Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2015, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (5): 326-335.doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(15)60188-1

• Research Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Evaluation of the diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction of Zanthoxylum heitzii (Rutaceae) in Wistar rats

Fidèle Ntchapdaa, Maguirgue Kakessea, Michel Archange Tagne Fokama, Olivier Mbouemboue Panchab,Djedouboum Abakara,Théophile Dimoc   

  1. a Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundéré, Cameroon, Po Box 454, Cameroon
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Ngaoundéré, Cameroon, Po Box 454, Cameroon
    c Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, Po Box 812, Cameroon
  • Received:2015-01-21 Accepted:2015-05-04 Online:2015-09-10 Published:2015-09-15

Zanthoxylum heitzii is a medicinal plant widely used in central Africa for the treatment of many diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. The diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction were determined and its safety in rats was evaluated.
The diuretic effects of crude stem bark extraction of Z. heitzii were investigated in Wistar rats (250 g ± 10 g) of both sexes. The crude stem bark extraction of Z. heitzii at the doses of 225, 300 and 375 mg/kg was administered to rats at 5 mL/kg body weight. Urine volume was determined 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 24 h after administration of the extract. Kinetics of electrolyte elimination in response to a single oral administration dose of acute treatment was measured. The experiments were performed under the same conditions with two synthetic pharmacological diuretics considered as reference (furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide). Urinary and plasma concentrations of sodium and potassium ions were determined using flame photometry. Concentrations of creatinine, urea, glucose, albumin and electrolytes in the plasma and urine samples were evaluated using a two-way digital bidirectional spectrophotometer. The osmolarity of plasma and urine samples was measured by cytometry using an osmometer. Aldosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay.
The plant extract accelerated the elimination of overloaded fluid and increased urine volume and the excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl? 24 h after administration (< 0.05). The increase in elimination of Na+, K+, and Cl? induced by the extract caused alkalinization of the urine, and showed a strong inhibitory effect on carbonic anhydrase and saluretic. These effects were mainly observed at the dose of 375 mg/kg. At the maximum diuretic response, urinary osmolarity decreased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared to controls. The stability of aldosterone level, the absence of correlation with the plasma levels of Na+, and increased clearance of free water in the animals treated with extract indicated that increased diuresis and natriuresis were tubular in origin. No significant (P > 0.05) changes were observed in the body temperature of the animals.
The significant increase in urine volume 24 h after treatment followed a dose-response pattern. The excretion of Na+, K+ and Cl?caused a decrease in urine osmolarity. The stability of aldosterone, the absence of correlation with the plasma levels of sodium, and increased clearance of free water in animals treated with aqueous extract suggest that increased diuresis and moderate natriuresis elevation were of tubular origin.

Key words: Zanthoxylum heitzii, Diuretic, Urine volume, Urine pH, Electrolytes, Temperature rectal

