Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2011, Vol. 9 ›› Issue (6): 596-604.doi: 10.3736/jcim20110604

• Original Clinical Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

An initial report on the efficacy of a millesimal potency Arsenicum Album LM 0/3 in ameliorating arsenic toxicity in humans living in a high-risk arsenic village

Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh1(), Antara Banerjee1,2, Surjyo Jyoti Biswas1, Susanta Roy Karmakar1, Pathikrit Banerjee1, Surajit Pathak1,2, Bibhas Guha1,3, Saiful Haque1, Debarsi Das1, Arnab De1, Durba Das1, Naoual Boujedaini4   

  1. 1. Department of Zoology, Laboratory of Cytogenetics and Molecular Biology, University of Kalyani,Kalyani 741235, India
    2. Department of Surgical and Gastroenterological Science, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
    3. Department of Zoology, Netaji Subhas Open University, Kolkata 700020, India
    4. Boiron Laboratory, 20 rue de la Liberation, Sainte-Les-Foy-Lyon, Lyon, France
  • Received:2010-11-04 Accepted:2011-01-25 Online:2011-06-20 Published:2011-06-15
  • Contact: Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh Anisur E-mail:prof_arkb@yahoo.co.in

Background: Millions of people are at risk of groundwater arsenic contamination, and there is no known remedy that can effectively remove the symptoms of prolonged arsenic poisoning. A potentized homeopathic drug, Arsenicum Album LM 0/3 (Ars Alb LM 0/3), is claimed in homeopathic literature to have the ability to treat symptoms similar to that of arsenic poisoning.
Objective: This study examines whether Ars Alb LM 0/3 could provide some degree of amelioration for the victims living in an arsenic-affected village where no arsenic-free drinking water is available.
Design, setting, participants and interventions: This study was carried out on volunteers living in an arsenic-affected village where no arsenic-free drinking water is available. Twenty-eight volunteers from the village of Dasdiya, in Haringhata block under Nadia District, West Bengal, India, an arsenic-contaminated village where wells contain 55 to 95 μg/L arsenic, were selected to undertake a double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. The subjects provided samples of blood and urine before and after 2 months of taking either "verum" or "placebo". Another 18 subjects living in an arsenic-free village, served as the negative controls.
Main outcome measures: Samples of blood and urine from the subjects were assayed for arsenic content, according to various toxicity biomarkers and pathophysiological parameters.
Results: Out of the original 28 subjects, only 14 subjects provided samples while the other 14 dropped out. There were elevated levels of arsenic in the blood and urine, alkaline and acid phosphatases, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione activities and increased blood glucose, triacylglycerol, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol contents, whereas there were decreased levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, gamma glutamyl transferase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase contents, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and packed cell volume in the subjects. After 2 months of homeopathic remedy administration, the verum-fed subjects showed positive modulations within these parameters with slight lowering of matrix metalloproteinase activity as compared with the placebo group.
Conclusion: Ars Alb LM 0/3 shows potential for use in high-risk arsenic villages as an interim treatment for amelioration of arsenic toxicity until more extensive medical treatment and facilities can be provided to the numerous victims of arsenic poisoning.

Key words: arsenicals, homeopathy, arsenic poisoning, biological markers, matrix metalloproteinases, clinical trial

Figure 1

Flow diagram"

"

"

"

"

"

"

Figure 2

Gelatin zymogram showing matrix metalloproteinase expressions of blood serum samples of human subjects fed with placebo or verum MW: molecular weight marker; BP: before placebo; AP: after 2 months of placebo; BV: before verum; AV: after 2 months of verum."

Figure 3

Quantative analysis of mean expressions of matrix metalloproteinases ▲P<0.05, ▲▲P<0.01, vs BV. BP: before placebo; AP: after 2 months of placebo; BV: before verum; AV: after 2 months of verum."

[1] Chowdhury UK, Rahman MM, Mondal BK, Paul K, Lodh D, Biswas BK, Basu GK, Chanda CR, Saha KC, Mukherjee SC, Roy S, Das R, Kaies I, Barua AK, Palit SK, Quamruzzaman Q, Chakraborti D . Groundwater arsenic contamination and human suffering in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh[J]. Environ Sci, 2001,8(5):393-415
[2] Guha Mazumder DN, Das Gupta J, Santra A, Pal A, Ghose A, Sarkar S, Chattopadhaya N, Chakraborti D. Non-cancer effects of chronic arsenicosis with special reference to liver damage. In: Abernathy CO, Calderon RL, Chappel WR. Arsenic: exposure and health effects[M]. London: Chapman & Hall,1997: 112-123
[3] Khuda-Bukhsh AR, Pathak S, Guha B, Karmakar SR, Das JK, Banerjee P, Biswas SJ, Mukherjee P, Bhattacharjee N, Choudhury SC, Banerjee A, Bhadra S, Mallick P, Chakrabarti J, Mandal B . Can homeopathic arsenic remedy combat arsenic poisoning in humans exposed to groundwater arsenic contamination: a preliminary report on first human trial[J]. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2005,2(4):537-548
doi: 10.1093/ecam/neh124
[4] Belon P, Banerjee P, Choudhury SC, Banerjee A, Biswas SJ, Karmakar SR, Pathak S, Guha B, Chatterjee S, Bhattacharjee N, Das JK, Khuda-Bukhsh AR . Can administration of potentized homeopathic remedy, Arsenicum Album, alter antinuclear antibody(ANA) titer in people living in high-risk arsenic contaminated areas? Ⅰ. A correlation with certain hematological parameters[J]. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2006,3(1):99-107
doi: 10.1093/ecam/nek013
[5] Belon P, Banerjee A, Karmakar SR, Biswas SJ, Choudhury SC, Banerjee P, Das JK, Pathak S, Guha B, Paul S, Bhattacharjee N, Khuda-Bukhsh AR . Homeopathic remedy for arsenic toxicity? Evidence-based findings from a randomized placebo-controlled double blind human trial[J]. Sci Total Environ, 2007,384(1-3):141-150
doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.06.001
[6] Khuda-Bukhsh AR, Roy-Karmakar S, Banerjee A, Banerjee P, Pathak S, Biswas SJ, Haque S, Das D, Boujedaini N, Belon P, .A follow-up study on the efficacy of the homeopathic remedy Arsenicum Album in volunteers living in high risk arsenic contaminated areas[J].Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2009, Aug 24():Epub ahead of print
[7] Banerjee NK, Sinha N. Sinha’s text book of pharmacy — a treatise on homoeopathic pharmacy[M].Calcutta: New Allen Publishers, 1984: 44-50
[8] Pathak S, Kumar Das J, Jyoti Biswas S, Khuda-Bukhsh AR . Protective potentials of a potentized homeopathic drug, Lycopodium-30, in ameliorating azo dye induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice[J]. Mol Cell Biochem, 2006,285(1-2):121-131
doi: 10.1007/s11010-005-9065-7
[9] Pathak S, Khuda-Bukhsh AR . Assessment of hepatocellular damage and hematological alterations in mice chronically fed p-dimethyl aminoazobenzene and phenobarbital[J]. Exp Mol Pathol, 2007,83(1):104-111
doi: 10.1016/j.yexmp.2006.10.003
[10] Pathak S, Bhattacharjee N, Das JK, Choudhury SC, Karmakar SR, Banerjee P, Paul S, Banerjee A, Khuda-Bukhsh AR . Supportive evidences for anticancerous potential of alternative medicine against hepatocarcinogenesis in mice[J]. Forsch Komplementarmed, 2007,14(3):148-156
[11] Kusum, Raina R, Verma PK, Pankaj NK, Kant V, Kumar J, Srivastava AK, .Haematological profile of subacute oral toxicity of molybdenum and ameliorative efficacy of copper salt in goats[J]. Toxicol Int, 2010,17(2):82-85
doi: 10.4103/0971-6580.72676
[12] Bowers LD . Kinetic serum creatinine assays Ⅰ. The role of various factors in determining specificity[J]. Clin Chem, 1980,26(5):551-554
pmid: 7261300
[13] Kwok AK, Yeung CK, Lai TY, Chan KP, Pang CP . Effects of trypan blue on cell viability and gene expression in human retinal pigment epithelial cells[J]. Br J Ophthalmol, 2004,88(12):1590-1594
doi: 10.1136/bjo.2004.044537
[14] Banerjee A, Chakrabarty SB, Karmakar SR, Chakrabarty A, Biswas SJ, Haque S, Das D, Paul S, Mandal B, Naoual B, Belon P, Khuda-Bukhsh AR . Can homeopathy bring additional benefits to thalassemic patients on hydroxyurea therapy? Encouraging results of a preliminary study[J]. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2010,7(1):129-136
