Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2016, Vol. 14 ›› Issue (5): 336-358.doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(16)60267-4

• Review • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Assessment of traditional knowledge of the antidiabetic plants of Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas in the context of recent phytochemical and pharmacological advances

Rakhi Chakrabortya, Swarnendu Royb, Vivekananda Mandalc   

  1. a Department of Botany, APC Roy Government College, Siliguri-734010, West Bengal, India 
    b Department of Botany, Kurseong College, Kurseong-734203, West Bengal, India
    c Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Gour Banga, Malda-732103, West Bengal, India
  • Received:2016-05-03 Accepted:2016-06-12 Online:2016-09-15 Published:2016-09-15
  • Contact: Vivekananda Mandal, PhD; E-mail:

Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas, a part of Eastern Himalayan Hotspot, is characterized by its richness of plant diversity. Herbal medicine has been one of the most popular and reliable healing practices among the different ethnic groups of this region for ages. However, the lack of documentation practice by the traditional healers has led to obscurity regarding the efficacy of herbal medicine among the present generation, though they have to depend on the same quite often. Meanwhile, several reviews have attempted to document the plants used for the treatment of diabetes from this region, but interestingly, very few research works can be obtained regarding the characterization of antidiabetic properties of the plants of this region. Therefore, it demands a better understanding of the potentiality of these plants in the purview of scientific evidence. This review article reports 55 such plant species which have been reported to be frequently used in the treatment of hyperglycemia and our objective was to validate the potentiality of the plants in the light of recent phytochemical and pharmacological researches being carried out locally or elsewhere.

Key words: Hyperglycemia, Antidiabetics, Antihyperglycemics, Phytochemicals, Pharmacological processes, Herbal medicine

1 Guthrie RA, Guthrie DW.Pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus.Crit Care Nurs Q. 2004; 27(2): 113-125.
2 Adlan MA, Bondugulapati LN, Premawardhana LD.Glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus in endocrine disorders—two case reports and a review.Curr Diabetes Rev. 2010; 6(5): 266-273.
3 Kaveeshwar SA, Cornwall J.The current state of diabetes mellitus in India.Australas Med J. 2014; 7(1): 45-48.
4 Cade WT.Diabetes related microvascular and macrovascular diseases in the physical therapy setting.Phys Ther. 2008; 88(11): 1322-1335.
5 International Diabetes Federation.IDF Diabetes Atlas Sixth Ed. (2014). [2016-04-01].
6 Ahmad NS, Islahuddin F, Paraidathathu T.Factors associated with good glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.J Diabetes Invest. 2014; 5: 563-569.
7 Srinivasan K, Ramarao P.Animal models in type 2 diabetes research: an overview.Indian J Med Res. 2007; 125: 451-472.
8 Malik FS, Taplin CE.Insulin therapy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.Paediatr Drugs. 2014; 16(2): 141-150.
9 Kunwar RM, Shrestha KP, Bussmann RW.Traditional herbal medicine in far-west Nepal: a pharmacological appraisal.J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2010; 6: 35.
10 Mahomoodally MF.Traditional medicines in Africa: an appraisal of ten potent African medicinal plants.Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013: 617459.
11 Pradhan S.Antihyperglycemic effect of various medicinal plants of Sikkim Himalayas—a review.Int J Res Phytochem Pharmacol. 2011; 1(3): 124-130.
12 Bahmani M, Golshahi H, Saki K, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Delfan B, Mohammadi T.Medicinal plants and secondary metabolites for diabetes mellitus control.Asian Pac J Trop Diseases. 2014; 4: S687-S692.
13 Hussain S, Hore DK.Collection and conservation of major medicinal plants of Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas.Indian J Tradit Know. 2007; 6: 352-357.
14 Chhetri DR, Parajuli P, Subba GC.Antidiabetic plants used by Sikkim and Darjeeling Himalayan tribes India.J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 99: 199-202.
15 Saha J, Sarkar PK, Chattopadhyay S.A survey of ethnomedicinal plants of Darjeeling hills for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.Indian J Nat Prod Resour. 2011; 2(4): 479-492.
16 Yonzone R, Rai S, Bhujel RB.Ethnomedicinal and aromatic plant diversity and resources of Darjeeling District of Eastern Himalaya in India.Int J Adv Pharm Res. 2012; 3(4): 859-871.
17 Directorate of Census Operations.District census handbook Darjiling 2011.West Bengal. 2014.
18 Directorate of Census Operations.District census handbook Sikkim 2011.Sikkim. 2014.
19 Eshrat H.Lowering of blood sugar by water extract ofAzadirachta indicaandAbroma augustaL. in diabetes rats.Indian J Exp Biol. 2003; 6: 636-640.
20 Mir SH, Darzi MM, Mir MS.Efficacy ofAbroma augustaon biochemical and histomorphological features of alloxan induced diabetic rabbits.Iran J Pathol. 2013; 8(3): 153-158.
21 Radhika S, Senthilkumar R, Arumugam P.A review on ethnic florae with antihyperglycemic efficacy.Int J Herbal Med. 2013; 1(4): 55-62.
22 Krisanapun C, Lee SH, Peungvicha P, Temsiririrkkul R, Baek SJ.Antidiabetic activities ofAbutilon indicum (L.) are mediated by enhancement of adipocyte differentiation and activation of the GLUT1 promoter.Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011: 167684.
23 Matlawska I, Sikorska M, El-Sayed NH, Budzianowski J, Holderna-Kedzia E, Mabry TJ.Bioactive flavone sulfates ofAbutilon indicumleaves.Nat Prod Commun. 2007; 2(10): 1003-1008.
24 Mandal D, Panda AK, Rana M.Medicinal plants used in folk medicinal practice available in rich biodiversity of Sikkim.Environ Ecol. 2013; 31(3A): 1445-1449.
