Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2020, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (4): 326-333.doi: 10.1016/j.joim.2020.04.002

• Original Experimental Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

In vitro cytotoxic and toxicological activities of ethanolic extract of Kaempferia galanga Linn. and its active component, ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate, against cholangiocarcinoma

Porwornwisit Tritripmongkola, Tullayakorn Plengsuriyakarna,b, Mayuri Tarasuka,b, Kesara Na-Bangchanga,b,c   

  1. a. Graduate Program in Bioclinical Sciences, Chulabhorn International College of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
    b. Center of Excellence in Molecular Biology and Pharmacology of Malaria and Cholangiocarcinoma, Chulabhorn International College of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
    c. Drug Discovery and Development Center, Office of Advanced Science and Technology, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
  • Received:2019-11-08 Accepted:2019-08-05 Online:2020-07-10 Published:2020-04-22
  • Supported by:
    This study is funded by Center of Excellence in Pharmacology and Molecular Biology of Malaria and Cholangiocarcinoma of Thammasat University, and Thammasat University Research fund under the TU Research Scholar (Contract No.03/2561).

Objective
To evaluate the cytotoxic, apoptotic, mutagenic and immunomodulatory activities of Kaempferia galanga Linn. (KG) extract and ethyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) in vitro.

Methods
The present study investigated the cytotoxic [using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide test], apoptotic (using a mitochondrial membrane potential assay), mutagenic (using a micronucleus test) and immunomodulatory (using flow cytometry) activities of the ethanolic extract of KG and its bioactive component, EPMC, against two cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell lines, CL-6 and HuCCT1, and one normal human cell line, OUMS-36T-1F.

Results
Both KG extract and EPMC exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against both CCA cells. The cytotoxic activity was supported by their concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis. CL-6 was most sensitive (3–4 fold) and selective to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), compared with KG extract and EPMC [median half inhibiting concentration (IC50) and selectivity index (SI) were 23.01 μg/mL and 17.32; 78.41 μg/mL and 4.44; 100.76 μg/mL and 2.20, respectively for 5-FU vs. KG extract vs. EPMC]. HuCCT1 was relatively more sensitive and selective to 5-FU and EPMC than KG extract [median IC50 and SI were 66.03 μg/mL and 6.04; 60.90 μg/mL and 3.65; 156.60 μg/mL and 2.23, respectively for 5-FU vs. EPMC vs. KG extract]. EPMC produced relatively potent cytotoxic activity against polymorphonuclear cells (IC50 = 92.20 μg/mL). KG extract and EPMC exhibited concentration-dependent mutagenic activity, as well as inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6.

Conclusion
Considering cytotoxic, apoptotic, immunomodulatory and mutagenic activities, further development of KG as a drug candidate is likely to focus on the oral pharmaceutical formulation of a standardized KG extract rather than isolated compounds.

Key words: Kaempferia galanga Linn, Cytotoxicity, Cholangiocarcinoma, Mutagenicity, Apoptosis, Immunomodulatory activity