doi: 10.1093/ecam/nem161
[15] Banerjee P, Bhattacharyya SS, Pathak S, Naoual B, Belon P, Khuda-Bukhsh AR . Comparative efficacy of two microdoses of a potentized homeopathic drug, arsenicum album, to ameliorate toxicity induced by repeated sublethal injections of arsenic trioxide in mice[J]. Pathobiology, 2008,75(3):156-170
doi: 10.1159/000124976
[16] Ratnaike RN . Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity[J]. Postgrad Med J, 2003,79(933):391-396
doi: 10.1136/pmj.79.933.391 pmid: 12897217
[17] Khuda-Bukhsh AR . Potentized homoeopathic drugs act through regulation of gene-expression: a hypojournal to explain their mechanism and pathways of action in vitro[J]. Complement Ther Med, 1997,5(1):43-46
doi: 10.1016/S0965-2299(97)80090-8
[18] Khuda-Bukhsh AR . Towards understanding molecular mechanisms of action of homeopathic drugs: an overview[J]. Mol Cell Biochem, 2003,253(1-2):339-345
doi: 10.1023/A:1026048907739 pmid: 14619985
[19] Khuda-Bukhsh AR . Laboratory research in homeopathy: pro[J]. Integr Cancer Ther, 2006,5(4):320-332
doi: 10.1177/1534735406294794 pmid: 17101761
[20] Paris A, Gonnet N, Chaussard C, Belon P, Rocourt F, Saragaglia D, Cracowski JL . Effect of homeopathy on analgesic intake following knee ligament reconstruction: a phase Ⅲ monocentre randomized placebo controlled study[J]. Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2008,65(2):180-187
doi: 10.1111/bcp.2008.65.issue-2
[21] Eizayaga FX, Aguejouf O, Desplat V, Belon P, Doutremepuich C . Modifications produced by selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase and ultra low dose aspirin on platelet activity in portal hypertension[J]. World J Gastroenterol, 2007,13(38):5065-5070
doi: 10.3748/wjg.v13.i38.5065
[22] Eizayaga FX, Aguejouf O, Belon P, Doutremepuich C . Platelet aggregation in portal hypertension and its modification by ultra-low doses of aspirin[J]. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb, 2005,34(1):29-34
doi: 10.1159/000088545
[23] Sainte-Laudy J, Belon P . Use of four different flow cytometric protocols for the analysis of human basophil activation. Application to the study of the biological activity of high dilutions of histamine[J]. Inflamm Res, 2006,55(Supply 1):S23-S24
doi: 10.1007/s00011-005-0024-2
[1] Pratya Phetkate, Tanawan Kummalue, Prasob-orn Rinthong, Somboon Kietinun, Kusuma Sriyakul. Study of the safety of oral Triphala aqueous extract on healthy volunteers. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(1): 35-40.
[2] Mikhail Teppone. Medicine has always been “Modern” and “Scientific” from ancient times to the present day. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(4): 229-237.
[3] Arthur Yin Fan, Hui Ouyang, Xinru Qian, Hui Wei, David Dehui Wang, Deguang He, Haihe Tian, Changzhen Gong, Amy Matecki, Sarah Faggert Alemi. Discussions on real-world acupuncture treatments for chronic low-back pain in older adults. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(2): 71-76.
[4] L. Elisabeth Burton, Fares Qeadan, Mark R. Burge. Efficacy of equine-assisted psychotherapy in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(1): 14-19.
[5] Ubiratan Cardinalli Adler, Ana Carolina Acorinte, Fernando Oliveira Calzavara, Adriano Andréda Silva, Amarilys de Toledo Cesar, Maristela Schiabel Adler, Edson Zangiacomi Martinez, José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz. Double-blind evaluation of homeopathy on cocaine craving: A randomized controlled pilot study. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(3): 178-184.
[6] Shubha Singhal, Vandana Roy. Awareness, practice and views about integrating AYUSH in allopathic curriculum of allopathic doctors and interns in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(2): 113-119.
[7] Shahnaz Karkon Varnosfaderani, Fataneh Hashem-Dabaghian, Gholamreza Amin, Mahbubeh Bozorgi, Ghazaleh Heydarirad, Esmaeil Nazem, Mohsen Nasiri Toosi, Seyed Hamdollah Mosavat. Efficacy and safety of Amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.) in non-erosive reflux disease: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(2): 126-131.
