Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2009, Vol. 7 ›› Issue (5): 428-433.doi: 10.3736/jcim20090506

• Original Experimental Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of Urtica dioica extract on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats

Marjan Nassirl-Asla,Farzaneh Zamansoltianib,Esmail Abbasla,Mohammad-Mehdi Daneshic,Amir-Abdollah Zangivanda   

  1. a Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin 341197-5981, Iran
    b Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin 341197-5981, Iran
    c Department of Laboratory Sciences, Qods Hospital, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin 341197-5981, Iran
  • Received:2008-10-30 Accepted:2009-03-03 Online:2009-05-20 Published:2009-05-15

Objective

To investigate the effects of extract of Urtica dioica, a perennial herb in Iran, on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats.
Methods

The effects of Urtica dioica extract were tested by using it as a supplement in a high-cholesterol diet. Male rats were fed a high cholesterol diet (10 mL/kg) for 4 weeks with Urtica dioica extract (100 or 300 mg/kg) or 10 mg/kg lovastatin supplementation to study the hypocholesterolemic effects of Urtica dioica on plasma lipid levels, hepatic enzymes activities, and liver histopathological changes.
Results

Urtica dioica extract at 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and also markedly decreased liver enzymes and weight in animals with a high cholesterol diet. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that in the 100 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group, the appearance of the liver cells was similar to the control group, and steatosis and inflammation were not found. In the 300 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group, mild steatosis was observed but mononuclear inflammatory infiltration was not found.
Conclusion

The hepatic histopathological results reflect the correlation of Urtica dioica extract with both liver weight and the levels of plasma TC and LDL-C. These results indicate that Urtica dioica extract has hypocholesterolemic effects in the animal model.

Key words: Alcoholic extract, Urtica dioica, Hypercholesterolemia, Rats

"

Group n TC LDL-C TG HDL-C
Control 10 3.70±0.10 1.96±0.10 2.05±0.20 1.30±0.10
Untreated 10 9.65±0.10** 3.26±0.10** 2.60±0.50 1.25±0.05
Lovastatin (10 mg/kg) 10 8.26±0.05** 2.94±0.07** 2.30±0.30 1.03±0.04
Extract of Urtica dioica (100 mg/kg) 10 7.48±0.50**△△ 2.58±0.06**△△ 2.21±0.05 1.10±0.10
Extract of Urtica dioica (300 mg/kg) 10 8.52±0.02** 2.84±0.01**△△ 2.60±0.05 1.20±0.10

"

Group n AST (U/L) ALT (U/L) LW/BW ratio
Control 10 95±30 94±6 0.040 3±0.000 8
Untreated 10 248±39** 173±30** 0.061 4±0.004 0**
Lovastatin (10 mg/kg) 10 59±10 90±7 0.060 4±0.003 5**
Extract of Urtica dioica (100 mg/kg) 10 12±10 86±19 0.057 3±0.001 5
Extract of Urtica dioica (300 mg/kg) 10 74±9 102±4 0.056 2±0.002 4

Figure 1

HE stained section of the rat liver (Light microscopy, ×100) A: Control group; B: Untreated group; C: Lovastatin (10 mg/kg) group; D: Extract of Urtica dioica (100 mg/kg) group; E: Extract of Urtica dioica (300 mg/kg) group."