25 Khare CP.Indian medicinal plants: an illustrated dictionary. New York: Springer. 2007.
26 Arumugam S, Kavimani S, Kadalmani B, Ahmed ABA,Akbarsha MA, Rao MV.Antidiabetic activity of leaf andcallus extracts ofAegle marmelosin rabbit.Sci Asia. 2008;34: 317-321.
27 Kumar V, Ahmed D, Verma A, Anwar F, Mujeeb M.Umbelliferoneβ-D-galactopyranoside fromAegle marmelos(L.) corr. an ethnomedicinal plant with antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative activity.BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013; 13: 273.
28 Kamalakkannan N, Prince PS.The effect ofAegle marmelosfruit extract in streptozotocin diabetes: a histopathological study.J Herb Pharmacother. 2005; 5(3): 87-96.
29 Moniruzzaman M, Rokeya B, Ahmed S, Bhowmik A, Khalil MI, Gan SH.In vitroantioxidant effects ofAloe barbadensisMiller extracts and the potential role of these extracts as antidiabetic and antilipidemic agents on streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic model rats.Molecules. 2012; 17(11): 12851-12867.
30 Jong-Anurakkun N, Bhandari MR, Hong G, Kawabata J.Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from Chinese aloes.Fitoterapia. 2008; 79(6): 456-457.
31 Anand S, Muthusamy VS, Sujatha S, Sangeetha KN, Raja RB, Sudhagar S, Devi NP, Lakshmi BS.Aloe emodin glycosides stimulates glucose transport and glycogen storage through PI3K dependent mechanism in L6 myotubes and inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3L1 adipocytes.FEBS Lett. 2010; 584(14): 3170-3178.
32 Bantawa P, Rai R.Studies on ethnomedicinal plants used by traditional practitioners, Jhankri, Bijuwa and Phedangma in Darjeeling Himalaya.Nat Prod Rad. 2009; 8(5): 537-541.
33 Vadivelan R, Mandal D, Payyavala U, Dhanabal SP, Satishkumar MN, Antony S, Elango K.Hypoglycemic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity ofAsparagus racemosuson streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.Adv App Sci Res. 2011; 2(3): 179-185.
34 Hannan JM, Marenah L, Ali L, Rokeya B, Flatt PR, Abdel-Wahab YH.Insulin secretory actions of extracts ofAsparagus racemosusroot in perfused pancreas, isolated islets and clonal pancreatic beta-cells. J Endocrinol. 2007; 192: 159-168.
35 Gutierrez RM, Gómez YG, Guzman MD.Attenuation of nonenzymatic glycation, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by chloroform leaf extract ofAzadirachta indica.Pharmacogn Mag. 2011; 7(27): 254-259.
36 Mukherjee A, Sengupta S.Characterization of nimbidiol as a potent intestinal disaccharidase and glucoamylase inhibitor present inAzadirachta indica (neem) useful for the treatment of diabetes.J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2013; (5): 900-910.
37 Singh J, Kakkar P.Antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effect ofBerberis aristataroot extract and its role in regulating carbohydrate metabolism in diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009; 123(1): 22-26.
38 Gupta JK, Mishra P, Rani A, Mazumder PM.Blood glucose lowering potential of stem bark ofBerberis aristataDC. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Iranian J Pharmacol Ther. 2010; 9(1): 21-24.
39 Kpomah ED, Arhoghro EM.Effects of doses ofBryophyllum pinnatumand glibenclamide on serum glucose and lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Indian J Drug Dis. 2012; 1(5): 124-128.
40 Ali EMM, Sara AMA, Salwa MEK, Samia HA, Abdelwahab AHM.The hypoglycemic and hyopcholestrolemic effects of aqueous extract ofCannabis sativain albino rats.J Ethnobiol Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 10-12.
41 Rajesh M, Bátkai S, Kechrid M, Mukhopadhyay P, Lee WS, Horváth B, Holovac E, Cinar R, Liaudet L, Mackie K, Haskó G, Pacher P.Cannabinoid 1 receptor promotes cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy.Diabetes. 2012; 61(3): 716-727.
42 Silawat N, Jarald EE, Jain N, Yadav A, Deshmukh PT.The mechanism of hypoglycemic and antidiabetic action of hydroalcholic extract ofCassia fistulaLinn. in rats.Pharma Res. 2009; 1: 82-92.
43 Jarald EE, Joshi SB, Jain DC, Edwin S.Biochemical evaluation of the hypoglycemic effects of extract and fraction ofCassia fistulaLinn. in alloxan induced diabetic rats.Indian J Pharm Sci. 2013; 75(4): 427-434.
44 Rai PK, Lalramnghinglova H.Ethnomedicinal plants of India with special reference to an indo-burma hotspot region: an overview.Ethnobot Res Appl. 2011; 9: 379-420.
45 Nammi S, Boini MK, Lodagala SD, Behara RB.The juice of fresh leaves ofCatharanthus roseusLinn. reduces blood glucose in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits.BMC Complement Altern Med. 2003; 3: 4.
46 Tiong SH, Looi CY, Hazni H, Arya A, Paydar JM, Wong WF, Cheah SC, Mustafa RM, Awang K.Antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of alkaloids fromCatharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. Molecules. 2013; 18: 9770-9784.
47 Sharma V, Rao LJ.An overview on chemical composition, bioactivity and processing of leaves ofCinnamomum tamala.Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2014; 54(4): 433-448.
48 Kumar S, Vasudeva N, Sharma S.GC-MS analysis and screening of antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential ofCinnamomum tamalaoil in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus in rats.Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012; 11: 95.
49 Chen L, Sun P, Wang T, Chen K, Jia Q, Wang H, Li Y.Diverse mechanisms of antidiabetic effects of the different procyanidin oligomer types of two different cinnamon species on db/db mice.J Agric Food Chem. 2012; 60(36): 9144-9150.
50 Kumar KA, Satyanarayana T, Mathwes A, Rao YS, Kiran KR.Antihyperglycemic activity of methanolic extract ofCissampelos pareiraLinn. roots on blood glucose levels of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.J Pharm Res. 2011; 4(10): 3399-3401.
