This study investigated cytotoxicity and
induction of apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells (HELA) and
prostate cancer cells (PC-3) using the most active fraction of Moringa peregrina
Methods: Dried and powdered seeds were extracted using 95% ethanol. The total
ethanolic extract was further dissolved in distilled water and separated
into petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts.
Based on the results of in vitro anticancer studies of all
extracts, the most highly active extract was selected for evaluation of
apoptosis induction and cell cycle analysis on HELA and PC-3 cells at
its half maximal inhibitory concentration using flow cytometry; DNA
fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis and the expression of
protein were measured by Western blot.
Results: The chloroform fraction from the ethanolic extract of M. peregrina (CFEE) was the most active antitumor fraction. The selectivity index,
determined using the normal Vero cell line, indicated that CFEE had a
high degree of selectivity against HELA and PC-3 cells. CFEE induced
apoptosis, confirmed by cell cycle arrest at sub-G0 phase and
DNA fragmentation. CFEE induced an increase in mRNA expression of
caspase-3, a decrease in Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreased ATP
levels. CFEE increased protein expression of caspase-3 and decreased
protein expression of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1). Flow
cytometric analysis showed an appreciable increase in the number of
cells in the early apoptotic stage in CFEE-treated HELA and PC-3 cells.
CFEE treatment significantly increased lipid peroxidation
(malondialdehyde level) in HELA and PC-3 cells.
Conclusion: Seed extract of M. peregrina displayed a significant antitumor effect through apoptosis induction in HELA and PC-3 cells.