[1] Zirihi GN, Mambu L, Guédé-Guina F, Bodo B, Grellier P . In vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of 33 West African plants used for treatment of malaria. J Ethnopharmacol, 2005,98(3):281-285
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.01.004
[2] Sandberg F, Perera-Ivarsson P, El-Seedi HR . A Swedish collection of medicinal plants from Cameroon. J Ethnopharmacol, 2005,102(3):336-343
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.06.032 pmid: 16098698
[3] Gilani SN, Khan AU, Gilani AH . Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Zanthoxylum armatum in gut, airways and cardiovascular disorders. Phytother Res, 2010,24(4):553-558
[4] Mbaze LM, Lado JA, Wansi JD, Shiao TC, Chiozem DD, Mesaik MA, Choudhary MI, Lacaille-Dubois MA, Wandji J, Roy R, Sewald N . Oxidative burst inhibitory and cytotoxic amides and lignans from the stem bark of Fagara heitzii(Rutaceae). Phytochemistry, 2009,70(11-12):1442-1447
doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.08.007
[5] Mikolo B, Overgaard HJ, Stangeland T, Malterud KE, Wangensteen H, Paulsen BS, Corbel V . Adulticide activity in fractions of Zanthoxylum heitzii extract against Anopheles gambiae s.s. 6th European Mosquito Control Association Workshop. Hungary Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Budapest. 2011.
[6] Overgaard HJ, Sirisopa P, Mikolo B, Malterud KE, Wangensteen H, Zou YF, Paulsen BS, Massamba D, Duchon S, Corbel V, Chandre F . Insecticidal activities of bark, leaf and seed extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Molecules, 2014,19(12):21276-21290
doi: 10.3390/molecules191221276
[7] Chen JJ, Lin YH, Day SH, Hwang TL, Chen IS . New benzenoids and anti-inflammatory constituents from Zanthoxylum nitidum. Food Chem, 2011,125(2):282-287
doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.09.069
[8] Ntchapda F, Dimo T, Atchade AT . Antihypertensive effects of the methylene chloride leaf extract of Celtis durandii Engler(Ulmaceae) on rats. Int J Biol Chem Sci, 2010,4(3):642-648
[9] Chou ST, Chan HH, Peng HY, Liou MJ, Wu TS . Isolation of substances with antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities against leukemia cells from the leaves of Zanthoxylum ailanthoides Sieb. & Zucc. Phytomedicine, 2011,18(5):344-348
doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.08.018
[10] Prakash B, Singh P, Mishra PK, Dubey NK . Safety assessment of Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. essential oil, its antifungal, antiaflatoxin, antioxidant activity and efficacy as antimicrobial in preservation of Piper nigrum L. fruits. Int J Food Microbiol, 2011,153(1-2):183-191
[11] Maghrani M, Zeggwagh NA, Haloui M, Eddouks M . Acute diuretic effect of aqueous extract of Retama raetam in normal rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 2005,99(1):31-35
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.01.045 pmid: 15848016
[12] Yeo SK, Ooi LG, Lim TJ, Liong MT . Antihypertensive properties of plant-based prebiotics. Int J Mol Sci, 2009,10(8):3517-3530
doi: 10.3390/ijms10083517 pmid: 20111692
[13] Freitas PC, Pucci LL, Vieira MS, Lino RS Jr, Oliveira CM, Cunha LC, Paula JR, Valadares MC . Diuretic activity and acute oral toxicity of Palicourea coriacea(Cham.) K Schum. J Ethnopharmacol, 2011,134(2):501-503
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2010.12.002 pmid: 21185931
[14] Vargas Solis R, Perez Gutierrez RM . Diuretic and urolithiatic activities of the aqueous extract of the fruit of Randia echinocarpa on rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 2002,83(1-2):145-147
doi: 10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00091-0
[15] Lee SM, Lee YJ, Yoon JJ, Kang DG, Lee HS . Effect of Poria cocos on hypertonic stress-induced water channel expression and apoptosis in renal collecting duct cells. J Ethnopharmacol, 2012,141(1):368-376
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.02.048
[16] Pantoja CV, Chiang LC, Norris BC, Concha JB . Diuretic, natriuretic and hypotensive effects produced by Allium sativum(garlic) in anaesthetized dogs. J Ethnopharmacol, 1991,31(3):325-331
doi: 10.1016/0378-8741(91)90018-9
[17] Ying-Yong Z, Ya-Long F, Xiao D, Zhi-Hui X, Xian-Long C, Feng W . Diuretic activity of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of the surface layer of Poria cocos in rat. J Ethnopharmacol, 2012,144(3):775-778
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.09.033
[18] Ghosh SM, Kapil V, Fuentes-Calvo I, Bubb KJ, Pearl V, Milsom AB, Khambata R, Maleki-Toyserkani S, Yousuf M, Benjamin N, Webb AJ, Caulfield MJ, Hobbs AJ, Ahluwalia A . Enhanced vasodilator activity of nitrite in hypertension: critical role for erythrocytic xanthine oxidoreductase and translational potential. Hypertension, 2013,61(5):1091-1102
doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.00933
[19] Amuthan A, Chogtu B, Bairy KL, Sudhakar, Prakash M . Evaluation of diuretic activity of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. aqueous extract in Wistar rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 2012,140(2):424-427
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.049 pmid: 22331031
[1] Upendarrao Golla, Praveen Kumar Gajam, Solomon Sunder Bhimathati. Evaluation of diuretic and laxative activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf in rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(4): 372-378.
[2] Wen Su , Ai-xia Hu, Heng Du, Kai Yuan, Hui-fu Xu. Effects of Yiniao Recipe on serum antidiuretic hormone level and plasma ratio of cAMP to cGMP in rats with kidney-yang deficiency. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(2): 168-172.
[3] Yu-ping Han, Ning-sheng Wang, Sui-qing Mi, Qi-de Liu. Effect of Wuling Powder on rats with renal hypertension. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2003, 1(4): 285-288.
Full text



[1] Dong Yang, Yong-ping Du, Qing Shen, Wei Chen, Yan Yu, Guang-lei Chen. Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in renal tubulointerstitium in patients with kidney collateral stasis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 41-44
[2] Hai-feng Wei, Bai-liu Ya, Ling Zhao, Cui-fei Ye, Li Zhang, Lin Li. Evaluation of tongue manifestation of blood stasis syndrome and its relationship with blood rheological disorder in a rat model of transient brain ischemia. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 73-76
[3] Xi Lin, Jian-ping Liu. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 76
[4] Xi Lin, Jian-ping Liu. Tai chi for treating rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 82
[5] Liang-ping Hu, Hui Gao. Discrimination of errors in statistical analysis of medical papers published in the first issue of 2006 in Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 98-106
[6] Yan-bo Zhu , Qi Wang, Cheng-yu Wu, Guo-ming Pang, Jian-xiong Zhao, Shi-lin Shen, Zhong-yuan Xia , Xue Yan . Logistic regression analysis on relationships between traditional Chinese medicine constitutional types and overweight or obesity. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1023-1035
[7] Wei Xu, Meng Shi, Jian-gang Liu, Cheng-long Wang . Collagen protein expressions in ischemic myocardium of rats with acute myocardial infarction and effects of qi-tonifying, yin-tonifying and blood-activating herbs and detoxifying and blood-activating herbs. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1041-1047
[8] Tao Wang , Feng Qin. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Xiaoyao Powder on monoamine neurotransmitters in hippocampus of rats with postpartum depression. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1075-1079
[9] Ying Xu , Chang-chun Zeng , Xiu-yu Cai , Rong-ping Guo , Guang Nie , Ying Jin. Chromaticity and optical spectrum colorimetry of the tongue color in different syndromes of primary hepatic carcinoma. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1263-1271
[10] Xiang-ying Mao , Qin Bian , Zi-yin Shen. Analysis of the osteogenetic effects exerted on mesenchymal stem cell strain C3H10T1/2 by icariin via MAPK signaling pathway in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1272-1278