Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2015, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (1): 25-33.doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(15)60157-1

• Research Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Saponins isolated from roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum reduce acute and chronic inflammation and histone deacetylase

Anirudha A. Landea,Shirishkumar D. Ambavadea,Uma S. Swamia, Prafulla P. Adkara, Prashant D. Ambavadeb,Arun B. Waghamareb   

  1. a Department of Pharmacology, JSPM’s Jayawantrao Sawant College of Pharmacy and Research, University of Pune, Hadapasar, Pune-411028, India
    b Haffkine Biopharmaceutical Corporation Ltd., Pimpri, Pune-411018, India
  • Received:2014-05-24 Accepted:2014-10-30 Online:2015-01-10 Published:2015-01-15

The roots of Chlorophytum borivilanum are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of arthritis and inflammation. The aim of the work was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of isolated saponins from Chlorophytum borivilianum (ISCB).
The ISCB was screened using the carrageenan-induced paw edema, histamine-induced paw edema, cotton pellet-induced granuloma, and Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats at orally administered doses of 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg. Effect of ISCB on histone deacetylase (HDAC) level was measured by the HDAC assay at the highest dose (30 mg/kg).
The results showed that the ISCB significantly reduced carrageenan-induced inflammation, histamine-induced inflammation, cotton pellet-induced granuloma and Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. The ISCB at a dose of 30 mg/kg significantly inhibited HDAC level in rat paw tissue.
It is concluded that saponins isolated from roots of C. borivilianum possess anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic properties. ISCB may act by inhibiting histamine, prostaglandin and HDAC. This suggests that ISCBs have potential for therapeutic use in the treatment of inflammation and arthritis.

Key words: Chlorophytum borivilianum, Plants, Medicinal, Saponin, Carrageenan, Inflammation, Arthritis, Histon deacetylase, Rats

