Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2019, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (6): 387-391.doi: 10.1016/j.joim.2019.05.006

• Review •     Next Articles

Understanding hypothyroidism in Unani medicine

Md. Anzar Alama, Mohd Aleemuddin Quamria, Ghulamuddin Sofib, Barkati Md.Tariquea   

  1. a. Department of Moalajat, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore 560091, India
    b. Department of Ilmul Advia, National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore 560091, India
  • Received:2018-11-23 Accepted:2019-04-28 Online:2019-11-10 Published:2019-11-10

Hypothyroidism (Qillat-e-Ifraz-e-Darqiyya) is a condition where the thyroid gland is underactive and unable to produce enough thyroid hormone. The description of hypothyroidism as a disease is not directly found in Unani texts. However, the signs and symptom of hypothyroidism resemble the clinical manifestation associated with Su-e-Mizaj Barid Maddi (derangement in cold temperament), such as plethora (Imtila), excessive salivation (Kasrat-e-Luabe-e-Dahan), tiredness (Aa’yan), loss of appetite (Zoaf-e-Ishteha), excessive sleeping (Kasrat-e-Naum) and cold skin (Baroodat-e-Jildia). These signs and symptoms are the result of an excess in abnormal phlegm (Ghair Tabayi Balgham) in the body. This review article identifies the observations from Unani literature that describe derangement in cold temperament and relate them to the clinical presentation of primary hypothyroidism in conventional medicine. We also discuss management of these symptoms in Unani medicine.

Key words: Hypothyroidism, Qillat-e-Ifraz-e-Darqiyya, Unani medicine, Alternative medicine, Complementary medicine

[1] Ameena Yasmeen, Ghulamuddin Sofi, Kaleemullah Khan. Aamar-e-Advia (shelf-lives) of drugs in Unani system of medicine: A conceptual review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(2): 114-124.
[2] Louisa Sylvia, Emerson West, Allyson M. Blackburn, Carina Gupta, Eric Bui, Tara Mahoney, Geraldine Duncan, Edward C. Wright, Simon Lejeune, Thomas J. Spencer. Acceptability of an adjunct equine-assisted activities and therapies program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder and/or traumatic brain injury. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(2): 169-173.
[3] Naghmeh Yazdi, Alireza Salehi, Mina Vojoud, Mohammad Hossein Sharifi, Ayda Hoseinkhani. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women: a cross-sectional survey in the south of Iran. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(6): 392-395.
[4] François Xavier Kemka Nguimatio, Patrick Brice Deeh Defo, Modeste Wankeu-Nya, Esther Ngadjui, Albert Kamanyi, Pierre Kamtchouing, Pierre Watcho. Aframomum melegueta prevents the ejaculatory complications of propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroidism in sexually experienced male rats: Evidence from intravaginal and fictive ejaculations. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(5): 359-365.
[5] Mohammad Hossein Ayati, Ata Pourabbasi, Nazli Namazi, Arman Zargaran, Zahra Kheiry, Amir Hooman Kazemi, Bagher Larijani. The necessity for integrating traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine into medical education curricula in Iran. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(4): 296-301.
[6] Mikhail Teppone. Medicine has always been “Modern” and “Scientific” from ancient times to the present day. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(4): 229-237.
[7] Sana Zaki, Nasreen Jahan, Mohd Kalim, Ghausia Islam. In vitro antilithiatic activity of the hydro-alcoholic extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume bark on calcium oxalate crystallization. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(4): 273-281.
[8] Tamer Aboushanab, Mohamed Khalil, YaserAl Ahmari. The present state of complementary medicine regulation in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(3): 147-149.
[9] Rachael Farrington, Ian F.Musgrave, Roger W.Byard. Evidence for the efficacy and safety of herbal weight loss preparations. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(2): 87-92.
[10] Asmae Assaidi, Ikram Dib, Monique Tits, Luc Angenot, Said Bellahcen, Nourelhouda Bouanani, Abdelkhaleq Legssyer, Mohammed Aziz, Hassane Mekhfi, Mohammed Bnouham, Michel Frederich, Abderrahim Ziyyat. Chenopodium ambrosioides induces an endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat isolated aorta. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(2): 115-124.
[11] Yoshiharu Motoo, Keiko Yukawa, Kazuho Hisamura, Kiichiro Tsutani, Ichiro Arai . Internet survey on the provision of complementary and alternative medicine in Japanese private clinics: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(1): 8-13.
[12] Pei Qin, Bruce D. Dick, Ada Leung, Cary A. Brown . Effectiveness of hand self-shiatsu to improve sleep following sport-related concussion in young athletes: a proof-of-concept study. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(1): 24-29.
[13] Fung-Kei Cheng. An overview of the contribution of acupuncture to thyroid disorders. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(6): 375-383.
[14] Mehranghiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Mohammad Asghari-Jafarabadi, Khatereh Rezazadeh. TCF7L2-rs7903146 polymorphism modulates the effect of artichoke leaf extract supplementation on insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(5): 329-334.
[15] Fabiana de Almeida Andrade, Caio Fabio Schlechta Portella. Research methods in complementary and alternative medicine: An integrative review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(1): 6-13.
Full text



