Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2010, Vol. 8 ›› Issue (5): 401-405.doi: 10.3736/jcim20100501

Special Issue: Traditional Chinese Medicine

• Commentary •     Next Articles

Eight-step method in clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine

 Ling Xu,Li-jing Jiao, Chun-jie Li   

  1. Department of Oncology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200032, China
  • Received:2009-11-25 Accepted:2010-03-30 Online:2010-05-20 Published:2010-05-15
  • Contact: Ling Xu

With the progress and development of science and technology, biomedical technology has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research. However, TCM and Western medicine developed and came into being at different times and from different cultural backgrounds. Their targets are to study and explore the objective laws of human life activities from different angles and by different means. To study and evaluate TCM simply by the diagnosis and treatment standards of Western medicine cannot truly reflect the characteristics of TCM. Lots of clinical phenomena in the diagnosis and treatment in TCM cannot be revealed scientifically. It might be a significant pattern to combine the study of TCM with Western medicine, based on double-screening model of combining disease with syndrome types, following up evidence-based medical research steps, and making use of systematic review and data mining to analyze the inherent laws of TCM symptoms.

Key words: Traditional Chinese medicine, Syndrome, Clinical practice pattern, Evidence-based medicine

Figure 1

Mode chart for eight-step method in clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine"

[1] Chen KJ, Song J . Clinical study by way of combining diseases with syndrome differentiation, an important mode in study on combination of traditional Chinese and Western medicine[J]. Ji Xu Yi Xue Jiao Yu, 2007,21(19):12-15
陈可冀, 宋军 . 病证结合的临床研究是中西医结合研究的重要模式[J]. 继续医学教育, 2007,21(19):12-15
[2] Julliard KN, Citkovitz C , McDaniel D . Towards a model for planning clinical research in oriental medicine[J]. Explore (NY), 2007,3(2):118-128
doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2006.12.002
[3] Wang XS, Wang Y, Guo H, Mendoza TR, Hao XS, Cleeland CS . Chinese version of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory: validation and application of symptom measurement in cancer patients[J]. Cancer, 2004,101(8):1890-1901
doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1097-0142
[4] Wang XS, Hao XS, Wang Y, Guo H, Jiang YQ, Mendoza TR, Cleeland CS . Validation study of the Chinese version of the Brief Fatigue Inventory(BFI-C)[J]. J Pain Symptom Manage, 2004,27(4):322-332
doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2003.09.008
[5] Liu FB, Lang JY, Zhao L, Fang JQ, Leung KF, Lin LZ . Development of health status scale of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM-HSS)[J]. Zhongshan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ke Xue Ban, 2008,29(3):332-336
刘凤斌, 郎建英, 赵利, 方积乾, 梁国辉, 林丽珠 . 中医健康状况量表的研制[J]. 中山大学学报医学科学版, 2008,29(3):332-336
[6] Liu FB, Zhao L, Lang JY, Lin LZ, Leung KF, Fang JQ . Development of the Chinese quality of life instrument[J]. Zhongguo Zu Zhi Gong Cheng Yan Jiu Yu Lin Chuang Kang Fu, 2007,11(52):10492-10495, 10515
刘凤斌, 赵利, 郎建英, 林丽珠, 梁国辉, 方积乾 . 中华生存质量量表的研制[J]. 中国组织工程研究与临床康复, 2007,11(52):10492-10495, 10515
[7] Ryu JS, Hong YC, Han HS, Lee JE, Kim S, Park YM, Kim YC, Hwang TS . Association between polymorphisms of ERCC1 and XPD and survival in non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with cisplatin combination chemotherapy[J]. Lung Cancer, 2004,44(3):311-316
doi: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2003.11.019
[8] Chen S, Huo X, Lin Y, Ban H, Lin Y, Li W, Zhang B, Au WW, Xu X . Association of MDR1 and ERCC1 polymorphisms with response and toxicity to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in non-small-cell lung cancer patients[J]. Int J Hyg Environ Health, 2010,213(2):140-145
doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2010.01.004
[9] Beal MW, Nield-Anderson L . Acupuncture for symptom relief in HIV-positive adults: lessons learned from a pilot study[J]. Altern Ther Health Med, 2000,6(5):30-31
[10] Manheimer E, Lim B, Lao L, Berman B . Acupuncture for knee osteoarthritis — a randomised trial using a novel sham[J]. Acupunct Medi, 2006,24(Suppl):S7-S14
doi: 10.1136/aim.24.Suppl.7
[11] Berman BM, Singh BB, Lao L, Langenberg P, Li H, Hadhazy V, Bareta J, Hochberg M . A randomized trial of acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee[J]. Rheumatology (Oxford, 1999,38(4):346-354
doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/38.4.346
[1] Sherman Gu, Arthur Yin Fan. Controversial conclusions from two randomized controlled trials for acupuncture's effects on polycystic ovary syndrome or in vitro fertilization support. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(2): 89-91.
[2] Xue-qing Yu, Shu-guang Yang, Yang Xie, Jian-sheng Li. Traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis based on syndrome differentiation: Study protocol of exploratory trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(2): 163-168.
[3] Chang-quan Ling. Traditional Chinese medicine is a resource for drug discovery against 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(2): 87-88.
[4] Wen Qiang Lee, Jeremy Teoh, Pei Zheng Kenneth Lee, Zhi Xiong Gerard Low, Xueling Sim, Foong Fong Mary Chong, Norbert Ludwig Wagner. Factors influencing communication of traditional Chinese medicine use between patients and doctors: a multisite cross-sectional study. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(6): 396-403.
[5] Rebecca Kulbida, Alexander Mathes, Johannes Loeser. Beneficial effects of hirudotherapy in a chronic case of complex regional pain syndrome. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(5): 383-386.
[6] Mikhail Teppone. Medicine has always been “Modern” and “Scientific” from ancient times to the present day. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(4): 229-237.
[7] Charles Dalcanale Tesser, Ari Ojeda Ocampo Moré, Melissa Costa Santos, Emiliana Domingues Cunha da Silva, Fátima Terezinha Pelachini Farias, Lúcio José Botelho. Auriculotherapy in primary health care: A large-scale educational experience in Brazil. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(4): 302-309.
[8] Rachael Farrington, Ian F.Musgrave, Roger W.Byard. Evidence for the efficacy and safety of herbal weight loss preparations. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(2): 87-92.
[9] Sonia Chew Wen Phang, Uma Devi Palanisamy, Khalid Abdul Kadir. Effects of geraniin (rambutan rind extract) on blood pressure and metabolic parameters in rats fed high-fat diet. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(2): 100-106.
[10] Fung-Kei Cheng. An overview of the contribution of acupuncture to thyroid disorders. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(6): 375-383.
[11] Mehranghiz Ebrahimi-Mameghani, Mohammad Asghari-Jafarabadi, Khatereh Rezazadeh. TCF7L2-rs7903146 polymorphism modulates the effect of artichoke leaf extract supplementation on insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(5): 329-334.
[12] Chang-quan Ling, Jia Fan, Hong-sheng Lin, Feng Shen, Zhen-ye Xu, Li-zhu Lin, Shu-kui Qin, Wei-ping Zhou, Xiao-feng Zhai, Bai Li, Qing-hui Zhou, on behalf of the Chinese Integrative Therapy of Primary Liver Cancer Working Group. Clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of primary liver cancer with integrative traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(4): 236-248.
[13] Chen Fu, Nevin Lianwen Zhang, Bao-xin Chen, Zhou Rong Chen, Xiang Lan Jin, Rong-juan Guo, Zhi-gang Chen, Yun-ling Zhang. Identification and classification of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome types among senior patients with vascular mild cognitive impairment using latent tree analysis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(3): 186-200.
[14] Qian-wen Ma, Yong Tan. Effectiveness of co-treatment with traditional Chinese medicine and letrozole for polycystic ovary syndrome: A meta-analysis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(2): 95-101.
[15] Jin Yu, Chao-qin Yu, Qi Cao, Li Wang, Wen-jun Wang, Li-rong Zhou, Jing Li, Qiao-hong Qian. Consensus on the integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine criteria of diagnostic classification in polycystic ovary syndrome (draft). Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(2): 102-109.
Full text



