Traditional Persian medicine,Herbal medicine,Rheum ribes L,Rhubarb,Dysentery,Shigellosis,Diarrhea," /> Traditional Persian medicine,Herbal medicine,Rheum ribes L,Rhubarb,Dysentery,Shigellosis,Diarrhea,"/> Effects of rhubarb (<em>Rheum ribes</em> L.) syrup on dysenteric diarrhea in children: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2017, Vol. 15 ›› Issue (5): 365-372.doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(17)60344-3

Special Issue: Natural Drug

• Research Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of rhubarb (Rheum ribes L.) syrup on dysenteric diarrhea in children: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Ali Khiveha, Mohammad Hashem Hashempurb, Mehrdad Shakibac, Mohammad Hassan Lotfid, Afsaneh Shakerie, SeidKazem Kazemeinia, Zohre Mousavia, Marzie Jabbaria, Mohammad Kamalinejadf, Majid Emtiazya,g   

  1. a Department of Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Iranian Traditional Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Ardakan, Yazd 8951737915, Iran 
    b Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Fasa University of Medical Sciences, Fasa 7461781189, Iran 
    c Department of Pediatrics, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd 8951737915, Iran 
    d Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd 8951737915, Iran 
    e Department of Traditional Medicine, School of Iranian Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 3439123900, Iran 
    f Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1985717443, Iran 
    g Research Center of the Iranian Traditional Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd 8951737915, Iran
  • Received:2017-02-13 Accepted:2017-04-14 Online:2017-09-15 Published:2017-09-15
  • Contact: Majid Emtiazy; E-mail: Mohammad Kamalinejad; E-mail:


Rheum ribes L. is a plant native to China, Iran, Turkey, India, and a few other countries. Antidiarrheal activity is considered to be one of its important properties according to various systems of traditional medicine. An increasing rate of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has led to treatment failure in some cases of shigellosis in children, and underlines a need for safe, efficient and valid options.


The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of R. ribes syrup as a complementary medicine for treatment of shigellosis in children.

Design, Setting, Participants and Interventions

This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial started with a group of 150 children aged between 12-72 months with suspected Shigella dysentery. R. ribes syrup or placebo syrup was administered to the intervention and control groups, respectively for 5 days. In addition, the standard antibiotic treatment (ceftriaxone for the first 3 days and cefixime syrup for 2 further days) was administered to both groups.

Main Outcome Measures

Body temperature, abdominal pain, need for antipyretics, defecation frequency, stool volume and consistency and microscopic stool examination were recorded as outcome measures. Any observed adverse effects were also recorded.


Mean duration of fever and diarrhea in the R. ribes group was significantly lower than that in the placebo group (P = 0.016 and 0.001, respectively). In addition, patients in the R. ribes group showed shorter duration of need for antipyretics and shorter duration of abdominal pain (P = 0.012 and 0.001, respectively). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the microscopic stool analyses. Furthermore, no adverse effect was reported.


R. ribes syrup can be recommended as a complementary treatment for children with Shigella dysentery.

Trial Registration

Iranian Registry of Clinical Trial: IRCT2014070518356N1.

Key words: Traditional Persian medicine, Herbal medicine, Rheum ribes L, Rhubarb, Dysentery, Shigellosis, Diarrhea