[1] Loscalzo J, Libby P, Braunwald E . Disorder of cardiovascular disorders. In: Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J. Harrison’s principles of internal medicine. 17th ed. New York: Mc Graw Hill Companies Inc. 2008: 1375, 1378, 1505.
[2] Byington RP, Jukema JW, Salonen JT, Pitt B, Bruschke AV, Hoen H, Furberg CD, Mancini GB . Reduction in cardiovascular events during pravastatin therapy. Pooled analysis of clinical events of the Pravastatin Atherosclerosis Intervention Program[J]. Circulation, 1995,92(9):2419-2425
doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.92.9.2419
[3] Delsing DJ, Offerman EH, van Duyvenvoorde W, van Der Boom H, de Wit EC, Gijbels MJ, van Der Laarse A, Jukema JW, Havekes LM, Princen HM .Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor avasimibe reduces atherosclerosis in addition to its cholesterol-lowering effect in ApoE*3-Leiden mice[J]. Circulation, 2001,103(13):1778-1786
doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.103.13.1778
[4] Nofer JR, Kehrel B, Fobker M, Levkau B , Assmann G, von Eckardstein A.HDL and arteriosclerosis: beyond reverse cholesterol transport[J]. Atherosclerosis, 2002,16(1):1-16
[5] Bok SH, Lee SH, Park YB, Bae KH, Son KH, Jeong TS, Choi MS . Plasma and hepatic cholesterol and hepatic activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase and acyl CoA: cholesterol transferase are lower in rats fed citrus peel extract or a mixture of citrus bioflavonoids[J]. J Nutr, 1999,129(6):1182-1185
doi: 10.1093/jn/129.6.1182
[6] Havsteen BH . The biochemistry and medical significance of the flavonoids[J]. Pharmacol Ther, 2002,96(2-3):67-202
doi: 10.1016/S0163-7258(02)00298-X
[7] Heber D . PDR for herbal medicines(3rd ed)[M]. Montvale: Thomson Health Care, Inc, 2004,( 3rd ed):794
[8] Gulcin I, Kufrevioglu OI, Oktay M, Buyukokuroglu ME . Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcer and analgesic activities of nettle(Urtica dioica L.)[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2004,90(2-3):205-215
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2003.09.028
[9] Turkdogan MK, Ozbek H, Yener Z, Tuncer I, Uygan I, Ceylan E .The role of Urtica dioica and Nigella sativa in the prevention of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats[J]. Phytother Res, 2003,17(8):942-946
doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1099-1573
[10] Kanter M, Coskun O, Budancamanak M . Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats[J]. World J Gastroenterol, 2005,11(42):6684-6688
doi: 10.3748/wjg.v11.i42.6684
[11] El Haouari M, Bnouham M, Bendahou M, Aziz M, Ziyyat A, Legssyer A, Mekhif H . Inhibition of rat platelet aggregation by Urtica dioica leaves extracts[J]. Phytother Res, 2006,20(7):568-572
doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1099-1573
[12] Testai L, Chericoni S, Calderone V, Nencioni G, Nieri P, Morelli I, Martinotti E . Cardiovascular effects of Urtica dioica L.(Urticaceae) roots extracts: in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2002,81(1):105-109
doi: 10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00055-7
[13] Mavi A, Terzi Z, Ozgen U, Yildirim A, Coskun M . Antioxidant properties of some medicinal plants: Prangos ferulacea(Apiaceae), Sedum sempervivoides(Crassulaceae), Malva neglecta(Malvaceae), Cruciata taurica(Rubiaceae), Rosa pimpinellifolia(Rosaceae), Galium verum subsp. verum(Rubiaceae)[J]. Biol Pharm Bull, 2004,27(5):702-705
doi: 10.1248/bpb.27.702
[14] Vogel HG, Vogel WH . Drug discovery and evaluation, pharmacological assay(2nd ed)[M]. Berlin: Springer, 1997,( 2nd ed):1096
[15] Jeon SM, Park YB, Choi MS . Antihypercholesterole-mic property of naringin alters plasma and tissue lipids, cholesterol-regulating enzymes, fecal sterol and tissue morphology in rabbits[J]. Clin Nutr, 2004,23(5):1025-1034
doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2004.01.006
[16] Moghadasian MH . Experimental atherosclerosis: a historical overview[J]. Life Sci, 2002,70(8):855-865
doi: 10.1016/S0024-3205(01)01479-5
[17] Burstein PJ, Draznin B, Johnson CJ, Schalch DS . The effect of hypothyroidism on growth, serum growth hormone, the growth hormone-dependent somatomedin, insulin-like growth factor, and its carrier protein in rats[J]. Endocrinology, 1979,104(4):1107-1111
doi: 10.1210/endo-104-4-1107
