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Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2006, Vol. 4 ›› Issue (2): 194-198.doi: 10.3736/jcim20060217

• Original Experimental Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Phenolic acids in Fructus Xanthii and determination of contents of total phenolic acids in different species and populations of Xanthium in China

Ting Han1, Hui-liang Li1, Yuan Hu1, Qiao-yan Zhang1, Bao-kang Huang1, Han-chen Zheng1, Khalid Rahman2, Lu-ping Qin1   

  1. 1. Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China
    2. Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, United Kingdom
  • Online:2006-03-20 Published:2006-03-15


To study the chemical constituents of Fructus Xanthii and to determine the contents of total phenolic acids (TPA) in fruits of Xanthium from different populations for evaluating the quality of them.


Components in Fructus Xanthii were isolated and purified by various column chromatographies and the contents of TPA were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry with chlorogenic acid (CHA) as reference substance.


Six caffeoylquinic acids along with caffeic acid and ferulic acid were isolated from Fructus Xanthii. The contents of TPA of the samples collected from 29 populations in China varied from 0.31% to 1.44%. Among the samples originated from two species and 1 variety of Xanthium, the contents of TPA in X. sibiricum var. subinerme samples with an average of 0.36% were relatively lower than those in other 2 species. While the content of TPA in Sample 3 collected from Shanghai was 1.44% and the highest among all the samples, and that in Sample 12 from Xinjian of Jiangxi Province was 0.38% and the lowest among the X. sibiricum samples.


5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 1,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid were isolated from Xanthium plant for the first time. The difference of contents of TPA in samples from different species and different populations in China was relatively significant. Fructus Xanthii in Shanghai and Sanming of Fujian Province were considered high quality if contents of TPA were used as reference for quality evaluating.

Key words: Fructus Xanthii, Phenolic acid, Caffeoylquinic acid, Ultraviolet spectrophotometry, Chemical structure identification, Population

CLC Number: 

  • R284.1


Sample No. Latin name Collected location Collected date (y.m.d) TPA (%)
1 X.sibiricum var. subinerme Renqiu, Hebei Province 2003.11.13 0.31
2 X. sibiricum Jinan, Shandong Province 2003.11.3 0.68
3 X. sibiricum Sunqiao, Shanghai 2003.11.4 1.44
4 X. sibiricum Bengbu, Anhui Province 2003.11.23 0.55
5 X. sibiricum Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province 2003.11.11 0.94
6 X. sibiricum Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province 2003.11.13 0.66
7 X. mongolicum Yantai, Shandong Province 2003.11.7 0.51
8 X. sibiricum Kaili, Guizhou Province 2004.7.30 0.40
9 X. mongolicum Guilin, Guangxi Autonomous Region 2003.11.18 0.62
10 X. sibiricum Ding’an, Hainan Province 2004.2.7 0.87
11 X. sibiricum Huangshan, Anhui Province 2003.11.30 0.59
12 X. sibiricum Xinjian, Jiangxi Province 2003.11.25 0.38
13 X. sibiricum Gaoan, Jiangxi Province 2003.12.9 0.59
14 Unknown Shenzhen, Guangdong Province 2003.11.17 0.41
15 X. sibiricum Tianmen, Hubei Province 2004.2.16 0.58
16 X. sibiricum Zhumadian, Henan Province 2003.11.7 0.75
17 X. sibiricum Nanjing, Jiangsu Province 2003.10.31 0.40
18 X. sibiricum Linyi, Shandong Province 2003.11.7 0.45
19 X. sibiricum Miluo, Hunan Province 2003.12.11 0.52
20 X. sibiricum Quzhou, Zhejiang Province 2004.1.9 0.45
21 X. mongolicum Changsha, Hunan Province 2003.12.15 0.59
22 X.sibiricum var. subinerme Chifeng, the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region 2003.10.28 0.43
23 X. sibiricum Kunming, Yunnan Province 2003.12.1 0.54
24 X. sibiricum Qingdao, Shandong Province 2003.11.8 0.65
25 X.sibiricum var. subinerme Beijing 2003.11.20 0.34
26 X. sibiricum Xiangyin, Hunan Province 2003.11.20 0.47
27 X. sibiricum Sanming, Fujian Province 2003.11.8 1.41
28 X. sibiricum Quanzhou, Fujian Province 2004.8.7 0.58
29 X.sibiricum var. subinerme Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 2003.11.4 0.36

Figure 1

Chemical structure of isolated compounds"


No. Name of compound R1 R2 R3 R4 R5
Compound 1 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid H H Caffeoyl H H
Compound 2 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid H H H H Caffeoyl
Compound 3 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid H Caffeoyl H H Caffeoyl
Compound 4 1,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid H Caffeoyl H Caffeoyl H
Compound 5 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid H H H Caffeoyl Caffeoyl
Compound 6 1,3,5-tri-O-caffeoylquinic acid Caffeoyl H Caffeoyl HCaffeoyl
Compound 7 Caffeic acid
Compound 8 Ferulic acid


Added (mg) Found (mg) Recovery (%) Mean (%) RSD (%)
1.10 1.08 98.2
1.08 1.06 98.1
1.17 1.20 102.5 99.78 1.89
1.06 1.07 100.9
1.18 1.17 99.2
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