51 Ajay SS.Hypoglycemic activity ofCoccinia indica(Cucurbitaceae) leaves.Int J Pharm Tech Res. 2009; 1(3): 892-893.
52 Ramakrishnan M, Bhuvaneswari R, Duraipandiyan V, Dhandapani R.Hypoglycaemic activity ofCoccinia indicaWight. & Arn. fruits in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Indian J Nat Prod Resour. 2011; 2(3): 350-353.
53 Rahman MA, Sarker J, Akter S, Mamun AA, Azad MAK, Mohiuddin M, Akter S, Sarwar MS.Comparative evaluation of antidiabetic activity of crude methanolic extract of leaves, fruits, roots and aerial parts ofCoccinia grandis.J Plant Sci. 2015; 2(6-1): 19-23.
54 Zulfiker AHM, Saha MR, Sarwar S, Nahar L, Hamid K, Rana MS.Hypoglycemic andin vitroantioxidant activity ofFicus racemosaLinn. fruits.Am J Sci Industr Res. 2011; 2(3): 391-400.
55 Vijayagiri RC, Mamidala E.Preliminary phytochemical andin vitroanti-diabetic activity ofFicus racemosa(L.) stems extract.Online Int Interdiscip Res J. 2013; 3: 134-141.
56 Narender T, Khaliq T, Singh AB, Joshi MD, Mishra P, Chaturvedi JP, Srivastava AK, Maurya R, Agarwal SC.Synthesis of alpha-amyrin derivatives and theirin vivoantihyperglycemic activity.Eur J Med Chem. 2009; 44(3): 1215-1222.
57 Kar A, Choudhary BK, Bandyopadhyay NG.Comparative evaluation of hypoglycemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxandiabetic rats.J Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 84(1): 105-108.
58 Baig Y, Rabbani G, Imran A, Sayeed A.Antidiabetic activity ofGirardinia diversifoliaon alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rats—a preliminary study.Int J Adv Pharm Med Bioallied Sci. 2014; 2(1): 15-19.
59 Rupeshkumar M, Kavitha K, Haldar PK.Evaluation of antihyperglycemic effect ofGynocardia odorataRoxb in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2014; 29(1): 296-301.
60 Revathy J, Abdullah SS, Kumar PS.Antidiabetic effect ofCostus speciosusrhizome extract in alloxan induced albino rats.J Chem Biochem. 2014; 2(1): 13-22.
61 Eliza J, Daisy P, Ignacimuthu S, Duraipandiyan V.Antidiabetic and antilipidemic effect of eremanthin fromCostus speciosus (Koen.) Sm., in STZ-induced diabetic rats.Chem Biol Interact. 2009; 182(1): 67-72.
62 Li F, Li Q, Gao D, Peng Y.The optimal extraction parameters and anti-diabetic activity of flavonoids fromIpomoea batatasleaf.Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2009; 6(2): 195-202.
63 Gulfraz M, Ahmad A, Asad MJ, Sadiq A, Afzal U, Imran M, Anwar P, Zeenat A, Kashif SA, Maqsood S, Qureshi RU.Antidiabetic activities of leaves and root extracts ofJusticia adhatodaLinn. against alloxan induced diabetes in rats.Afr J Biotechnol. 2011; 10(32): 6101-6106.
64 Gupta D, Radhakrishnan M, KurheY. Effects of Adhatoda vasica leaf extract in depression co-morbid with alloxan-induced diabetes in mice.Int J Green Pharm. 2014; 8(2): 97-104.
65 Sujatha S, Anand S, Sangeetha KN, Shilpa K, Lakshmi J, Balakrishnan A, Lakshmi BS.Biological evaluation of (3b)-stigmast-5-en-3-ol as potent anti-diabetic agent in regulating glucose transport usingin vitromodel.Int J Diabetes Mellitus. 2010; 2: 101-109.
66 Xiang L, Huang X, Chen L, Rao P, Ke L.The reparative effects ofMomordica charantiaLinn. extract on HITT15 pancreatic beta-cells.Asian Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007; 16(Suppl 1): 249-252.
67 Tan MJ, Ye JM, Turner N, Hohnen-Behrens C, Ke CQ, Tang CP, Chen T, Weiss HC, Gesing ER, Rowland A, James DE, Ye Y.Antidiabetic activities of triterpenoids isolated from bitter melon associated with activation of the AMPK pathway.Chem Biol. 2008; 15(3): 263-273.
68 Wang BL, Zhang WJ, Zhao J, Wang FJ, Fan LQ, Wu YX, Hu ZB.Gene cloning and of a novel hypoglycaemic peptide fromMomordica charantia.J Sci Food Agri. 2011; 91(13): 2443-2448.
69 Chen JC, Lau CB, Chan JY, Fung KP, Leung PC, Liu JQ, Zhou L, Xie MJ, Qiu MH.The antigluconeogenic activity of cucurbitacins fromMomordica charantia.Planta Medica. 2015; 81(4): 327-332.
70 Kim GN, Kwon YI, Jang HD.Mulberry leaf extract reduces postprandial hyperglycemia with few side effects by inhibitingα-glucosidase in normal rats.J Med Food. 2011; 14(7-8): 712-717.
71 Wang Y, Xiang L, Wang C, Tang C, He X.Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus albaL.) polyphenol enhanced extract.PLoS One. 2013; 8(7): e71144.
72 Singab AN, El-Beshbishy HA, Yonekawa M, Nomura T, Fukai T.Hypoglycemic effect of EgyptianMorus albaroot bark extract: effect on diabetes and lipid peroxidation of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 100(3): 333-338.
73 Hunyadi A, Herke I, Veres K, Erdei A, Simon A, Tóthb G.Volatile glycosides from the leaves ofMorus albawith a potential contribution to the complex anti-diabetic activity.Nat Prod Commun. 2014; 9(2): 145-147.
