The main objectives of this study were to qualitatively evaluate the profile of phytochemical constituents present in methanolic extract of Microcos paniculata bark (BME) and fruit (FME), as well as to evaluate their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities.
Phytochemical constituents of BME and FME were determined by different qualitative tests such as Molisch's test, Fehling's test, alkaloid test, frothing test, FeCl3 test, alkali test, Salkowski's test and Baljet test. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the extracts were evaluated through proteinase-inhibitory assay, xylene-induced ear edema test, cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in mice, formalin test, acetic acid-induced writhing test, tail immersion test and Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in mice.
M. paniculata extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and triterpenoids. All of the extracts showed significant (P < 0.05, vs aspirin group) proteinase-inhibitory activity, whereas the highest effect elicited by plant extracts was exhibited by the BME (75.94% proteinase inhibition activity) with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 61.31 μg/mL. Each extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight showed significant (P < 0.05, vs control) percentage inhibition of ear edema and granuloma formation. These extracts significantly (P < 0.05, vs control) reduced the paw licking and abdominal writhing of mice. In addition, BME 400 mg/kg, and FME at 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant (P < 0.05, vs control) analgesic activities at 60 min in the tail immersion test. Again, the significant (P < 0.05, vs control) post-treatment antipyretic activities were found by BME 200 and 400 mg/kg and FME 400 mg/kg respectively.
Study results indicate that M. paniculata may provide a source of plant compounds with anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities.