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Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2021, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (6): 478-492.doi: 10.1016/j.joim.2021.09.006

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Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from plants: A review of their diversity, modes of action, prospects, and concerns in the management of diabetes-centric complications

Rakhi Chakrabortya, Swarnendu Royb   

  1. a. Department of Botany, A.P.C. Roy Government College, Matigara 734010, West Bengal, India
    b. Plant Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of North Bengal, Raja Rammohunpur 734011, West Bengal, India
  • Received:2020-07-22 Accepted:2021-06-10 Online:2021-11-12 Published:2021-10-09
  • Contact: Swarnendu Roy E-mail:swarnendubotany@nbu.ac.in

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are antihypertensive medications often used in the treatment of diabetes-related complications. Synthetic ACE inhibitors are known to cause serious side effects like hypotension, renal insufficiency, and hyperkalaemia. Therefore, there has been an intensifying search for natural ACE inhibitors. Many plants or plant-based extracts are known to possess ACE-inhibitory activity. In this review, articles focusing on the natural ACE inhibitors extracted from plants were retrieved from databases like Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. We have found more than 50 plant species with ACE-inhibitory activity. Among them, Angelica keiskeiMomordica charantiaMuntingia calaburaPrunus domestica, and Peperomia pellucida were the most potent, showing comparatively lower half-maximal inhibitory concentration values. Among the bioactive metabolites, peptides (e.g., Tyr-Glu-Pro, Met-Arg-Trp, and Gln-Phe-Tyr-Ala-Val), phenolics (e.g., cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside), flavonoids ([-]-epicatechin, astilbin, and eupatorin), terpenoids (ursolic acid and oleanolic acid) and alkaloids (berberine and harmaline) isolated from several plant and fungi species were found to possess significant ACE-inhibitory activity. These were also known to possess promising antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and anti-inflammatory activities. Considering the minimal side effects and lower toxicity of herbal compounds, development of antihypertensive drugs from these plant extracts or phytocompounds for the treatment of diabetes-associated complications is an important endeavour. This review, therefore, focuses on the ACE inhibitors extracted from different plant sources, their possible mechanisms of action, present status, and any safety concerns.

Key words: Angiotensin-converting enzyme, Inhibitor, Herbal medicine, Hyperglycaemia, Hypertension, Bioactive metabolite

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