74 Badola HK, Aitken S.The Himalayas of India: a treasury of medicinal plants under siege.Biodiversity. 2003; 4: 3-13.
75 Ahmad A, Sattar MZA, Hassaan RA, Fatima T, Khan SA, Afzal S, Lazhari M, Ahmed FU, Eseyin O.Pharmacological importance ofNardostachys jatamansiDC: a potential therapeutic agent in different pathological ailments.J Chem Pharmac Res. 2013; 5(10): 431-438.
76 Vats V, Yadav SP, Grover JK.Ethanolic extract ofOcimum sanctumleaves partially attenuates streptozotocin induced alterations in glycogen content and carbohydrate metabolism in rats.J Ethnopharmacol. 2004; 90(1): 155-160.
77 Patil R, Patil R, Ahirwar B, Ahirwar D.Isolation and characterization of anti-diabetic component (bioactivity-guided fractionation) fromOcimum sanctumL.(Lamiaceae) aerial part.Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011; 4(4): 278-282.
78 Singh J, Kakkar P.Modulation of liver function, antioxidant responses, insulin resistance and glucose transport byOroxylum indicumstem bark in STZ induced diabetic rats.Food Chem Toxicol. 2013; 62: 722-731.
79 Kumar V, Anwar F, Ahmed D, Verma A, Ahmed A, Damanhouri ZA, Mishra V, Ramteke PW, Bhatt PC, Mujeeb M.Paederia foetidaLinn. leaf extract: an ant ihyper l ipidemic, ant ihyperglycaemic and antioxidantactivity.BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014; 14: 76.
80 Hwang H, Kim J, Park J, Yun H, Cheon W, Kim B, Lee C, Suh H, Lim K.Red ginseng treatment for two weeks promotes fat metabolism during exercise in mice.Nutrients. 2014; 6(5): 1874-1885.
81 Nampoothiri SV, Prathapan A, Cherian OL, Raghu KG, Venugopalan VV, Sundaresan A.In vitroantioxidant and inhibitory potential ofTerminalia bellericaandEmblica officinalisfruits against LDL oxidation and key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes.Food Chem Toxicol. 2011; 49(1): 125-131.
82 Joy KL, Kuttan R.Anti-diabetic activity ofPicrorrhiza kurroaextract.J Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 67(2): 143-148.
83 Jayakumar G, Ajithabai MD, Sreedevi S, Biswanathan PK, Remeshkumar B.Ethnobotanical survey of the plants used in the treatment of diabetes.Indian J Tradit Know. 2010; 9(1): 96-99.
84 Latha M, Pari L, Sitasawad S, Bhonde R.Scoparia dulcis, a traditional antidiabetic plant, protects against streptozotocin induced oxidative stress and apoptosisin vitroandin vivo.J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2004; 18(5): 261-272.
85 Latha M, Pari L, Ramkumar KM, Rajaguru P, Suresh T, Dhanabal T, Sitasawad S, Bhonde R.Antidiabetic effects of scoparic acid D isolated fromScoparia dulcisin rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes.Nat Prod Res. 2009; 23(16): 1528-1540.
86 Panda AK, Misra S.Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya.J Ayurveda Integ Med. 2010; 1(3): 183-189.
87 Semwal DK, Rawat U, Semwal R, Singh R, Singh GJ.Antihyperglycemic effect of 11-hydroxypalmatine, a palmatine derivative fromStephania glabratubers.J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2010; 12(2): 99-105.
88 Sharma U, Sahu RK, Roy A, Golwala DK.In vivoantidiabetic and antioxidant potential ofStephania hernandifoliain streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.J Young Pharm. 2010; 2(3): 255-260.
89 Kshirsagar P, More T, Arvindekar A, Gaikwad N.Antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and antiglycation properties of someSwertiaspecies from Western Ghats.Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014; 6(9): 303-306.
90 Kavitha KN, Dattatri AN.Experimental evaluation of antidiabetic activity ofSwertia chirata—aqueous extract.J Pub Health Med Res. 2013; 1(2): 71-75.
91 Ya BQ, Nian LC, Li C, Gen XP.Protective effect of swerchirin on hematopoiesis in 60Co-irradiated mice.Phytomedicine. 1999; 6: 85-88.
92 Suryawanshi S, Mehrotra N, Asthana RK, Gupta RC.Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric study and analysis of xanthone and secoiridoid glycoside composition ofSwertia chirata, a potent antidiabetic.Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2006; 20(24): 3761-3768.
93 Ayyanar M, Subash-Babu P, Ignacimuthu S.Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels., a novel therapeutic agent for diabetes: folk medicinal and pharmacological evidences.Complement Ther Med. 2013; 21(3): 232-243.
94 Kumar A, Ilavarasan R, Jayachandran T, Deecaraman M, Aravindan P, Padmanabhan N, Krishan MRV.Anti-diabetic activity ofSyzygium cuminiand its isolated compound against streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.J Med Plants Res. 2008; 2(9): 246-249.
95 Sawant L, Singh VK, Dethe S, Bhaskar A, Balachandran J, Mundkinajeddu D, Agarwal A.Aldose reductase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory active compounds fromSyzygium cuminiseeds.Pharmac Biol. 2015; 53(8): 1176-1182.
96 Latha RCR, Daisy P.Influence ofTerminalia bellericaRoxb. fruits extracts on biochemical parameters in streptozotocin diabetic rats.Int J Pharmcol. 2010; 6(2): 89-96.
97 Singh I, Singh PK, Bhansali S, Shafiq N, Malhotra S, Pandhi P, Pal Singh A.Effects of three different doses of a fruit extract ofTerminalia chebulaon metabolic components of metabolic syndrome, in a rat model.Phytother Res. 2010; 24(1): 107-112.
98 Lee HS, Cho HY, Park KW, Kim IH, Kim JT, Nam MH, Lee KW.Inhibitory effects ofTerminalia chebulaextract on glycation and endothelial cell adhesion.Planta Medica. 2011; 77(10): 1060-1067.
