Objective: To evaluate the advantage of Gukangling Decoction (GKLD), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, combined with technetium [ 99Tc] methylene diphosphonate injection ( 99Tc-MDP) in treating osteoporosis in rabbits.Methods: A rabbit model of osteoporosis was established by intramuscular injection of dexamethasone (DX). Fifty-six rabbits were divided into 8 groups: Group A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H. Rabbits in groups A and B were intramuscularly injected normal saline as normal control, groups C and D were untreated groups, rabbits in group E were treated by 99Tc-MDP, rabbits in group F were treated by aminodiphosphate, rabbits in group G were treated by GKLD, and rabbits in group H were treated by 99Tc-MDP and GKLD. Rabbits in groups A and C were executed to demonstrate the establishment of the rabbit model of osteoporosis at the 8th week of experiment. Rabbits in the other six groups were executed after 16-week experiment (8-week treatment), and then bone structure and cell shape were observed by electron microscope, X-ray, CT and emission computed tomography (ECT). Bone density, biomechanical parameters, the levels of bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and bone Gla protein (BGP) were measured too.Results: After 8-week of intramuscular injection of DX, the bone trabecula in group A were regular and showed normal configuration, while the bone trabecula in group C were sparse, ruptured and showed damaged form. The bone density and biomechanical parameters in group A were higher than those in group C, indicating that the rabbit model of osteoporosis was established successfully. At the 9th week of experiment, the results of cell pathology in group D showed that the bone trabeculas were sparse, ruptured, defected or had hollow section, but the bone trabeculas in group B were regular and dense. The bone trabeculas in groups H and E were restored, and were thicker than those in group D. The bone quality in groups H and E was better than group D significantly, the bone quality in group F was better than group G, and the bone quality in group G was better than group D slightly.Conclusion: GKLD combined with 99Tc-MDP had superiority in treating osteoporosis of rabbits as compared with the respective single therapy.