[8] Maryam Sharifi-Ardani, Leili Yekefallah, Saeed Asefzadeh, Marjan Nassiri-Asl. Efficacy of topical chamomile on the incidence of phlebitis due to an amiodarone infusion in coronary care patients: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(5): 373-378.
[9] Salvatore Chirumbolo, Geir Bjørklund. Homeopathic potencies of Arnica montana L. change gene expression in a Tamm-Horsfall protein-1 cell line in vitro model: The role of ethanol as a possible confounder and statistical bias. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(4): 255-264.
[10] Saeed Ahmad, Tayyeba Rehman, Waheed Mumtaz Abbasi. Effects of homoeopathic ultrahigh dilutions of Aconitum napellus on Baker's yeast-induced fever in rabbits. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(3): 209-213.
[11] Susana Seca, Sebastian Kirch, António S.Cabrita, Henry J.Greten. Evaluation of the effect of acupuncture on hand pain, functional deficits and health-related quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis—A study protocol for a multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(3): 219-227.
[12] Jesmin Mondal, Asmita Samadder, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh. Psorinum 6× triggers apoptosis signals in human lung cancer cells. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(2): 143-153.
[13] Santu Kumar Saha, Sourav Roy, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh. Ultra-highly diluted plant extracts of Hydrastis canadensis and Marsdenia condurango induce epigenetic modifications and alter gene expression profiles in HeLa cells in vitro. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(6): 400-411.
[14] Arthur Yin Fan. The methodology flaws in Hinman’s acupuncture clinical trial, Part III: Sample size calculation. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(4): 209-211.
[15] Arthur Yin Fan. The methodology flaws in Hinman’s acupuncture clinical trial, Part II: Zelen design and effectiveness dilutions. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(3): 136-139.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Wei-xiong Liang. Problems-solving strategies in clinical treatment guideline for traditional Chinese medicine and integrative medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 1-4
[2] Zhao-guo Li. Discussion on English translation of commonly used sentences in traditional Chinese medicine: part one. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 107-110
[3] Jin-zhou Tian, Jing Shi, Xin-qing Zhang, Qi Bi, Xin Ma, Zhi-liang Wang, Xiao-bin Li, Shu-li Shen, Lin Li, Zhen-yun Wu, Li-yan Fang, Xiao-dong Zhao, Ying-chun Miao, Peng-wen Wang, Ying Ren, Jun-xiang Yin, Yong-yan Wang, Beijing United Study Group on MCI of the Capital Foundation of Medical Developments. An explanation on "guiding principles of clinical research on mild cognitive impairment (protocol)". Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 15-21
[4] Jin-rong Fu. Establishment of multivariate diagnosis and treatment system of modern gynecology of traditional Chinese medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 22-24
[5] Jun Hu, Jian-ping Liu. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 31
[6] Dong Yang, Yong-ping Du, Qing Shen, Wei Chen, Yan Yu, Guang-lei Chen. Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in renal tubulointerstitium in patients with kidney collateral stasis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 41-44
[7] Xue-mei Liu, Qi-fu Huang, Yun-ling Zhang, Jin-li Lou, Hong-sheng Liu, Hong Zheng. Effects of Tribulus terrestris L. saponion on apoptosis of cortical neurons induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation in rats. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 45-50
[8] Zhi-chun Jin. Problems in establishing clinical guideline for integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 5-8
[9] SUN Ming-yu, ZUO Jian, DUAN Ji-feng, HAN Jun, FAN Shi-ming, ZHANG Wei, ZHU Li-fang, YAO Ming-hui. Antitumor activities of kushen flavonoids in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 51-59
[10] Xi Lin, Jian-ping Liu. Tai chi for treating rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 82