99 Sasidharan I, Sundaresan A, Nisha VM, Kirishna MS, Raghu KG, Jayamurthy P.Inhibitory effect ofTerminalia chebulaRetz. fruit extracts on digestive enzyme related to diabetes and oxidative stress.J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2012; 27(4): 578-586.
100 Sivakumar V, Rajan MSD.Antioxidant effect ofTinospora cordifoliaextract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010; 72(6): 795-798.
101 Sengupta S, Mukherjee A, Goswami R, Basu S.Hypoglycemic activity of the antioxidant saponarin, characterized asα-glucosidase inhibitor present inTinospora cordifolia.J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009; 24(3): 684-690.
102 Sangeetha MK, Priya CD, Vasanthi HR.Antidiabetic property ofTinospora cordifoliaand its active compound is mediated through the of Glut-4 in L6 myotubes.Phytomedicine. 2013; 20(3-4): 246-248.
103 Talukdar D, Talukdar T.Traditional legumes in Sikkim Himalayas: food preparation, uses and ethnomedicinal perspectives.Int J Curr Res. 2012; 4(4): 64-73.
104 Kumar P, Kale RK, Baquer NZ.Antihyperglycemic and protective effects ofTrigonella foenum-graecumseed powder on biochemical alterations in alloxan diabetic rats.Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2012; 16(3): 18-27.
105 Haeri MR, Limaki HK, White CJ, White KN.Non-insulin dependent anti-diabetic activity of (2S, 3R, 4S) 4-hydroxyisoleucine of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats.Phytomedicine. 2012; 19(7): 571-574.
106 Das M, Sarma BP, Rokeya B, Parial R, Nahar N, Mosihuzzaman M, Khan A, Ali L.Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity ofUrtica dioicaon type 2 diabetic model rats.J Diabetol. 2011; 2: 2.
107 Prince PS, Kamalakannan N.Rutin improves glucose homeostasis in streptozotocin diabetic tissues by altering glycolytc and gluconeogenetic enzymes.J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2006; 20: 96-102.
108 Rani MP, Krishna MS, Padmakumari KP, Raghu KG, Sundaresan A.Zingiber officinaleextract exhibits antidiabetic potential via modulating glucose uptake, protein glycation and inhibiting adipocyte differentiation: anin vitrostudy.J Sci Food Agr. 2012; 92(9): 1948-1955.
109 Kato A, Higuchi Y, Goto H, Kizu H, Okamoto T, Asano N, Hollinshead J, Nash RJ, Adachi I.Inhibitory effects ofZingiber officinaleRoscoe derived components on aldose reductase activityin vitroandin vivo.J Agric Food Chem. 2006; 54(18): 6640-6644.
110 Chakraborty D, Mukherjee A, Sikdar S, Paul A, Ghosh S, Khuda-Bukhsh AR. [6]-Gingerol isolated from ginger attenuates sodium arsenite induced oxidative stress and plays a corrective role in improving insulin signaling in mice.Toxicol Lett. 2012; 210(1): 34-43.
111 Katiyar DK, Mehrotra A, Pant KK, Ali B.Study of hypoglycemic effects and antioxidant potential of polyherbal formulation in rats.Biomed Res. 2012; 23(3): 444-449.
112 Petrovska BB.Historical review of medicinal plants’ usage.Pharmacog Rev. 2012; 6(11): 1-5.
113 Adisakwattana S, Pudhom K, Yibchok-Anun S.Influence of the methanolic extract fromAbutilon indicumleaves in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.Afr J Biotechnol. 2009; 8(10): 2011-2015.
114 Cheng JT, Liu IM.Stimulatory effect of caffeic acid on alpha-1A adrenoceptors to increase glucose uptake into cultured C2C12 cells.Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2000; 362(2): 122-127.
115 Sankeshi V, Kumar PA, Naik RR, Sridhara G, Kumar MP, Gopal VVH, Raju TN.Inhibition of aldose reductase byAegle marmelosand its protective role in diabetic cataract.J Ethnopharmacol.2013; 149(1): 215-221.
116 Srivastava N, Tiwari G, Tiwari R, Bhati LK, Rai AK.Neutraceutical approaches to control diabetes: a natural requisite approach. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2012; 3(2): 168-176.
117 Yimam M, Zhao J, Corneliusen B, Pantier M, Brownell LA, Jia Q.UP780, a chromone enriched aloe composition improves insulin sensitivity.Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2013; 11(4): 267-275.
118 Vadivelan R, Dhanabal SP, Santilna KS, Shirisha S.Inhibitory effect ofα-glucosidase andα-amylase enzyme activities ofAdhatoda VasicaNees.Eur J Pharmac Med Res. 2015; 2(2): 375-380.
119 Kazeem MI, Dansu TV, Adeola SA.Inhibitory effect ofAzadirachta indicaleaf extract on the activities of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase.Pak J Biol Sci. 2013; 16(21): 1358-1362.
120 Derosa G, Bonaventura A, Bianchi L, Romano D, D’Angelo A, Fogari E, Maffioli P.Berberis aristata/Silybum marianumfixed combination on lipid profile and insulin secretion in dyslipidemic patients.Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2013; 13(11): 1495-1506.
121 Prasad AK, Kumar S, Iyer SV, Sudani RJ, Vaidya SK.Pharmacognostical, phytochemical and pharmacological review onBryophyllum pinnata.Int J Pharm Biol Sci Arch. 2012; 3(3): 423-433.
122 Aransiola EF, Daramola MO, Iwalewa EO, Seluwa AM, Olufowobi OO.Anti-diabetic effect ofBryophyllum pinnatumleaves.Int J Biol Biomol Agric Food Biotechnol Eng. 2014; 8(1): 51-55.
123 Ahamad J, Naquvi KJ, Mir SR, Ali M, Shuaib M.Review on role of natural alpha-glucosidase inhibitors for management of diabetes mellitus.Int J Biomed Res. 2011; 2(6): 374-380.