1 Rabbani GH, Ahmed S, Hossain MI, Islam R, Marni F, Akhtar M, Majid N.Green banana reduces clinical severity of childhood shigellosis: a double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial.Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009; 28(5): 420-425.
2 Rahman M, Shoma S, Rashid H, El Arifeen S, Baqui AH, Siddique AK, Nair GB, Sack DA.Increasing spectrum in antimicrobial resistance ofShigella isolates in Bangladesh: resistance to azithromycin and ceftriaxone and decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. J Health Popul Nutr. 2007; 25(2): 158-167.
3 Kosikowska U, Smolarz H, Malm A.Antimicrobial activity and total content of polyphenols ofRheum L. species growing in Poland. Cent Eur J Biol. 2010; 5(6): 814-820 4 Bazzaz F, Khajehkaramadin M, Shokooheizadeh HR. In vitro antibacterial activity of Rheum ribes extract obtained from various plant parts against clinical isolates of Gramnegative pathogens. Iran J Pharm Res. 2010; 4: 87-91 5 Kazemi Darsanaki R, Lisar MP. Antimicrobial potential of root, stalk and leaves extracts of Rheum ribes. J Rep Pharm Sci. 2014; 3(1): 10-13.
6 Cakilcioglu U, Turkoglu I.An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Sivrice (Elazig-Turkey).J Ethnopharmacol. 2010; 132(1): 165-175.
7 Miraldi E, Ferri S, Mostaghimi V.Botanical drugs and preparations in the traditional medicine of West Azerbaijan (Iran).J Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 75(2-3): 77-87.
8 Peigen X, Liyi H, Liwei W.Ethnopharmacologic study of Chinese rhubarb.J Ethnopharmacol. 1984; 10(3): 275-293.
9 Abu-Irmaileh BE, Afifi FU.Herbal medicine in Jordan with special emphasis on commonly used herbs.J Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 89(2-3): 193-197 10 Zahedi M, Hojjati MR, Fathpour H, Rabiei Z, Alibabaei Z, Basim A. Effect of Rheum ribes hydro-alcoholic extract on memory impairments in rat model of Alzheimer’s disease. Iran J Pharm Res. 2015; 14(4): 1197-1206.
11 Hamzeh S, Farokhi F, Heydari R, Manaffar R.Renoprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract ofRheum ribes root in diabetic female rats. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2014; 4(6): 392-401.
12 Kasabri V, Afifi FU, Hamdan I.In vitro and in vivo acute antihyperglycemic effects of five selected indigenous plants from Jordan used in traditional medicine. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011; 133(2): 888-896.
13 Sina I.Al-Qanun fit-tib (the Canon of Medicine). Beirut: Alaalami Beirut library Press. 2005.
14 Aghili Khorasani Shirazi MH. Makhzan-Al’ Advieh. Tehran: Sabz Arang. 2012.
15 Jorjani SE.Al-Aghraz al-tibbia val Mabahess al-Alaiia. Tehran: University of Tehran Press. 2009.
16 Dalfardi B, Heydari M, Golzari S, Mahmoudi Nezhad G, Hashempur MH.Al-Baghdadi’s description of venous blood circulation.Int J Cardiol. 2014; 174(1): 209-210.
17 Hashempur MH, Ghasemi MS, Daneshfard B, Ghoreishi PS, Lari ZN, Homayouni K, Zargaran A.Efficacy of topical chamomile oil for mild and moderate carpal tunnel syndrome: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2017; 26: 61-67.
18 Haly A.Al-Maleki. Tehran: Tehran University press. 2009.
19 Al-Ansari ZA.Ikhtiyarat-i Badii (Selections for Badii). Tehran: Tehran PRP. 1992.
20 Krishnaiah D, Sarbatly R, Nithyanandam R.A review of the antioxidant potential of medicinal plant species.Food Bioprod Process. 2011; 89(3): 217-233.
21 Öztürk M, Aydoğmuş-Öztürk F, Duru ME, Topçu G. Antioxidant activity of stem and root extracts of Rhubarb (Rheum ribes): an edible medicinal plant. Food Chem. 2007; 103(2): 623-630.
22 Naemi F, Asghari G, Yousofi H, Yousefi HA.Chemical composition of essential oil and antitrichomonas activity of leaf, stem, and flower ofRheum ribes L. extracts. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2014; 4(3): 191-199.
23 Hadjzadeh MA, Rajaei Z, Keshavarzi Z, Shirazi MG, Toosi V.Effect of aqueous extract ofRheum ribes on cisplatininduced nephrotoxicity in rat. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2013; 5(4): 309-313.
24 Bonjar S.Evaluation of antibacterial properties of some medicinal plants used in Iran.J Ethnopharmacol. 2004; 94(2): 301-305.
25 Kaur C, Kapoor HC.Anti-oxidant activity and total phenolic content of some Asian vegetables.Int J Food Sci. 2002; 37(2): 153-161.
26 Tadeg H, Mohammed E, Asres K, Gebre-Mariam T.Antimicrobial activities of some selected traditional Ethiopian medicinal plants used in the treatment of skin disorders.J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 100(1): 168-175.
27 Akrami R, Hashempur MH, Tavakoli A, Nimrouzi M, Sayadi M, Roodaki M, Roozbeh J, Faridi P. Effects of Fumaria parviflora L on uremic pruritus in hemodialysis patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod.2016; inpress(inpress): e39744. Doi: 10.177951jjnpp-39744.
28 Hashempur MH, Khademi F, Rahmanifard M, Zarshenas MM.An evidence-based study on medicinal plants for hemorrhoids in Medieval Persia.J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2017; (1): 1-13.