[1] Zhao-guo Li. Discussion on English translation of commonly used sentences in traditional Chinese medicine: part one. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 107-110
[2] Jun Hu, Jian-ping Liu. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 31
[3] SUN Ming-yu, ZUO Jian, DUAN Ji-feng, HAN Jun, FAN Shi-ming, ZHANG Wei, ZHU Li-fang, YAO Ming-hui. Antitumor activities of kushen flavonoids in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 51-59
[4] Wei Zhang, Xiang-feng Lu, Xiao-mei Zhang, Jian-jun Wu, Liang-duo Jiang. A rat model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by infusing bleomycin quickly through tracheal intubation. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 60-67
[5] Li Zhou, Hong-xing Zhang, Ling-guang Liu, Wen-jun Wan. Effect of electro-acupuncture at Fenglong (GV 16) on nitric oxide and endothelin in rats with hyperlipidemia. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 89-92
[6] Jin-zhou Tian, Jing Shi, Xin-qing Zhang, Qi Bi, Xin Ma, Zhi-liang Wang, Xiao-bin Li, Shu-li Shen, Lin Li, Zhen-yun Wu, Li-yan Fang, Xiao-dong Zhao, Ying-chun Miao, Peng-wen Wang, Ying Ren, Jun-xiang Yin, Yong-yan Wang, Beijing United Study Group on MCI of the Capital Foundation of Medical Developments. Guiding principles of clinical research on mild cognitive impairment (protocol). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 9-14
[7] Daniel Weber, Janelle M Wheat, Geoffrey M Currie. Inflammation and cancer: Tumor initiation, progression and metastasis,and Chinese botanical medicines. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1006-1013
[8] Yan-bo Zhu , Qi Wang, Cheng-yu Wu, Guo-ming Pang, Jian-xiong Zhao, Shi-lin Shen, Zhong-yuan Xia , Xue Yan . Logistic regression analysis on relationships between traditional Chinese medicine constitutional types and overweight or obesity. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1023-1035
[9] Bing Hu , Hong-mei An , Ke-ping Shen , Qin Du. Senescence-inducing effects of Chinese herbal medicine Tenglong Buzhong Decoction on human colon carcinoma LS-174-T cells and the mechanism. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1048-1052
[10] Ya-bing Zhou, Jian-er Yu, Jie Wu, Li Bai, Li-li Huo, Xin-guang Zhang, Li-qing Li . Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Bushen Gubiao Recipe on toll-like receptor 4 and CD4 +CD25 +foxp3 +regulatory T cells in mice with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1053-1059