124 Malpani SN, Manjunath KP.Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical investigations ofCassia fistulaLinn. bark.Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2012; 3(6): 1822-1825.
125 Singh SN, Vats P, Suri S, Shyam R, Kumria MM, Ranganathan S, Sridharan K.Effect of an antidiabetic extract ofCatharanthus roseuson enzymic activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.J Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 76(3): 269-277.
126 Uysal KT, Wiesbrock SM, Marino MW, Hotamisligil GS.Protection from obesity-induced insulin resistance in mice lacking TNF alpha function.Nature. 1997; 389(6651): 610-614.
127 Yadav KS, Yadav NP, Shanker K, Thomas SC, Srivastav S, Srivastava S, Rai VK, Mishra N, Sinha P.Assessment of antidiabetic potential ofCissampelos pareiraleaf extract in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic mice.J Pharm Res. 2013; 6(8): 874-878.
128 Doss A, Dhanabalan R.Anti-hyperglycaemic and insulin release effects ofCoccinia grandis (L.) Voigt leaves in normal and alloxan diabetic rats.Ethnobot Leaflets. 2008; 12: 1172-1175.
129 Patil VV, Sutar NG, Pimprikar RB, Patil AP, Chaudhari RY, Patil VR.Antihyperglycemic and hypoglycemic effect ofFicus racemosaleaves.J Nat Remed. 2010; 10(1): 11-16.
130 Yadav RK, Keshari AK, Singh AK, Saha S.Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect ofFicus racemosapetroleum ether extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic albino rats.Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2015; 7(4): 283-287.
131 Rajesh MS, Harish MS, Sathyaprakash RJ, Shetty AR, Shivananda TN.Antihyperglycemic activity of the various extracts ofCostus speciosusrhizomes.J Nat Remed. 2009; 9(2): 235-241.
132 Alamoudi EF, Khalil KBW, Ghali IS, Hassan NHA, Ahmed ES.Nanoparticles from ofCostus speciosusextract improves the antidiabetic and antilipidemic effects against STZ-induced diabetes mellitus in albino rats.Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2014; 29(1): 279-288.
133 Park KH, Kim JR, Lee JS, Lee H, Cho KH.Ethanol and water extract of purple sweet potato exhibits anti-atherosclerotic activity and inhibits protein glycation. J Med Food. 2010; 13(1): 91-98.
134 Zainab K, Rehman SZ, Tajuddin, Latif A, Jahan N. Hypoglycemic activity of Berg-e-Arusa and Shoneez.Indian J Tradit Know. 2009; 8(3): 410-412.
135 Bandi S, Vasundhara K.Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles usingAdhatoda vasicamethanolic extract and its biological activities.J Atoms Mol. 2012; 2(4): 282-291.
136 Shibib BA, Khan LA, Rahman R.Hypoglycaemic activity ofCoccinia indicaandMomordica charantiain diabetic rats: depression of the hepatic gluconeogenetic enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and elevation of both liver and red-cell shunt enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.Biochem J. 1993; 292: 267-270.
137 Nhiem NX, Kiem PV, Minh CV, Ban NK, Cuong NX, Tung NH, Ha LM, Ha DT, Tai BH, Quang TH, Ngoc TM, Kwon YI, Jang HD, Kim YH.α-Glucosidase inhibition properties of cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides from the fruits ofMomordica charantia.Chem Pharm Bull. 2010; 58(5): 720-724.
138 Song MY, Bae UJ, Lee BH, Kwon KB, Seo EA, Park SJ, Kim MS, Song HJ, Kwon KS, Park JW, Ryu DG, Park BH.Nardostachys jatamansiextract protects against cytokineinduced ß-cell damage and streptozotocin-induced diabetes.World J Gastroenterol. 2010; 16(26): 3249-3257.
139 Purnima, Bhatt M, Kothiyal P. A review article on phytochemistry and pharmacological profiles ofNardostachys jatamansiDC-medicinal herb.J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2015; 3(5): 102-106.
140 Chandra A, Mahdi AA, Singh RK, Mahdi F, Chander R.Effect of Indian herbal hypoglycemic agents on antioxidant capacity and trace elements content in diabetic rats.J Med Food. 2008; 11(3): 506-512.
141 Dinda B, SilSarma I, Dinda M, Rudrapaul P.Oroxylum indicum(L.) Kurz, an important Asian traditional medicine: from traditional uses to scientific data for its commercial exploitation.J Ethnopharmacol.2015; 161: 255-278.
142 Khan S, Zahan D, Das R, Nasrin D, Ahsan S, Ahmed R, Sadat AFM, Bashar ABMA, Nahar N, Rahmatullah M. Antihyperglycemic activity studies with methanol extract of Madhuca indica J.F. Gmel. leaves and Paederia foetida L. stems in mice. Adv Nat Appl Sci. 2011; 5(2): 122–126.
143 Yun SN, Moon SJ, Ko SK, Im BO, Chung SH. Wild ginseng prevents the onset of high fat diet induced hyperglycemia and obesity in ICR mice. Arch Pharm Res. 2004; 27(7): 790–796.
144 Suryanarayana P, Saraswat M, Petrash JM, Reddy GB. Emblica officinalis and its enriched tannoids delay streptozotocin-induced diabetic cataract in rats. Mol Vision. 2007; 24(13): 1291–1297.
145 Kalekar SA, Munshi RP, Thatte UM. Do plants mediate their antidiabetic effects through antioxidant and antiapoptotic actions? An in vitro assay of 3 Indian medicinal plants. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013; 13: 257.
146 Bhattacharjee S, Bhattacharya S, Jana S, Baghel DS. A review on medicinally important species of Picrorhiza. Int J Pharm Res Bio Sci. 2013; 2(4): 1–16.