[18] Avci G, Kupeli E, Eryavuz A, Yesilada E, Kucukkurt I . Antihypercholesterolaemic and antioxidant activity assessment of some plants used as remedy in Turkish folk medicine[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2006,107(3):418-423
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.032
[19] Daher CF, Baroody KG, Baroody GM . Effect of Urtica dioica extract intake upon blood lipid profile in the rats[J]. Fitoterapia, 2006,77(3):183-188
doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2006.01.010
[20] Choe SC, Kim HS, Jeong TS, Bok SH, Park YB . Naringin has an antiatherogenic effect with the inhibition of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in hypercholesterolemic rabbits[J]. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol, 2001,38(6):947-955
doi: 10.1097/00005344-200112000-00017
[21] Al Kanhal MA, Ahmad F, Al Othman AA, Arif Z, Al Orf S, Al Murshed KS . Effects of pure and oxidized cholesterol-rich diet on some biochemical parameters in rats[J]. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2002,53(5):381-388
doi: 10.1080/0963748021000044723
[22] Meguro S, Higashi K, Hase T, Honda Y, Otsuka A, Tokimitsu I, Itakura H . Solubilization of phytosterols in diacylglycerol versus triacylglycerol improves the serum cholesterol-lowering effect[J]. Eur J Clin Nut, 2001,55(7):513-517
doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601173
[23] Obertreis B, Giller K, Teucher T, Behnke B, Schmitz H . Anti-inflammatory effect of Urtica dioica folia extract in comparison to caffeic malic acid[J]. Arznemittelforschung, 1996,46(1):52-56
[24] Khalili M, Sahraee H, Hassanpour Ezati M . Anti-inflammatory effects of alcoholic Stinging Nettle extract in male NMRI rats[J]. J Med Herb, 2007,6(22):46-53
[25] Farmer JA . Aggressive lipid therapy in the statin era[J]. Prog Cardiovas Dis, 1998,41(2):71-94
doi: 10.1016/S0033-0620(98)80006-6
[26] Iseri S, Ercan F, Gedik N, Yuksel M, Alican I . Sim-vastatin attenuates cisplatin-induced kidney and liver damage in rats[J]. Toxicology, 2007,230(2-3):256-264
doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2006.11.073
[1] Morufu Eyitayo Balogun, Elizabeth Enohnyaket Besong, Jacinta Nkechi Obimma, Ogochukwu Sophia Mbamalu, Fankou Serges Athanase Djobissie. Protective roles of Vigna subterranea (Bambara nut) in rats with aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(5): 342-349.
[2] Lucky Legbosi Nwidu, Raphael Ellis Teme. Hot aqueous leaf extract of Lasianthera africana (Icacinaceae) attenuates rifampicin-isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(4): 263-272.
[3] Keshav Raj Paudel, Ung-Won Lee, Dong-Wook Kim. Chungtaejeon, a Korean fermented tea, prevents the risk of atherosclerosis in rats fed a high-fat atherogenic diet. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(2): 134-142.
[4] Kylie Connolly, Douglas Jackson, Candice Pullen, Andrew Fenning. Alpha-adrenoceptor antagonism by Crassostrea gigas oyster extract inhibits noradrenaline-induced vascular contraction in Wistar rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(3): 194-200.
[5] Hussein O. B. Oloyede, Matthew C. Adaja, Taofeek O. Ajiboye, Musa O. Salawu. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male albino rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(2): 105-114.
[6] Udhaya Lavinya Baskaran, Sherry Joseph Martin, Rasool Mahaboobkhan, Sabina Evan Prince. Protective role of Triphala, an Indian traditional herbal formulation, against the nephrotoxic effects of bromobenzene in Wistar albino rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(2): 115-121.
[7] Anirudha A. Lande, Shirishkumar D. Ambavade, Uma S. Swami, Prafulla P. Adkara Prashant D. Ambavade, Arun B. Waghamare. Saponins isolated from roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum reduce acute and chronic inflammation and histone deacetylase. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(1): 25-33.
[8] Elizabeth Abidemi Balogun, Sylvia Orume Malomo, Joseph Oluwatope Adebayo, Ahmed Adebayo Ishola, Ayodele Olufemi Soladoye, Lawrence Aderemi Olatunji, Olatunji Matthew Kolawole, Stephen Olubunmi Oguntoye, Abiola Samuel Babatunde, Oluwole Busayo Akinola . In vivo antimalarial activity and toxicological effects of methanolic extract of Cocos nucifera (Dwarf red variety) husk fibre. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(6): 504-511.
[9] Xin-fang Zhang, Ji Zhu, Wen-ye Geng, Shu-jun Zhao, Chuan-wei Jiang, Sheng-rong Cai, Miao Cheng, Chuan-yun Zhou, Zi-bing Liu. Electroacupuncture at Feishu (BL13) and Zusanli (ST36) down-regulates the expression of orexins and their receptors in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(5): 417-424.
