To explore the dynamic state of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes in acute ischemic stroke patients within 30 days of onset when treated with acupuncture, and to analyze the discrimination effects of the functions based on "decision trees" in identification of TCM syndromes of ischemic stroke.
A total of 264 cases with acute ischemic stroke regularly treated by acupuncture were included. Unified syndrome questionnaire was made by document retrieval and expert advice. The syndrome elements of the patients with acute ischemic stroke were surveyed on any day of three time periods (days 0-3, 4-10 and 11-30). The study was performed on multitime dynamic state results and correlated factors of basic TCM syndromes of the 264 patients. Bayes discriminant function of four syndromes of acute ischemic stroke on the basis of "decision trees" was used for computing the rate of miscarriage justice by original test and cross-validation, and the discrimination effects of "decision trees" were evaluated too.
Wind, phlegm, fire-heat, qi deficiency, blood stasis, and hyperactivity of yang due to yin deficiency syndromes were found in the patients with acute ischemic stroke treated by acupuncture on the first 30 days of onset, and the incidence rates were 80.7%, 68.9%, 52.7%, 50.8%, 29.2% and 25.0% respectively. The mean scores and incidence rates of the six syndromes decreased gradually on three-time-point, especially of blood stasis syndrome. The main combined-syndromes were two-syndrome, three-syndrome and four-syndrome, and three-syndrome was the most frequently encountered type. Single syndrome was not found in the patients with acute ischemic stroke on the first three days of onset. Two-syndrome combination types were wind-phlegm, wind-heat, wind combined with qi deficiency or phlegm stagnation due to qi deficiency, phlegm-heat and blood stasis combined with hyperactivity of yang due to yin deficiency, and the incidence rates were 54.5%, 42.8%, 40.9%, 39.4%, 35.6% and 3.8% respectively. The mean scores of phlegm and qi deficiency in high-age patients were higher than those in low-age patients. The mean score and incidence rate of qi deficiency in female patients were higher than those in male patients. The mean score of phlegm in female patients was higher than that in male patients. To simplify the "decision trees" composed of 21 items, the group of Bayes discriminant function including eight most significant items out of the original 21 items was set up. The discrimination effect of the eight items including reddish face, constipation, yellow tongue fur, short breath, bright-white or gray complexion, tinnitus, feverish palms and soles and scanty tongue fur was similar to that of the 21 items, and there was no significant difference between the two functions.
Wind syndrome and phlegm syndrome are the major single syndromes occurring in acute ischemic stroke patients within 30 days of onset, and three-syndrome combination is the most frequent multiple syndrome type. After acupuncture treatment, some syndrome elements including wind, phlegm, fire-heat, qi deficiency, blood stasis, and hyperactivity of yang due to yin deficiency are gradually reduced, and combined syndrome type is gradually become simple. Eight syndrome element items including reddish face, constipation, yellow tongue fur, short breath, bright-white or gray complexion, tinnitus, feverish palms and soles and scanty tongue fur have important means in discriminating yin syndrome from yang syndrome and sthenia syndrome from asthenia syndrome.