147 Husain GM, Rai R, Rai G, Singh HB, Thakur AK, Kumar V. Potential mechanism of anti-diabetic activity of Picrorhiza kurroa. TANG. 2014; 4(4): 27.
148 Nasrin D, Moushumi SJ, Ahmed R, Nahar N, Ahsan S, Khatun MA, Jamal F, Chowdhury MH, Rahmatullah M. An evaluation of administration in diet of Saraca asoca (Roxb.) De Wilde bark extract on serum lipid profiles in rats. Adv Nat Appl Sci. 2010; 4(3): 382–384.
149 Jain A, Jasmine, Sharma S, Saini V. Hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential of Saraca asoca ethanolic leaves extract in streptozotocin induced-experimental diabetes. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013; 5(1): 1–7.
150 Pari L,Venkateswaran S. Hypoglycaemic activity of Scoparia dulcis L. extract in alloxan induced hyperglycaemic rats. Phytother Res. 2002; 16(7): 662–664.
151 Okhale SE, Amanabo MO, Jegede IA, Egharevba HO, Muazzam IW, Kunle OF. Phytochemical and pharmacognostic investigation of antidiabetic Scoparia dulcis Linn Scrophulariaceae whole plant grown in Nigeria. Researcher. 2010; 2(6): 7–16.
152 Mishra MR, Mishra A, Pradhan DK, Panda AK, Behera RK, Jha S. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Scoparia dulcis Linn. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2013; 75(5): 610–614.
153 Mosihuzzaman M, Nahar N, Ali L, Rokeya B, Khan AK, Nur-E-Alam M, Nandi RP. Hypoglycemic effects of three plants from eastern himalayan belt. Diabetes Res. 1994; 26(3): 127–138.
154 Renu A, Sunil K, Dinesh K, Ajay M, Tarun K. Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Swertia chirayita Buch-Ham. Int Res J Pharm. 2011; 2(1): 230–232.
155 Verma VK, Sarwa KK, Kamaruzzaman M. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of Swertia chirayita and Andrographis paniculata plant extracts in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2013; 5(3): 305–311.
156 Bhat M, Joshi N. Seeds of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels: potential for islet regeneration in experiment. J Chin Integr Med. 2011; 9(12): 1380–1387.
157 Murali YK, Anand P, Tandon V, Singh R, Chandra R, Murthy PS. Long term effects of Terminalia chebula Retz. on hyperglycemia and associated hyperlipidemia, tissue glycogen content and in vitro release of insulin in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2007; 115(10): 641–646.
158 Tamboli SB, Sontakke SP, Parsode RB. Study of hypoglycemic activity of Tinospora cordifolia in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2013; 2(5): 559–561.
159 Munshi RP, Joshi SG, Rane BN. Development of an experimental diet model in rats to study hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance, markers for coronary heart disease. Indian J Pharmacol. 2014; 46(3): 270–276.
160 Thakran S, Siddiqui MR, Baquer NZ. Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder protects against histopathological abnormalities in tissues of diabetic rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004; 266(1–2): 151–159.
161 Hannan JM, Ali L, Rokeya B, Khaleque J, Akhter M, Flatt PR, Abdel-Wahab YH. Soluble dietary fibre fraction of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed improves glucose homeostasis in animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes by delaying carbohydrate digestion and absorption, and enhancing insulin action. Br J Nutr. 2007; 97(3): 514– 521.
162 Neha S, Anand K, Sunanda P. Administration of fenugreek seed extract produces better effects in the glibenclamide-induced inhibition in hepatic lipid peroxidation: an in vitro study. Chin J Integr Med. 2015. Epud ahead of print.
163 Shakya R, Roy AK, Bhattacharya D, Rajesh T, Joshi B, Chettri N. Development and evaluation of herbosome suspension. Int J Pharm Eng. 2014; 2(2): 376–385.
164 Saraswat M, Suryanarayana P, Reddy PY, Patil MA, Balakrishna N, Reddy GB. Antiglycating potential of Zingiber officinalis and delay of diabetic cataract in rats. Mol Vis. 2010; 16: 1525–1537.
165 Modak M, Dixit P, Londhe J, Ghaskabdi S, Devasagayam TPA. Indian herbs and herbal drugs used for the treatment of diabetes. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2007; 40(3): 163–173.
166 Mohammed SA, Yaqub AG, Sanda KA, Nicholas AO, Arastus W, Muhammad M, Abdullahi S. Review on diabetes, synthetic drugs and glycemic effects of medicinal plants. J Med Plants Res. 2013; 7(36): 2628–2637.
167 Wais M, Nazish I, Samad A, Beg S, Abusufyan S, Ajaj SA, Aqil M. Herbal drugs for diabetic treatment: an updated review of patents. Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov. 2012; 7(1): 53–59.
168 Parasuraman S, Thing GS, Dhanaraj SA. Polyherbal formulation: concept of ayurveda. Pharmacogn Rev. 2014; 8(16): 73–80.
169 Bhavana GP, Chandrika R, Saraswathi KJT. Quantitative determination of secondary compoumds in populations of Eryngium foetidum L. from India. Int J Curr Sci. 2013; 9: E24–E28.
170 Osadebe PO, Odoh EU, Uzor PF. Natural products as potential sources of antidiabetic drugs. Brit J Pharm Res. 2014; 4(17): 2075–2095.


[1] Cai-lian Fana, Wan-jun Caib, Meng-nan Ye, Miao Chen, Yi Dai. Qili Qiangxin, a compound herbal medicine formula, alleviates hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced apoptotic and autophagic cell death via suppression of ROS/AMPK/mTOR pathway in vitro. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(4): 365-375.
[2] Tareq A. Wani, Zahoor A. Kaloo, Nisar A. Dangroo. Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle: A critically endangered medicinal herb with rich potential for use in medicine. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(2): 104-113.
[3] Shu-yi Chen, Qun-wei Chen, Liu-mei Shou, Hong Pan, Shan-ming Ruan, Zhe-hao Liang, Qi-jin Shu. Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis successfully treated with Chinese herbal medicine Pi-Yan-Ning: A case report. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(6): 555-560.