29 Rahman M, Shoma S, Rashid H, Siddique A, Nair G, Sack D.Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-mediated thirdgeneration cephalosporin resistance inShigella isolates in Bangladesh. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2004; 54(4): 846-847.
30 Basualdo W, Arbo A.Randomized comparison of azithromycin versus cefixime for treatment of shigellosis in children.Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003; 22(4): 374-377.
31 Martin JM, Pitetti R, Maffei F, Tritt J, Smail K, Wald ER.Treatment of shigellosis with cefixime: two days vs. five days.Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000; 19(6): 522-526.
32 Abdulla K, Taha E, Rahim S.Phenolic profile, antioxidant and antibacterial effects of ethanol and aqueous extracts ofRheum ribes L. roots. Der Pharmacia Lett. 2014; 6: 201- 205 33 Alaadin AM, Al-Khateeb EH, Jäger AK. Antibacterial activity of the Iraqi Rheum ribes. Root. Pharm Biol. 2007; 45(9): 688-690.
34 Alan Y, Erbil N, Digrak M.In vivo antimicrobial activity of Rheum ribes extracts obtained from various plant parts from Turkey. J Selcuk Univ Nat Appl Sci. 2013; 1(4): 23-29.
35 Amiri N, Shafaghat A, Salimi F.Screening of the essential oil, hexane extract, chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial acitivity of the flowerRheum ribes L. from Iran. J Essent Oil Bear Plants. 2015; 18(5): 1108-1115.
36 Jong-Chol C, Tsukasa M, Kazuo A, Hiroaki K, Haruki Y, Yasuo O.Anti-Bacteroides fragilis substance from rhubarb.J Ethnopharmacol. 1987; 19(3): 279-283.
37 Vegara S, Funes L, Martí N, Saura D, Micol V, Valero M.Bactericidal activities against pathogenic bacteria by selected constituents of plant extracts in carrot broth.Food Chem. 2011; 128(4): 872-877.
38 Wang J, Zhao H, Kong W, Jin C, Zhao Y, Qu Y, Xiao X.Microcalorimetric assay on the antimicrobial property of five hydroxyanthraquinone derivatives in rhubarb (Rheum palmatum L.) to Bifidobacterium adolescentis. Phytomedicine. 2010; 17(8): 684-689.
39 Chen C, Chen Q. Biochemical study of Chinese rhubarb. XIX. Localization of inhibition of anthraquinone derivatives on the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Yao Xue Xue Bao.1987; 22(1): 12-18. Chinese with abstract in English.
40 Darwish RM, Aburjai T, Al-Khalil S, Mahafzah A.Screening of antibiotic resistant inhibitors from local plant materials against two different strains ofStaphylococcus aureus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 79(3): 359-364.
41 Neyrinck AM, Etxeberria U, Taminiau B, Daube G, Hul M, Everard A, Cani PD. Bindels LB, Delzenne NM.Rhubarb extract prevents hepatic inflammation induced by acute alcohol intake, an effect related to the modulation of the gut microbiota.Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016; 61(1).
42 Peng SM, Wang SZ, Zhao JP. Effect of rhubarb on inflammatory cytokines and complements in patients with systemic inflammation reaction syndrome and its significance. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi.2002; 22(4): 264-266. Chinese with abstract in English.
43 Zhang L, Chen J, Jiang D, Zhang P.Adjuvant treatment with crude rhubarb for patients with systemic inflammation reaction syndrome/sepsis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.J Crit Care. 2015; 30(2): 282-289.
44 Mathan MM, Mathan V.Morphology of rectal mucosa of patients with shigellosis.Rev Infect Dis. 1991; 13(Suppl 4): S314-S318.
45 Tien MT, Girardin SE, Regnault B, Le Bourhis L, Dillies MA, Coppee JY, Bourdet-Sicard R, Sansonetti PJ, Pedron T.Anti-inflammatory effect ofLactobacillus casei on Shigellainfected human intestinal epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2006; 176(2): 1228-1237.
46 Sui F, Huo HR, Zhang CB, Yang N, Guo JY, Du XL, Zhao BS, Liu HB, Li LF, Guo SY, Jiang TL.Emodin down-regulates expression of TRPV1 mRNA and its function in DRG neuronsin vitro. Am J Chin Med. 2010; 38(4): 789-800.
47 Sui F, Yang N, Zhang C, Du X, Li L, Weng X, GuoS, Huo H, Jiang T. Effects of ingredients from Chinese herbs with nature of cold or hot on expression of TRPV1 and TRPM8. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi.2010; 35(12): 1594-1598. Chinese with abstract in English.
48 Kong X, Wan H, Su X, Zhang C, Yang Y, Li X, Yao L, Lin N.Rheum palmatum L. and Coptis chinensis Franch., exert antipyretic effect on yeast-induced pyrexia rats involving regulation of TRPV1 and TRPM8 expression. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014; 153(1): 160-168.
49 Mosavat SH, Ghahramani L, Sobhani Z, Haghighi ER, Chaijan MR, Heydari M.The effect of leek (Allium iranicum (Wendelbo)) leaves extract cream on hemorrhoid patients: a double blind randomized controlled clinical trial. Eur J Integr Med. 2015; 7(6): 669-673.
50 Heyadri M, Hashempur MH, Ayati MH, Quintern D, Nimrouzi M, Mosavat SH.The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.J Integr Med. 2015; 13(6): 363-367.
51 Wang JB, Qin Y, Kong WJ, Wang ZW, Zeng LN, Fang F, Jin C, Zhao YL, Xiao XH.Identification of the antidiarrhoeal components in official rhubarb using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.Food Chem. 2011; 129(4): 1737-1743.
