Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2021, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (3): 219-225.doi: 10.1016/j.joim.2021.01.013

Special Issue: COVID-19

• Original Chinical Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on intention to use traditional Chinese medicine: A cross-sectional study based on the theory of planned behavior

Yi Xiaa,b, Lu-shao-bo Shib, Jing-hui Changb, Hua-zhang Miaob, Dong Wangb   

  1. School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, Guangdong Province, China
    School of Health Management, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, Guangdong Province, China
  • Received:2020-07-18 Accepted:2020-12-11 Online:2021-05-12 Published:2021-01-22

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become an increasingly severe public health emergency. Although traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has helped to combat COVID-19, public perception of TCM remains controversial. We used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to identify factors that affect the intention to use TCM.

A cross-sectional web-based survey of 10,824 individuals from the general public was conducted between March 16 and April 2, 2020. The participants were recruited using a snowball sampling method. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, based on the TPB. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics and TPB structures. Structural equation modeling was used to identify predictors of intention.

The results indicated the model explained 77.5% and 71.9% of intention and attitude variance. Intention to use TCM had the strongest relationship with attitude (P < 0.001), followed by past behavior (P < 0.001), subjective norms (P < 0.001) and perceived behavioral control (P < 0.001). Attitudes toward TCM were significantly affected by perceived behavioral control (P < 0.001), subjective norms (P < 0.001) and cognition of TCM (P < 0.001).

Attitude is a key factor in determining the intention to use TCM, followed by past behaviors, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. Our results offer important implications for health policy makers to promote the use of TCM.

Key words: Coronavirus disease 2019, Theory of planned behavior, Traditional Chinese medicine, Intention

[1] Wan-jun Guo, Yi Wang, Yu Deng, Lin-yan Cheng, Xin Liu, Ruo-fan Xi, Sheng-jie Zhu, Xin-yi Feng, Liang Hua, Kan Ze, Jian-yong Zhu, Dong-jie Guo, Fu-lun Li. Therapeutic effects of the extract of Sancao Formula, a Chinese herbal compound, on imiquimod-induced psoriasis via cysteine-rich protein 61. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(4): 376-384.
[2] Shang-jin Song, Xuan Liu, Qing Ji, Da-zhi Sun, Li-juan Xiu, Jing-yu Xu, Xiao-qiang Yue. Ziyin Huatan Recipe, a Chinese herbal compound, inhibits migration and invasion of gastric cancer by upregulating RUNX3 expression. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(4): 355-364.
[3] Marisa Casal. Improving the health and treatment success rates of in vitro fertilization patients with traditional chinese medicine: need for more robust evidence and innovative approaches. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(3): 187-192.
[4] Ning Guo, Fei Wu, Mei Wu, Yuan Wang, Qing Lang, Xiao Lin, Yi Feng. Progress in the design and quality control of placeboes for clinical trials of traditional Chinese medicine . Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(3): 204-212.
[5] Witoo Dilokthornsakul, Ramanya Kosiyaporn, Rattanamanee Wuttipongwaragon, Piyameth Dilokthornsakul. Potential effects of propolis and honey in COVID-19 prevention and treatment: A systematic review of in silico and clinical studies. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(2): 114-125.
[6] Yan-jun Lin, Kun-li Jiao, Bo Liu, Lu Fang, Shu Meng. Antiplatelet and myocardial protective effect of shexiang tongxin dropping pill in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(2): 126-134.
[7] Deng-chao Wang, Miao Yu, Wen-xian Xie, Li-yan Huang, Jian Wei, Yue-hua Lei. Meta-analysis on the effect of combining Lianhua Qingwen with Western medicine to treat coronavirus disease 2019. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(1): 26-33.
[8] Jing Hong, Xiao-wan Xu, Jing Yang, Jing Zheng, Shu-mei Dai, Ju Zhou, Qing-mei Zhang, Yi Ruan, Chang-quan Ling. Knowledge about, attitude and acceptance towards, and predictors of intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine among cancer patients in Eastern China: A cross-sectional survey. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(1): 34-44.
[9] Jia-jia Li, Qing Liang, Guang-chun Sun. Traditional Chinese medicine for prevention and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: A focus on epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(6): 469-477.
[10] Rui-jin Qiu, Min Li, Jia-yuan Hu, Jing Chen, Hong-cai Shang. Methods for development of a core outcome set for clinical trials integrating traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(5): 389-394.
[11] Mao-xing Pan, Chui-yang Zheng, Yuan-jun Deng, Kai-rui Tang, Huan Nie, Ji-qian Xie, Dong-dong Liu, Gui-fang Tu, Qin-he Yang, Yu-pei Zhang. Hepatic protective effects of Shenling Baizhu powder, a herbal compound, against inflammatory damage via TLR4/NLRP3 signalling pathway in rats with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease . Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(5): 428-438.
[12] Ning Zhang, Xiao-he Xiao. Integrative medicine in the era of cancer immunotherapy: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(4): 291-294.
[13] Thomas Efferth, An-long Xu, Roxana Damiescu, Mita Banerjee, Norbert W. Paul, David Y.W. Lee. Can eastern wisdom resolve western epidemics? Traditional chinese medicine therapies and the opioid crisis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(4): 295-299.
[14] Si-qi Tang, Yun-liang Wang, Zi-ye Xie, Yang Zhang, Yi Guo, Kang-li Gao, Tang-you Mao, Chun-e Xie, Jun-xiang Li, Xiao-yan Gao. Serum metabolic profiling of traditional Chinese medicine syndromes in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(3): 274-281.
[15] Miao-yan Shi, Shi-qi Sun, Wei Zhang, Xing Zhang, Gui-hua Xu, Xuan Chen, Zi-jian Su, Xiu-ming Song, Lu-jiong Liu, Yi-bao Zhang, Yi-le Zhang, Meng Sun, Qi Chen, Yan Xue, Hua Lü, Wei-an Yuan, Xiao-rong Chen, Yun-fei Lu. Early therapeutic interventions of traditional Chinese medicine in COVID-19 patients: a retrospective cohort study. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(3): 226-231.
Full text