[4] Rakhi Chakraborty, Swarnendu Roy. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from plants: A review of their diversity, modes of action, prospects, and concerns in the management of diabetes-centric complications. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(6): 478-492.
[5] Xin Yin, Shu-bin Cai, Lan-ting Tao, Lu-ming Chen, Zhong-de Zhang, Su-hong Xiao, Arthur Yin Fan, Xu Zou. Recovery of a patient with severe COVID-19 by acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine adjuvant to standard care. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(5): 460-466.
[6] Ruo-lan Li, Qing Zhang, Jia Liu, Li-ying He, Qin-wan Huang, Wei Peng, Chun-jie Wu. Processing methods and mechanisms for alkaloid-rich Chinese herbal medicines: A review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(2): 89-103.
[7] Jie Wu, Shu-wei Duan, Hong-tao Yang, Yue-yi Deng, Wei Li, Ya-ni He, Zhao-hui Ni, Yong-li Zhan, Shan Lin, Zhi-yong Guo, Jun Zhu, Jing-ai Fang, Xu-sheng Liu, Li-hua Wang, Rong Wang, Nian-song Wang, Xiao-hong Cheng, Li-qun He, Ping Luo, Shi-ren Sun s, Ji-feng Sun, Ai-ping Yin, Geng-ru Jiang, Hong-yu Chen, Wen-hu Liu, Hong-li Lin, Meng Liang, Lu Ma, Ming Chen, Li-qun Song, Jian Chen, Qing Zhu, Chang-ying Xing, Yun Li, Ji-ning Gao, Rong-shan Li, Ying Li, Hao Zhang, Ying Lu, Qiao-ling Zhou, Jun-zhou Fu, Qiang He, Guang-yan Cai, Xiang-mei Chen. Efficacy and safety of Shenyankangfu Tablet, a Chinese patent medicine, for primary glomerulonephritis: A multicenter randomized controlled trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(2): 111-119.
[8] Ming-sheng Lyu, De-ying Li, Shao-zhong Zhou, Cheng-jun Ban, Jun Yan. Adult-onset Still's disease successfully treated with Chinese herbal medicine: A case report with 15-month follow-up. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(6): 530-534.
[9] Qing-lan Wang, Yan-yan Tao, Hong-dong Xie, Cheng-hai Liu, Ping Liu. Fuzheng Huayu recipe, a traditional Chinese compound herbal medicine, attenuates renal interstitial fibrosis via targeting the miR-21/PTEN/AKT axis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(6): 505-513.
[10] Mu-yan Kong, Le-yan Li, Yan-mei Lou, Hong-yu Chi, Jin-jun Wu. Chinese herbal medicines for prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer: from molecular mechanisms to potential clinical applications. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(5): 369-384.
[11] . External application of two unrestricted herbal medicines to treat costochondritis in a young collegiate athlete: A case report. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(5): 450-454.
[12] Arthur Yin Fan, Sherman Gu, Sarah Faggert Alemi, Research Group for Evidence-based Chinese Medicine. Chinese herbal medicine for COVID-19: Current evidence with systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(5): 385-394.
[13] Shuai Yan, Yin-zi Yue, Ming-ming Sun, Ben-sheng Wu, Xiao-peng Wang. Suppressive effect of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on glutamic acid-induced autophagy of interstitial cells of Cajal. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(4): 334-343.
[14] Bin Lan, Jin-wen Ge, Shao-wu Cheng, Xi-long Zheng, Jun Liao, Chao He, Zheng-qing Rao, Guo-zuo Wang. Extract of Naotaifang, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, protects neuron ferroptosis induced by acute cerebral ischemia in rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(4): 344-350.
[15] Mohadeseh Ostovar, Abolfazl Akbari, Mohammad Hossein Anbardar, Aida Iraji, Mohsen Salmanpour, Salar Hafez Ghoran, Mojtaba Heydari, Mesbah Shams. Effects of Citrullus colocynthis L. in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(1): 59-67.
Full text



[1] Jin-rong Fu. Establishment of multivariate diagnosis and treatment system of modern gynecology of traditional Chinese medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 22-24
[2] Hao Li, Ming-jiang Yao, Wen-ming Zhao, Jie Guan, Lin-lin Cai, Ling Cui. A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of Huannao Yicong capsule in senile patients with mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 25-31
[3] Zhi-chun Jin. Problems in establishing clinical guideline for integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 5-8
[4] SUN Ming-yu, ZUO Jian, DUAN Ji-feng, HAN Jun, FAN Shi-ming, ZHANG Wei, ZHU Li-fang, YAO Ming-hui. Antitumor activities of kushen flavonoids in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 51-59
[5] Min Cheng, Qiong Feng, Shu-wen Qian, Hui Gao, Cui-qing Zhu. Preliminary assay of p-amyloid binding elements in heart-beneficial recipe. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 68-72
[6] Ning-qun Wang, Liang-duo Jiang, Zong-xing Li. Research progress in asthma-related quality of life. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 93-97
[7] Jing-yuan Mao, Chang-xiao Liu, Heng-he Wang, Guang-li Wei , Zhen-peng Zhang, Jie Xing, Wang Xian liang , Ying-fei Bi . Effects of Shenmai Injection on serum concentration and pharmacokinetics of digoxin in dogs with heart failure. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1070-1074
[8] Zhi-mei Wang, Bin Zhang. A study on translation of ellipses in Huangdi Neijing from perspective of hermeneutic theory. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1097-1100
[9] Gui Yu, Jie Wang. Thinking on building the network cardiovasology of Chinese medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1206-1210
[10] Pedro Saganha João, Doenitz Christoph, Greten Tobias, Efferth Thomas, J. Greten Henry. Qigong therapy for physiotherapists suffering from burnout: a preliminary study. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1233-1239