Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2018, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (3): 153-163.doi: 10.1016/j.joim.2018.04.007

• Review • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Phytochemical profile and pharmacological activity of Aegle marmelos Linn.

Bikash Manandhar a, 1, Keshav Raj Paudel a, 1, Biraj Sharma b, Rajendra Karki a   

  1. a Department of Oriental Medicine Resources, Mokpo National University, Muan-gun, Jeonnam 534-729, South Korea
    b School of Medicine and Public Health, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle 2305, New South Wales, Australia
  • Received:2017-09-26 Accepted:2018-02-25 Online:2018-05-10 Published:2018-04-21
  • Contact: Rajendra Karki; E-mail:

Aegle marmelos Linn. (Rutaceae), commonly known as “bael” in Nepal and India, is a valuable medicinal plant and is considered sacred by the Hindus. It is used to cure several diseases in the Indian traditional medicine system of Ayurveda and has had similar uses among many ethnic communities residing in Indian subcontinent for over 5000?years. Its leaves, bark, stem, fruits and seeds have been used for various medicinal purposes. Bael fruits are especially effective in the treatment of chronic diarrhea, dysentery and peptic ulcers, while they are also useful as a laxative and cure for respiratory infections. Scientific studies have validated many of the ethnomedicinal uses of A. marmelos, which include antibacterial, antiviral, antidiarrheal, gastroprotective, anti-ulcerative colitis, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, cardioprotective and radioprotective effects. Recently, this plant has also received attention as an anticancer agent for the treatment of various types of cancers. Thus, this review focuses on scientific evidence verifying the important pharmacological activity such as antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective and anticancer activity of A. marmelos.

Key words: Aegle marmelos, Ayurveda, Ethnobotany, Pharmacological activity

[1] Yoshimi Yamakami, Kyoko Morino, Yuki Takauji, Ryuichiro Kasukabe, Kensuke Miki, Mohammad Nazir Hossain, Dai Ayusawa, Michihiko Fujii. Extract of Emblica officinalis enhances the growth of human keratinocytes in culture. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(2): 141-146.
[2] Alexandra R. Vaughn, Aunna Pourang, Ashley K. Clark, Waqas Burney, Raja K. Sivamani . Dietary supplementation with turmeric polyherbal formulation decreases facial redness: a randomized double-blind controlled pilot study. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(1): 20-23.
[3] Shubha Singhal, Vandana Roy. Awareness, practice and views about integrating AYUSH in allopathic curriculum of allopathic doctors and interns in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(2): 113-119.
[4] Anternite Shanthi Jesuthasan, Deepthi Inoka Uluwaduge. Ethnobotanics used in folk medicine of Tamil culture in Sri Lanka: A scientific review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(1): 19-26.
[5] Swapnil P. Borse, Bhagyashree B. Kamble. Effects of Ayurvedic Rasayana botanicals on CYP3A4 isoenzyme system. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(3): 165-172.
[6] Amrita Mishra, Arun K. Mishra, Om Prakash Tiwari, Shivesh Jha. In-house preparation and characterization of an Ayurvedic bhasma: Praval bhasma. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(1): 52-58.
Full text



[1] Dong Yang, Yong-ping Du, Qing Shen, Wei Chen, Yan Yu, Guang-lei Chen. Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in renal tubulointerstitium in patients with kidney collateral stasis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 41-44
[2] Hai-feng Wei, Bai-liu Ya, Ling Zhao, Cui-fei Ye, Li Zhang, Lin Li. Evaluation of tongue manifestation of blood stasis syndrome and its relationship with blood rheological disorder in a rat model of transient brain ischemia. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 73-76
[3] Xi Lin, Jian-ping Liu. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 76
[4] Xi Lin, Jian-ping Liu. Tai chi for treating rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 82
[5] Liang-ping Hu, Hui Gao. Discrimination of errors in statistical analysis of medical papers published in the first issue of 2006 in Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 98-106
[6] Yan-bo Zhu , Qi Wang, Cheng-yu Wu, Guo-ming Pang, Jian-xiong Zhao, Shi-lin Shen, Zhong-yuan Xia , Xue Yan . Logistic regression analysis on relationships between traditional Chinese medicine constitutional types and overweight or obesity. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1023-1035
[7] Wei Xu, Meng Shi, Jian-gang Liu, Cheng-long Wang . Collagen protein expressions in ischemic myocardium of rats with acute myocardial infarction and effects of qi-tonifying, yin-tonifying and blood-activating herbs and detoxifying and blood-activating herbs. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1041-1047
[8] Tao Wang , Feng Qin. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Xiaoyao Powder on monoamine neurotransmitters in hippocampus of rats with postpartum depression. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1075-1079
[9] Ying Xu , Chang-chun Zeng , Xiu-yu Cai , Rong-ping Guo , Guang Nie , Ying Jin. Chromaticity and optical spectrum colorimetry of the tongue color in different syndromes of primary hepatic carcinoma. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1263-1271
[10] Xiang-ying Mao , Qin Bian , Zi-yin Shen. Analysis of the osteogenetic effects exerted on mesenchymal stem cell strain C3H10T1/2 by icariin via MAPK signaling pathway in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1272-1278