[1] Subhashini N, Purnima S, Devi JA, Thirupathi AT, Lavanya N . Anti-inflammatory activity of Erythrina stricta Roxb in albino rats. Int J PharmTech Res, 2011,3(2):1014-1018
[2] Wu JT, Wu LL . Acute and chronic inflammation: Effect of the risk factor(s) on the progression of the early inflammatory response to the oxidative and nitrosative stress. J Biomed Lab Sci, 2007,19(3):71-75
[3] Grivenninkov SI, Greten FR, Karin M . Immunity, inflammation, and cancer. Cell, 2010,140(6):883-889
doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.01.025
[4] Dhikanv V, Singh S, Pande S, Chawala A, Anand KS . Non-steroidal drug induced gastrointestinal toxicity: mechanisms and management. J Indian Acad Clin Med, 2003,4(4):315-322
[5] Elango V, Oliver C, Raghu PS . Anti-inflammatory activity of the flower extracts of Solanum nigrum in rats. Hygeia J Drugs Med, 2012,4(1):59-61
[6] Consumer Reports Health Best Buy Drugs. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: Treating osteoarthritis and pain. Consumers Union of United States, Inc. 2013: 1-22.
[7] Punchard NA, Whelan CJ, Adcock I . The Journal of Inflammation. J Inflamm (Lond), 2004,1(1):1-4
[8] Grausenburger R, Bilic I, Boucheron N, Zupkovitz G, El-Housseiny L, Tschismarov R, Zhang Y, Rembold M, Gaisberger M, Hartl A, Epstein MM, Matthias P, Seiser C, Ellmeier W . Conditional deletion of histone deacetylase 1 in T cells leads to enhanced airway inflammation and increased Th2 cytokine production. J Immunol, 2010,185(6):3489-3497
[9] Calixto JB, Campos MM, Santos ARS . Botanical analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Ethnopharmacology, 2011,2:36-61
[10] Deore SL, Khadabadi SS . Screening of antistress properties of Chlorophytum borivilianum. Pharmacologyonline, 2009,1:320-328
[11] Rath SK, Panja AK . Clinical evaluation of root tubers of Shweta Musali(Chlorophytum borivilianum L.) and its effect on semen and testosterone. Ayu, 2013,34(3):273-275
doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.123118
[12] Panda SK, Das D, Tripathy NK . Anti-inflammatory potential of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. & Fern. root tubers. J Global Trends Pharm Sci, 2011,2(2):242-251
[13] Sharma SK, Kumar M . Hepatoprotective effect of Chlorophytum borivilianum root extract against arsenic intoxication. Pharmacologyonline, 2011,3:1021-1032
[14] Chakraborthy GS, Zafar R, Aeri V . Anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of Chlorophytum borivilianum. J Pharm Res, 2008,1(1):58-60
[15] Panda SK, Das D, Tripathy NK . Preclinical evaluation of Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. & Fern. root tubers. Int J Pharmacol Bio Sci, 2011,5(2):1-8
[16] Sharma G, Kumar M . Morphometroical study of seminiferous tubules of mice after using arsenic and Chlorophytum borivilianum. Pharmacologyonline, 2011,2:348-359
[17] Thakur M, Chsuhsn NS, Bhargava S, Dixit VK . A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some Ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats. Arch Sex Behav, 2009,38(6):1009-1015
doi: 10.1007/s10508-008-9444-8 pmid: 19139984
[18] Acharya D, Mitaine-Offer AC, Kaushik N, Miyamoto T, Paululat T, Lacaille-Dubois MA . Furostane-type steroidal saponins from the roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum. Helvetica Chimica Acta, 2008,91:2262-2269
doi: 10.1002/hlca.200890246
[19] Acharya D, Mitaine-Offer AC, Kaushik N, Miyamoto T, Pauluat T, Mirjolet JF, Duchamp O, Lacaille-Dubois MA . Cytotoxic spirostane-type saponins from the roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum. J Nat Prod, 2009,72(1):177-181
doi: 10.1021/np800559z pmid: 19128156
[20] Singh D, Pokhriyal B, Joshi YM, Kadam V . Phytopharmacological aspects of Chlorophytum borivilianum(safed musli): A review. Int J Res Phram Chem, 2012,2(3):853-859
[21] Acharya D, Mitaine-Offer AC, Kaushik N, Miyamoto T, Paululat T, Lacaille-Dubois MA . Steroidal saponins from the roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum. Planta Med. 2008; 74. PB23.
doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1084368
[22] Deore SL, Khadabadi SS . Larvicidal activity of the saponin fractions of Chlorophytum borivilianum santapau and Fernandes. J Entomol Nematol, 2009,1(5):64-66
[23] OECD Guidelines for the testing Chemicals, section 4. Test No.425. Acute oral toxicity. Statistical programme (AOT 425 Stat pgm) version: 1.0. 2010.
[24] Vogel HG . Drug discovery and evaluation: Pharmacological assays.2nd ed[M]. New York: Spinger-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2002: 759-802
