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Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2014, Vol. 12 ›› Issue (5): 439-446.doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(14)60042-X

• Research Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effect of aqueous extract of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl. on postmenopausal syndrome in ovariectomized rats

Urmila Aswara, Mayuri Gurava, Ganesh Morea, Khaled Rashedb, Manoj Aswara   

  1. Department of Pharmacology, Sinhgad Institute of Pharmacy, Narhe, Pune 411041, India
    Department of Pharmacognosy, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza 12411, Egypt
  • Received:2014-02-03 Accepted:2014-03-11 Online:2014-09-10 Published:2014-09-15


Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl. (Solanaceae) is present in many Ayurveda compound formulations including Chavanaprasha and Dasamoolarishta. The whole plant is used in conditions such as inflammation, constipation and promoting conception in females. In the present study, we carried out different tests to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Solanum xanthocarpum (SXE) in postmenopausal syndrome. 


The study was carried out in bilaterally ovariectomized one-month-old Wistar rats (40-50 g). Bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=6) receiving different treatments, consisting of a vehicle (distilled water), aqueous extract of Solanum xanthocarpum at two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) administered orally daily for 90 d and standard drug β estradiol at a dose of 1 mg/kg administered subcutaneously biweekly for 90 d. Estrogenic activity was assessed by vaginal cornification, sexual behavior, serum estradiol and uterine weight to body weight ratio. Antiosteoporotic activity was assessed on the basis of biomechanical and biochemical parameters followed by histopathological studies, and antidepressant activity was assessed by forced swim test. 


SXE showed presence of steroids. At the dose of 200 mg/kg, it significantly improved all the parameters of sexual behavior (P<0.01), caused vaginal cornification, and increased serum estradiol and uterine weight (P<0.01). It also significantly improved all the parameters of bone strength as well as depression (P<0.01). Histopathology of bones confirmed the above findings. Conclusion
The study indicated that SXE may provide an effective treatment in the prevention of postmenopausal symptoms.

Key words: Antidepressant, Herbal drugs, Solanaceae, Postmenopausal Syndrome, Ovariectomy, Rats

Figure 1

Effects of SXE on sexual behaviorData represented are mean number of observations ± standard error of mean of sexual behavior in ovariectomized rats (n=6) analyzed by two-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc test. (A) Anogenital grooming; (B) Darting; (C) Lordosis. **P<0.01, vs sham group; △△P<0.01, vs control group. AG: anogenital grooming; SXE: aqueous extract of Solanum xanthocarpum."




Figure 2

Femoral histopathological changes stained by hematoxylin and eosin(A) Sham group epiphyseal femoral region showed normal, dense and uniform trabeculae; (B) Control group epiphyseal femoral region showed sparse thinning of trabeculae, loss of interconnectivity and widening of intertrabecular spaces, and trabeculae showed marked disruptive and lytic changes; (C) β Estradiol (1 mg/kg) group epiphyseal femoral region showed complete restoration of normal architecture; (D) Aqueous extract of Solanum xanthocarpum (SXE, 200 mg/kg) showed normal, dense and uniform trabeculae; (E) SXE (400 mg/kg) showed trabecular restoration (40×)."

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