[1] Dong Yang, Yong-ping Du, Qing Shen, Wei Chen, Yan Yu, Guang-lei Chen. Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in renal tubulointerstitium in patients with kidney collateral stasis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 41-44
[2] Hai-feng Wei, Bai-liu Ya, Ling Zhao, Cui-fei Ye, Li Zhang, Lin Li. Evaluation of tongue manifestation of blood stasis syndrome and its relationship with blood rheological disorder in a rat model of transient brain ischemia. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 73-76
[3] Xi Lin, Jian-ping Liu. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 76
[4] Xi Lin, Jian-ping Liu. Tai chi for treating rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 82
[5] Liang-ping Hu, Hui Gao. Discrimination of errors in statistical analysis of medical papers published in the first issue of 2006 in Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 98-106
[6] Yan-bo Zhu , Qi Wang, Cheng-yu Wu, Guo-ming Pang, Jian-xiong Zhao, Shi-lin Shen, Zhong-yuan Xia , Xue Yan . Logistic regression analysis on relationships between traditional Chinese medicine constitutional types and overweight or obesity. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1023-1035
[7] Wei Xu, Meng Shi, Jian-gang Liu, Cheng-long Wang . Collagen protein expressions in ischemic myocardium of rats with acute myocardial infarction and effects of qi-tonifying, yin-tonifying and blood-activating herbs and detoxifying and blood-activating herbs. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1041-1047
[8] Tao Wang , Feng Qin. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Xiaoyao Powder on monoamine neurotransmitters in hippocampus of rats with postpartum depression. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1075-1079
[9] Ying Xu , Chang-chun Zeng , Xiu-yu Cai , Rong-ping Guo , Guang Nie , Ying Jin. Chromaticity and optical spectrum colorimetry of the tongue color in different syndromes of primary hepatic carcinoma. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1263-1271
[10] Xiang-ying Mao , Qin Bian , Zi-yin Shen. Analysis of the osteogenetic effects exerted on mesenchymal stem cell strain C3H10T1/2 by icariin via MAPK signaling pathway in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1272-1278