[1] Varuni Colamba Pathiranage, Ira Thabrew, Sameera R. Samarakoon, Kamani H. Tennekoon, Umapriyatharshini Rajagopalan, Meran K. Ediriweera. Evaluation of anticancer effects of a pharmaceutically viable extract of a traditional polyherbal mixture against non-small-cell lung cancer cells. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(3): 242-252.
[2] Maged Mohamed Maher Abou-Hashem, Dina Mohamed Abo-elmatty, Noha Mostafa Mesbah, Ahmed Mohamed Abd EL-Mawgoud. Induction of sub-G0 arrest and apoptosis by seed extract of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori in cervical and prostate cancer cell lines. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(6): 410-422.
[3] Supakanya Kumkarnjana, Rutt Suttisri, Ubonthip Nimmannit, Apirada Sucontphunt, Mattaka Khongkow, Thongchai Koobkokkruad, Nontima Vardhanabhuti. Flavonoids kaempferide and 4,2′-dihydroxy-4′,5′,6′-trimethoxychalcone inhibit mitotic clonal expansion and induce apoptosis during the early phase of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(4): 288-295.
[4] Shriniwas S. Basaiyye, Sanjay Kashyap, Kannan Krishnamurthi, Saravanadevi Sivanesan. Induction of apoptosis in leukemic cells by the alkaloid extract of garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.). Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(3): 221-228.
[5] Carlos R. Oliveira, Daniel G. Spindola, Daniel M. Garcia, Adolfo Erustes, Alexandre Bechara, Caroline Palmeira-dos-Santos, Soraya S. Smaili, Gustavo J.S. Pereira, André Hinsberger, Ezequiel P. Viriato, Maria Cristina Marcucci, Alexandra C.H.F. Sawaya, Samantha L. Tomaz, Elaine G. Rodrigues, Claudia Bincoletto. Medicinal properties of Angelica archangelica root extract: Cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells and its protective effects against in vivo tumor development. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(2): 132-140.
[6] Bruno José Martins Da Silva, Sandro Wilson Gomes Pereira, Ana Paula Drummond Rodrigues, José Luiz Martins Do Nascimento, Edilene Oliveira Silva. In vitro antileishmanial effects of Physalis angulata root extract on Leishmania infantum. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(6): 404-410.
[7] Eric Wei Chiang Chan, Siu Kuin Wong, Hung Tuck Chan . Casticin from Vitex species: A short review on its anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(3): 147-152.
[8] Jesmin Mondal, Asmita Samadder, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh. Psorinum 6× triggers apoptosis signals in human lung cancer cells. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(2): 143-153.
[9] Qing-qing Zang, Lu Zhang, Ning Gao, Cheng Huang. Ophiopogonin D inhibits cell proliferation, causes cell cycle arrest at G2/M, and induces apoptosis in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(1): 51-59.
[10] Santu Kumar Saha, Sourav Roy, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh. Ultra-highly diluted plant extracts of Hydrastis canadensis and Marsdenia condurango induce epigenetic modifications and alter gene expression profiles in HeLa cells in vitro. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(6): 400-411.
[11] Samrat Ghosh, Sourav Sikdar, Avinaba Mukherjee, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh. Evaluation of chemopreventive potentials of ethanolic extract of Ruta graveolens against A375 skin melanoma cells in vitro and induced skin cancer in mice in vivo. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(1): 34-44.
[12] Samrat Ghosh, Kausik Bishayee, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh​. Oleanolic acid isolated from ethanolic extract of Phytolacca decandra induces apoptosis in A375 skin melanoma cells: Drug-DNA interaction and signaling cascade. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(2): 102-114.
[13] Paul Avijit, Das Sreemanti, Das Jayeeta, Samadder Asmita, Bishayee Kausik, Sadhukhan Ratan, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh. Diarylheptanoid-myricanone isolated from ethanolic extract of Myrica cerifera shows anticancer effects on HeLa and PC3 cell lines: Signalling pathway and drug-DNA interaction. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(6): 405-415.
[14] Farha A. Kabeer, Geetha B. Sreedevi, Mangalam S. Nair, Dhanya S. Rajalekshmi, Latha P. Gopalakrishnan, Sujathan Kunjuraman, Remani Prathapan. Antineoplastic effects of deoxyelephantopin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Elephantopus scaber, on lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(4): 269-277.
[15] Samrat Ghosh, Kausik Bishayee, Avijit Paul, Avinaba Mukherjee, Sourav Sikdar, Debrup Chakraborty, Naoual Boujedaini, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh. Homeopathic mother tincture of Phytolacca decandra induces apoptosis in skin melanoma cells by activating caspase-mediated signaling via reactive oxygen species elevation. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(2): 116-124.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Zhao-guo Li. Discussion on English translation of commonly used sentences in traditional Chinese medicine: part one. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 107-110
[2] Yi-ting He, Qing-lin Zha, Jian-ping Yu, Yong Tan, Cheng Lu, Ai-ping Lv. Principal factor analysis of symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and their correlations with efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 32-36
[3] Dong Yang, Yong-ping Du, Qing Shen, Wei Chen, Yan Yu, Guang-lei Chen. Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in renal tubulointerstitium in patients with kidney collateral stasis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 41-44
[4] Xi Lin, Jian-ping Liu. Tai chi for treating rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 82
[5] Guo-hong Yuan, Xiao-jing Pang, He-chao Ma. Synergic effects of Danggui Buxue Decoction in reducing toxicity of cytoxan in tumor-bearing mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 83-88
[6] Ning-qun Wang, Liang-duo Jiang, Zong-xing Li. Research progress in asthma-related quality of life. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 93-97
[7] Daniel Weber, Janelle M Wheat, Geoffrey M Currie. Inflammation and cancer: Tumor initiation, progression and metastasis,and Chinese botanical medicines. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1006-1013
[8] Yan-bo Zhu , Qi Wang, Cheng-yu Wu, Guo-ming Pang, Jian-xiong Zhao, Shi-lin Shen, Zhong-yuan Xia , Xue Yan . Logistic regression analysis on relationships between traditional Chinese medicine constitutional types and overweight or obesity. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1023-1035
[9] Hong Liu , Guo-liang Zhang, Li Shen , Zhen Zeng, Bao-luo Zhou, Cheng-hai Liu, Guang Nie . Application and evaluation of a pseudotyped virus assay for screening herbs for anti-H5Nl avian influenza virus. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1036-1040
[10] Ya-hui Liang , Ping Li, Jing-xia Zhao, Xin Liu, Qi-fu Huang. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid and arsenic trioxide regulate the productions and activities of matrix metalloproteinases in human skin fibroblasts and human leukemia cell line THP-1. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1060-1069