanogenesis in cells exposed to UVB. Phytother Res. 2010; 24(8):1175-1180.
[18] Ferguson LR, Lim IF, Pearson AE, Ralph J, Harris PJ . Bacterial antimutagenesis by hydroxycinnamic acids from plant cell walls[J]. Mutat Res, 2003,542(1-2):49-58
doi: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2003.08.005 pmid: 14644353
[19] Luceri C, Giannini L, Lodovici M, Antonucci E, Abbate R, Masini E , Dolara P . p-Coumaric acid, a common dietary phenol, inhibits platelet activity in vitro and in vivo. Br[J] Nutr. 2007; 97(3):458-463.
doi: 10.1017/S0007114507657882 pmid: 17313706
[20] Luceri C, Guglielmi F, Lodovici M, Giannini L, Messerini L, Dolara P . Plant phenolic 4-coumaric acid protects against intestinal inflammation in rats[J]. Scand J Gastroenterol, 2004,39(11):1128-1133
doi: 10.1080/00365520410007908 pmid: 15545172
[21] Yeh CT, Yen GC . Modulation of hepatic phase Ⅱ phenol sulfotransferase and antioxidant status by phenolic acids in rats[J]. J Nutr Biochem, 2006,17(8):561-569
doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2005.10.008
[22] Vauzour D, Corona G, Spencer JP . Caffeic acid, tyrosol and p-coumaric acid are potent inhibitors of 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine induced neurotoxicity. Arch Biochem Biophy. 2010; 501(1):106-111.
doi: 10.1016/
[23] Lodovici M, Caldini S, Morbidelli L, Akpan V, Ziche M, Dolara P . Protective effect of 4-coumaric acid from UVB ray damage in the rabbit eye[J]. Toxicology, 2009,255(1-2):1-5
doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2008.09.011 pmid: 18852014
[24] Taurog JD, Argentieri DC , McReynolds RA.Adjuvant arthritis[J]. Methods Enzymol, 1988,162, 339-355
doi: 10.1016/0076-6879(88)62089-1
[25] Ledwozyw A, Michalak J, Stepień A, Kadziołka A.. The relationship between plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, total lipids and lipid peroxidation products during human atherosclerosis[J]. Clin Chim Acta, 1986,155(3):275-283
doi: 10.1016/0009-8981(86)90247-0
[26] Högberg J, Larson RE, Kristoferson A, Orrenius S . NADPH-dependent reductase solubilized from microsomes by peroxidation and its activity[J]. Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1974,56(3):836-842
doi: 10.1016/0006-291X(74)90681-0 pmid: 4151195
[27] Marklund S, Marklund G . Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase[J]. Eur J Biochem, 1974,47(3):469-474
doi: 10.1111/ejb.1974.47.issue-3
[28] Sinha AK . Colorimetric assay of catalase[J]. Anal Biochem, 1972,47(2):389-394
doi: 10.1016/0003-2697(72)90132-7
[29] Rotruck JT, Pope AL, Ganther HE, Swanson AB, Hafeman DG, Hoekstra WG . Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase[J]. Science, 1973,179(4073):588-590
doi: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.1980.tb05961.x pmid: 4686466
[30] Staal GE, Visser J, Veeger C . Purification and properties of glutathione reductase of human erythrocytes[J]. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1969,185(1):39-48
doi: 10.1016/0005-2744(69)90280-0 pmid: 5796111
[31] Ellman GL . Tissue sulfhydryl groups[J]. Arch Biochem Biophys, 1959,82(1):70-77
doi: 10.1016/0003-9861(59)90090-6
[32] Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ . Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent[J]. J Biol Chem, 1951,193(1):265-275
[33] Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M, Telser J . Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease[J]. Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2007,39(1):44-84
doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2006.07.001
[34] Gambhir JK, Lali P, Jain AK . Correlation between blood antioxidant levels and lipid peroxidation in rheumatoid arthritis[J]. Clin Biochem, 1997,30(4):351-355
doi: 10.1016/S0009-9120(96)00007-0
[35] Terao J, Piskula MK . Flavonoids and membrane lipid peroxidation inhibition[J]. Nutrition, 1999,15(10):790-791
doi: 10.1016/S0899-9007(99)00159-8
[36] Curnutte JT, Babior BM . Chronic granulomatous disease[J]. Adv Hum Genet, 1987,16, 229-297
[37] Afonso V, Champy R, Mitrovic D, Collin P, Lomri A . Reactive oxygen species and superoxide dismutases: role in joint diseases[J]. Joint Bone Spine, 2007,74(4):324-329
doi: 10.1016/j.jbspin.2007.02.002 pmid: 17590367
[38] Ratnam DV, Ankola DD, Bhardwaj V, Sahana DK, Kumar MN . Role of antioxidants in prophylaxis and therapy: A pharmaceutical perspective[J]. J Control Release, 2006,113(3):189-207
doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2006.04.015 pmid: 16790290
[39] Arthur JR . The glutathione peroxidases[J]. Cell Mol Life Sci, 2000,57(13-14):1825-1835
[40] Mulherin DM, Thurnham DI, Situnayake RD . Glutathione reductase activity, riboflavin status, and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis[J]. Ann Rheum Dis, 1996,55(11):837-840
doi: 10.1136/ard.55.11.837 pmid: 8976642
[41] Ursini F, Maiorino M, Valente M, Ferri L, Gregolin C . Purification from pig liver of a protein which protects liposomes and biomembranes from peroxidative degradation and exhibits glutathione peroxidase activity on phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxides[J]. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1982,710(2):197-211
doi: 10.1016/0005-2760(82)90150-3
[42] Rasool M, Varalakshmi P . Protective effect of Withania somnifera root powder in relation to lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status, glycoproteins and bone collagen on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats[J]. Fundam Clin Pharmacol, 2007,21(2):157-164
doi: 10.1111/fcp.2007.21.issue-2
[43] Jaswal S, Mehta HC, Sood AK, Kaur J . Antioxidant status in rheumatoid arthritis and role of antioxidant therapy[J]. Clin Chim Acta, 2003,338(1-2):123-129
doi: 10.1016/j.cccn.2003.08.011 pmid: 14637276
[44] Yeh CT, Ching LC, Yen GC . Inducing gene expression of cardiac antioxidant enzymes by dietary phenolic acids in rats[J]. J Nutr Biochem, 2009,20(3):163-171
doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2008.01.005 pmid: 18547798
[45] Hitchon CA, El-Gabalawy HS . Oxidation in rheumatoid arthritis[J]. Arthritis Res Ther, 2004,6(6):265-278
doi: 10.1186/ar1447
[46] Marklund SL, Bjelle A, Elmqvist LG . Superoxide dismutase isoenzymes of the synovial fluid in rheumatoid arthritis and in reactive arthritides[J]. Ann Rheum Dis, 1986,45(10):847-851
doi: 10.1136/ard.45.10.847
[47] Folwarczna J, Zych M, Burczyk J, Trzeciak H, Trzeciak HI . Effects of natural phenolic acids on the skeletal system of ovariectomized rats[J]. Planta Med, 2009,75(15):1567-1572
doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1185904
[48] Lai YL, Yamaguchi M . Phytocomponent p-hydroxycinnamic acid stimulates bone formation and inhibits bone resorption in rat femoral tissues in vitro. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006; 292(1-2):45-52.
doi: 10.1007/s11010-006-9175-x
[1] Chiung-Hui Huang, Mei-Ling Yeh, Fang-Pey Chen, Daphne Wu. Low-level laser acupuncture reduces postoperative pain and morphine consumption in older patients with total knee arthroplasty: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(4): 321-328.
[2] Talat Albukhari, Bassem Refaat, El-Sayed Bakr, Sameh Baz, Bodour Rajab, Hossam Gadalla, Mohamed El-Boshy. Salvadora persica extract attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced hepatorenal damage by modulating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(4): 348-354.
[3] Wan-jun Guo, Yi Wang, Yu Deng, Lin-yan Cheng, Xin Liu, Ruo-fan Xi, Sheng-jie Zhu, Xin-yi Feng, Liang Hua, Kan Ze, Jian-yong Zhu, Dong-jie Guo, Fu-lun Li. Therapeutic effects of the extract of Sancao Formula, a Chinese herbal compound, on imiquimod-induced psoriasis via cysteine-rich protein 61. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(4): 376-384.
[4] Ye-juan Jia, Tian-yu Li, Peng Han, Yu Chen, Li-jia Pan, Chun-sheng Jia. Effects of different courses of moxibustion treatment on intestinal flora and inflammation of a rat model of knee osteoarthritis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(2): 173-181.
[5] Miriam Bazzicalupo, Laura Cornara, Bruno Burlando, Alberta Cascini, Marcella Denaro, Antonella Smeriglio, Domenico Trombetta. Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Br. extract as a skin preserving agent: from traditional medicine to scientific validation. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(6): 526-536.
[6] Sutticha Ruangchuay, Qiang-qiang Wang, Liang-yi Wang, Jing Lin, Yong-chao Wang, Guo-huan Zhong, Katesarin Maneenoon, Ze-bo Huang, Sasitorn Chusri. Antioxidant and antiaging effect of traditional Thai rejuvenation medicines in Caenorhabditis elegans . Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(4): 362-373.