[1] Jin-zhou Tian, Jing Shi, Xin-qing Zhang, Qi Bi, Xin Ma, Zhi-liang Wang, Xiao-bin Li, Shu-li Shen, Lin Li, Zhen-yun Wu, Li-yan Fang, Xiao-dong Zhao, Ying-chun Miao, Peng-wen Wang, Ying Ren, Jun-xiang Yin, Yong-yan Wang, Beijing United Study Group on MCI of the Capital Foundation of Medical Developments. An explanation on "guiding principles of clinical research on mild cognitive impairment (protocol)". Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 15-21
[2] Jun Cai, Hua Wang, Sheng Zhou, Bin Wu, Hua-rong Song, Zheng-rong Xuan. Effect of Sijunzi Decoction and enteral nutrition on T-cell subsets and nutritional status in patients with gastric cancer after operation: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 37-40
[3] Zhang-ling Zhou, Yue-bo Jiang, Gao-bo Li, Yu-hong Gao. Analysis of facial far-infrared thermogram of patients with acute facial neuritis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2011, 9(11): 1221-1225
[4] Kai Qu, Tian-fang Wang, Yan Zhao, Xiao-lin Xue, Xiu-yan Wu, Hua-liang Deng, Lu Yang, Li-liYu , Hong Yue, Qing-guo Wang. Common syndrome factors of traditional Chinese medicine in chronic renal failure based on the questionnaire investigation among experts. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(12): 1147-1152
[5] Fu-rong Du , Bin Zhang. Study on English translation for rhetoric devices in Neijing; intertextuality and synecdoche. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(12): 1207-1210
[6] Hui Li, Xiao-qing Liu, Bing Zhang, Li Ni, Zhi-jian Ling. Effects of active component in Cichorii on lipid metabolism of rat with hypertriglyceridemia complicated by hyperuricemia and hyperglycemia. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(2): 157-162
[7] Qing-hui Zhou, Chang-quan Ling, Yu-jin Bai, Hui-xia Yin. Journal selection and indexing for Index Medicus and Chinese periodicals indexed in Index Medicus. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2005, 3(1): 70-77
[8] Hua-fa Que, Han-jun Tang, Lin-yang Wang, Hong-yu Dai, Shi-yun Zhang, Hai-guang Qin, Xiao-dong Liu, Huan-yu Xiang, Zhen Zhang. Study on wound healing mechanism of replenishing qi and dissipating stagnation therapy for chronic skin ulcers. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2005, 3(3): 243-246
[9] Wen-hui Ma, Xiao-hong Sun. Discussion of time and space differentiation of three-yin and three-yang in Shanghan Lun. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2005, 3(4): 257-259
[10] Xiao-dong Guan, Yu-fang Wu, Wen Zhao. Clinical observation on treatment of IgA nephropathy with Huobahuagen Tablets and irbesartan. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2005, 3(5): 366-369