52 Raudsepp P, Anton D, Roasto M, Meremäe K, Pedastsaar P, Mäesaar M, Raal A, Laikoja K, Püssa T.The antioxidative and antimicrobial properties of the blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.), Siberian rhubarb(Rheum rhaponticum L.) and some other plants, compared to ascorbic acid and sodium nitrite. Food Control. 2013; 31(1): 129-135.
53 Emen Tanrikut S, Çeken B, Altaş S, Pirinççioğlu M, Kizil G, Kizil M.DNA cleavage protecting activity andin vitro antioxidant potential of aqueous extract from fresh stems of Rheum ribes. Acta Aliment. 2013; 42(4): 461-472.
[1] Cai-lian Fana, Wan-jun Caib, Meng-nan Ye, Miao Chen, Yi Dai. Qili Qiangxin, a compound herbal medicine formula, alleviates hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced apoptotic and autophagic cell death via suppression of ROS/AMPK/mTOR pathway in vitro. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(4): 365-375.
[2] Tareq A. Wani, Zahoor A. Kaloo, Nisar A. Dangroo. Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle: A critically endangered medicinal herb with rich potential for use in medicine. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(2): 104-113.
[3] Shu-yi Chen, Qun-wei Chen, Liu-mei Shou, Hong Pan, Shan-ming Ruan, Zhe-hao Liang, Qi-jin Shu. Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis successfully treated with Chinese herbal medicine Pi-Yan-Ning: A case report. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(6): 555-560.
[4] Rakhi Chakraborty, Swarnendu Roy. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from plants: A review of their diversity, modes of action, prospects, and concerns in the management of diabetes-centric complications. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(6): 478-492.
[5] Xin Yin, Shu-bin Cai, Lan-ting Tao, Lu-ming Chen, Zhong-de Zhang, Su-hong Xiao, Arthur Yin Fan, Xu Zou. Recovery of a patient with severe COVID-19 by acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine adjuvant to standard care. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(5): 460-466.
[6] Si-qi Tang, Yun-liang Wang, Zi-ye Xie, Yang Zhang, Yi Guo, Kang-li Gao, Tang-you Mao, Chun-e Xie, Jun-xiang Li, Xiao-yan Gao. Serum metabolic profiling of traditional Chinese medicine syndromes in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(3): 274-281.
[7] Ruo-lan Li, Qing Zhang, Jia Liu, Li-ying He, Qin-wan Huang, Wei Peng, Chun-jie Wu. Processing methods and mechanisms for alkaloid-rich Chinese herbal medicines: A review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(2): 89-103.
[8] Jie Wu, Shu-wei Duan, Hong-tao Yang, Yue-yi Deng, Wei Li, Ya-ni He, Zhao-hui Ni, Yong-li Zhan, Shan Lin, Zhi-yong Guo, Jun Zhu, Jing-ai Fang, Xu-sheng Liu, Li-hua Wang, Rong Wang, Nian-song Wang, Xiao-hong Cheng, Li-qun He, Ping Luo, Shi-ren Sun s, Ji-feng Sun, Ai-ping Yin, Geng-ru Jiang, Hong-yu Chen, Wen-hu Liu, Hong-li Lin, Meng Liang, Lu Ma, Ming Chen, Li-qun Song, Jian Chen, Qing Zhu, Chang-ying Xing, Yun Li, Ji-ning Gao, Rong-shan Li, Ying Li, Hao Zhang, Ying Lu, Qiao-ling Zhou, Jun-zhou Fu, Qiang He, Guang-yan Cai, Xiang-mei Chen. Efficacy and safety of Shenyankangfu Tablet, a Chinese patent medicine, for primary glomerulonephritis: A multicenter randomized controlled trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(2): 111-119.
[9] Ming-sheng Lyu, De-ying Li, Shao-zhong Zhou, Cheng-jun Ban, Jun Yan. Adult-onset Still's disease successfully treated with Chinese herbal medicine: A case report with 15-month follow-up. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(6): 530-534.
[10] Qing-lan Wang, Yan-yan Tao, Hong-dong Xie, Cheng-hai Liu, Ping Liu. Fuzheng Huayu recipe, a traditional Chinese compound herbal medicine, attenuates renal interstitial fibrosis via targeting the miR-21/PTEN/AKT axis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(6): 505-513.
[11] Jafar Abolghasemi, Mohammad Ali Farboodniay Jahromi, Mohammad Hossein Sharifi, Zohreh Mazloom, Leila Hosseini, Nasrindokht Zamani, Majid Nimrouzi. Effects of Zataria oxymel on obesity, insulin resistance and lipid profile: A randomized, controlled, triple-blind trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(5): 401-408.
[12] Mu-yan Kong, Le-yan Li, Yan-mei Lou, Hong-yu Chi, Jin-jun Wu. Chinese herbal medicines for prevention and treatment of colorectal cancer: from molecular mechanisms to potential clinical applications. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(5): 369-384.
[13] . External application of two unrestricted herbal medicines to treat costochondritis in a young collegiate athlete: A case report. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(5): 450-454.
[14] Arthur Yin Fan, Sherman Gu, Sarah Faggert Alemi, Research Group for Evidence-based Chinese Medicine. Chinese herbal medicine for COVID-19: Current evidence with systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(5): 385-394.
[15] Shuai Yan, Yin-zi Yue, Ming-ming Sun, Ben-sheng Wu, Xiao-peng Wang. Suppressive effect of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus and Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma on glutamic acid-induced autophagy of interstitial cells of Cajal. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(4): 334-343.
Full text