[7] Ju-Yeon Park, Young-Won Kwon, Sun-Ah Kim, Sun-Dong Park, Chang-Hyun Kim, Jin-Hee Kim, Ju-Hee Lee. Polyherbal formula SC-E3 inhibits rheumatoid arthritis activity in a mouse model of type-II collagen-induced arthritis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(3): 265-273.
[8] Bing-rong Li, Shi-yun Shao, Long Yuan, Ru Jia, Jian Sun, Qing Ji, Hua Sui, Li-hong Zhou, Yi Zhang, Hui Liu, Qi Li, Yan Wang, Bi-meng Zhang. Effects of mild moxibustion on intestinal microbiome and NLRP3 inflammasome in rats with 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(2): 144-157.
[9] Olarewaju M. Oluba, Oghenerobor B. Akpor, Feyikemi D. Adebiyi, Sunday J. Josiah, Olayinka O. Alabi, Ayoola O. Shoyombo, Augustine O. Olusola. Effects of co-administration of Ganoderma terpenoid extract with chloroquine on inflammatory markers and antioxidant status in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(6): 522-529.
[10] Johannes Loeser, Brigitte Layer, Christopher Plata, Klaus-Maria Perrar, Tim Hucho, Rebecca Kulbida. Hirudotherapy attenuates arthritic pain in patients with various chronic pain syndromes: A retrospective analysis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(5): 425-433.
[11] Varuni Colamba Pathiranage, Ira Thabrew, Sameera R. Samarakoon, Kamani H. Tennekoon, Umapriyatharshini Rajagopalan, Meran K. Ediriweera. Evaluation of anticancer effects of a pharmaceutically viable extract of a traditional polyherbal mixture against non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(3): 242-252.
[12] Sitthichai Iamsaard, Supatcharee Arun, Jaturon Burawat, Supataechasit Yannasithinon, Saranya Tongpan, Sudtida Bunsueb, Natthapol Lapyuneyong, Pannawat Choowong-in, Nareelak Tangsrisakda, Chadaporn Chaimontri, Wannisa Sukhorum. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and reproductive toxicity of aqueous extract of Thai Mucuna pruriens seeds. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(3): 265-273.
[13] Dona Nirmani Ann Wijewickrama Samarakoon, Deepthi Inoka Uluwaduge, Malith Aravinda Siriwardhene. Mechanisms of action of Sri Lankan herbal medicines used in the treatment of diabetes: A review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(1): 13-20.
[14] Syed Fairus, Hwee Ming Cheng, Kalyana Sundram. Antioxidant status following postprandial challenge of two different doses of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(1): 68-79.
[15] Gaëtan Olivier Fankem, Michel Archange Fokam Tagne, Paul Aimé Noubissi, Angèle Foyet Fondjo, Idrice Kamtchouing, Adela Ngwewondo, Henri Wambe, Joseph Ngakou Mukam, René Kamgang. Antioxidant activity of dichloromethane fraction of Dichrocephala integrifolia in Salmonella typhi-infected rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(6): 438-445.
Full text



[1] Wei-xiong Liang. Problems-solving strategies in clinical treatment guideline for traditional Chinese medicine and integrative medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 1-4
[2] Zhao-guo Li. Discussion on English translation of commonly used sentences in traditional Chinese medicine: part one. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 107-110
[3] Jun Hu, Jian-ping Liu. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 31
[4] Xue-mei Liu, Qi-fu Huang, Yun-ling Zhang, Jin-li Lou, Hong-sheng Liu, Hong Zheng. Effects of Tribulus terrestris L. saponion on apoptosis of cortical neurons induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation in rats. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 45-50
[5] . Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: Writing and editing for biomedical publication (Chinese version, part two). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1001-1005
[6] Daniel Weber, Janelle M Wheat, Geoffrey M Currie. Inflammation and cancer: Tumor initiation, progression and metastasis,and Chinese botanical medicines. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1006-1013
[7] Hong Liu , Guo-liang Zhang, Li Shen , Zhen Zeng, Bao-luo Zhou, Cheng-hai Liu, Guang Nie . Application and evaluation of a pseudotyped virus assay for screening herbs for anti-H5Nl avian influenza virus. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1036-1040
[8] Zhao-guo Li . A discussion of English translation of 1995 and 1997 Chinese National Standards of Traditional Chinese Medical Terminologies for Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1090-1096
[9] Rui Jin, Bing Zhang. A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple formations of herbal property (Part 1). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1198-1205
[10] Hui-min Liu, Xian-bo Wang, Yu-juan Chang, Li-li Gu. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of integrative medicine therapy for treatment of chronic severe hepatitis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1211-1228