[10] Urmila Aswar, Mayuri Gurav, Ganesh More, Khaled Rashed, Manoj Aswar. Effect of aqueous extract of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl. on postmenopausal syndrome in ovariectomized rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(5): 439-446.
[11] Benjamin Perry, Junzeng Zhang, Tarek Saleh, Yanwen Wang. Liuwei Dihuang, a traditional Chinese herbal formula, suppresses chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in obese rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(5): 447-454.
[12] Upendarrao Golla, Praveen Kumar Gajam, Solomon Sunder Bhimathati. Evaluation of diuretic and laxative activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf in rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(4): 372-378.
[13] Qian Zhang, Xin-hua Xiao, Ming Li, Wen-hui Li, Miao Yu, Hua-bing Zhang, Fan Ping, Zhi-xin Wang, Jia Zheng ​. Chromium-containing traditional Chinese medicine, Tianmai Xiaoke Tablet improves blood glucose through activating insulin-signaling pathway and inhibiting PTP1B and PCK2 in diabetic rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(3): 162-170.
[14] Amir Rashidian​, Saeed Mehrzadi, Ali Reza Ghannadi, Parvin Mahzooni, Samira Sadr, Mohsen Minaiyan​. Protective effect of ginger volatile oil against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats: A light microscopic evaluation. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(2): 115-120.
[15] Cheng Huang​. Natural modulators of liver X receptors. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(2): 76-85.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Li Zhou, Hong-xing Zhang, Ling-guang Liu, Wen-jun Wan. Effect of electro-acupuncture at Fenglong (GV 16) on nitric oxide and endothelin in rats with hyperlipidemia. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 89-92
[2] Yan-bo Zhu , Qi Wang, Cheng-yu Wu, Guo-ming Pang, Jian-xiong Zhao, Shi-lin Shen, Zhong-yuan Xia , Xue Yan . Logistic regression analysis on relationships between traditional Chinese medicine constitutional types and overweight or obesity. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1023-1035
[3] Ya-bing Zhou, Jian-er Yu, Jie Wu, Li Bai, Li-li Huo, Xin-guang Zhang, Li-qing Li . Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Bushen Gubiao Recipe on toll-like receptor 4 and CD4 +CD25 +foxp3 +regulatory T cells in mice with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1053-1059
[4] Ya-hui Liang , Ping Li, Jing-xia Zhao, Xin Liu, Qi-fu Huang. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid and arsenic trioxide regulate the productions and activities of matrix metalloproteinases in human skin fibroblasts and human leukemia cell line THP-1. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1060-1069
[5] Dong-tao Li, Jian Wang , Hong-yang Jiang , Feng-lei Shi , Fu-yu Li , Ji-hong Liu , Yong-mei Cheng , Nan Yan , Ai-hua Hu, Mei-zeng Zhang , Jie Li, Ling-bo Wei , Rong-qin Jiang. Quantitative evaluation of the degrees of traditional Chinese medicine qualitative syndromes of osteoporosis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1254-1262
[6] Xiao Zhang , Bing-bing Ning , Shuang Ren , Li-jun Zhang , Wen-meng Zhang , Jia-mei Chen , Gao-feng Chen , Hua Zhang , Yong-ping Mu , Ping Liu. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Xiaopi Pill in preventing rats from dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1286-1292
[7] Ji Chen, Qin Pan, Li-shuang Ye, Jia-ling Huang. English translation of cultural aspects of the titles of traditional Chinese medicine classics based on the skopos theory. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1316-1320
[8] Oluwole Busayo Akinola. Should complementary and alternative medicine familiarisation modules be taught in African medical schools?. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2011, 9(11): 1165-1169
[9] Lei Chen, Xiao-ying Bi, Li-xun Zhu, Yi-qing Qiu, Su-ju Ding, Ben-qiang Deng. Flavonoids of puerarin versus tanshinone ⅡA for ischemic stroke: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2011, 9(11): 1215-1220
[10] Yong Miao Edwin. Clinical critical qualitative evaluation of the selected randomized controlled trials in current acupuncture researches for low back pain. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(12): 1133-1146