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Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2015, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (1): 34-44.doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(15)60156-X

• Research Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Evaluation of chemopreventive potentials of ethanolic extract of Ruta graveolens against A375 skin melanoma cells in vitro and induced skin cancer in mice in vivo

Samrat Ghosh, Sourav Sikdar, vinaba Mukherjee, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh   

  1. Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741235, West Bengal, India
  • Received:2014-07-26 Accepted:2014-11-21 Online:2015-01-10 Published:2018-09-25

Objective
Chemopreventive approach with natural products, particularly plants and plant-derived ones, is receiving increasing attention for their effective role against cancer without any palpable side effects. In this study, efficacy of ethanolic extract of Ruta graveolens (RG) on skin melanoma cells (A375) in vitro and on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin cancer in vivo has been tested in Swiss albino mice.
Methods
Studies on cell viability, apoptosis and autophagy induction were conducted in vitro. To check apoptosis, assays like alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential, annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay and immunoblot were performed. Fluorescence microscopic and immunoblot assays were performed to confirm autophagy induction. The effects of RG were determined by evaluating body weight, tumor incidence, tumor volume and tumor burden in mice. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status was assessed. The role of some relevant signaling proteins was also analyzed.
Results
RG caused death of A375 cells through induction of caspase 3-mediated apoptosis and Beclin-1-associated autophagy. Moreover, RG administration (75 mg/kg body weight) which showed no acute or chronic toxicity, showed significant reduction in the skin tumor burden of DMBA-painted mice. RG also demonstrated potent anti-lipid peroxidative and antioxidant functions during the course of skin cancer induction by DMBA.
Conclusion
Chemopreventive potential of RG was demonstrated from overall results of this study, indicating its possible use in therapeutic formulation of an effective drug to treat skin cancer.

Key words: Ruta graveolens, Plant extracts, Chemoprevention, Skin neoplasms, Apoptosis, Autophagy

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