[1] Jin-rong Fu. Establishment of multivariate diagnosis and treatment system of modern gynecology of traditional Chinese medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 22-24
[2] Hao Li, Ming-jiang Yao, Wen-ming Zhao, Jie Guan, Lin-lin Cai, Ling Cui. A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of Huannao Yicong capsule in senile patients with mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 25-31
[3] Zhi-chun Jin. Problems in establishing clinical guideline for integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 5-8
[4] SUN Ming-yu, ZUO Jian, DUAN Ji-feng, HAN Jun, FAN Shi-ming, ZHANG Wei, ZHU Li-fang, YAO Ming-hui. Antitumor activities of kushen flavonoids in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 51-59
[5] Min Cheng, Qiong Feng, Shu-wen Qian, Hui Gao, Cui-qing Zhu. Preliminary assay of p-amyloid binding elements in heart-beneficial recipe. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 68-72
[6] Ning-qun Wang, Liang-duo Jiang, Zong-xing Li. Research progress in asthma-related quality of life. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 93-97
[7] Jing-yuan Mao, Chang-xiao Liu, Heng-he Wang, Guang-li Wei , Zhen-peng Zhang, Jie Xing, Wang Xian liang , Ying-fei Bi . Effects of Shenmai Injection on serum concentration and pharmacokinetics of digoxin in dogs with heart failure. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1070-1074
[8] Zhi-mei Wang, Bin Zhang. A study on translation of ellipses in Huangdi Neijing from perspective of hermeneutic theory. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1097-1100
[9] Gui Yu, Jie Wang. Thinking on building the network cardiovasology of Chinese medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1206-1210
[10] Pedro Saganha João, Doenitz Christoph, Greten Tobias, Efferth Thomas, J. Greten Henry. Qigong therapy for physiotherapists suffering from burnout: a preliminary study. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1233-1239