[25] Saénz MT, García MD, Fernández MA . Anti-inflammatory activity and acute toxicity of Anredera leptostachys. Phytomedicine, 1998,5(3):195-198
doi: 10.1016/S0944-7113(98)80027-5 pmid: 23195840
[26] ELISA kit for histone deacetylases 1 (HDAC1) organism: Rattus norvegicus (Rat) (Package insert) China: Unique product superb client favorite nicest service (USCN life science, Inc). 9th ed. 2013: 1-8.
[27] Vinegar R, Schreiber W, Hugo R . Biphasic development of carrageenan oedema in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 1969,166(1):96-103
doi: 10.1002/jps.2600581240 pmid: 5776026
[28] Lo TN, Almeida AP, Beaven MA . Dextran and carrageenan evoke different inflammatory responses in rat with respect to composition of infiltrates and effect of indomethacin. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 1982,221(1):261-267
[29] Suleyman H, Gul HI, Gul M, Alkan M, Gocer F . Anti-inflammatory activity of bis(3-aryl-3-oxo-propyl)methylamine hydrochloride in rat. Biol Pharm Bull, 2007,30(1):63-67
doi: 10.1248/bpb.30.63
[30] Pereira LP, Silva KES, Silva RO, Assreuy AMS, Pereira MG . Anti-inflammatory polysaccharides of Azadirachta indica seed tegument. Rev Bras Farmacogn, 2012,22(3):617-622
doi: 10.1590/S0102-695X2012005000031
[31] Vasconcelos SM, Sales TM, Lima N, Lobato FG, Macedo DS, Filho MB, Leal AM, Fonteles MF, Sousa FF, Oliveira JL, Viana SB . Anti-inflammatory activities of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Erythrina velutina and E. mulungu in mice. Rev Bras Farmacogn, 2011,21(6):1155-1158
doi: 10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000134
[32] Channa S, Dar A, Anjum S, Yaqoob M, Atta-Ur-Rahman . Anti-inflammatory activity of Bacopa monniera in rodents. J Ethnopharmacol, 2006,1(2):286-289
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.10.009 pmid: 16343831
[33] Rachchh MA, Yadav PN, Gokani RH, Jain SM . Anti-inflammatory activity of Benincasa hispida fruit. Int J Res Pharm Bio Sci, 2011,2(3):98-106
[34] Tamaddonfard E, Farshid AA, Hosseini L . Crocin alleviates the local paw edema induced by histamine in rats. Avicenna J Phytomed, 2012,2(2):97-104
doi: 10.4103/2231-0770.110743 pmid: 23826557
[35] Patel PP, Patil PH . Anti-inflammatory activity of saponin rich fraction isolated from the Thespesia populnea(L.) leaves. Int J Res Pharm Biomed Sci, 2012,3(4):1526-1532
[36] Katiyar NS, Rao NV, Gangwar AK . Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of stem extracts of Cuscuta reflexa(Roxb) in rats. Int J Res Pharm Biomed Sci, 2012,3(4):1805-1808
[37] Chitme HR, Patel NP . Antiarthritis activity of Aristolochia bracteata extract in experimental animals. Open Natural Products J, 2009,2:6-15
doi: 10.2174/1874848100902010006
[38] Rajendran R, Krishnakumar E . Anti-arthritic activity of Premna serratifolia Linn. wood against adjuvant induced arthritis. Avicenna J Med Biotech, 2010,2(2):101-106
pmid: 3558150
[39] Ekambaram S, Perumal SS, Subramanian V . Evaluation of antiarthritic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn seeds in Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritic rat model. BMC Complement Altern Med, 2010,10(56):1-9
doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-1
[40] Tripathy S, Pradhan D, Anjana M . Anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic potential of Ammania baccifera Linn. Int J Res Pharm Biomed Sci, 2010,1(3):1-8
[41] Kore KJ, Shete RV, Desai NV . Anti-arthritic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Lawsonia innermis. Int J Drug Dev Res, 2011,3(4):217-224
[42] Radhika P, Rao PR, Archana J, Rao NK . Anti-inflammatory activity of a new sphingosine derivative and cembrenoid diterpene(Lobohedleolide) isolated from marine soft corals of Sinularia crassa Tixier-Durivault and Lobophytum species of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Biol Pharm Bull, 2005,28(7):1311-1313
doi: 10.1248/bpb.28.1311
[43] Kaneria MS, Naik SR, Kohali RK . Anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and analgesic activity of a herbal formulation(DRF/AY/4012). Indian J Exp Biol, 2007,45(3):278-284
doi: 10.1097/00041433-200306000-00009 pmid: 17373374
[44] Sireeratawong S, Itharat A, Lerdvuthisopon N, Piyabhan P, Khonsung P, Boonraeng S, Jaijoy K . Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of the ethanol extract of Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn. ISRN Pharmacology, 2012,2012:480265
[45] Ramprasath VR, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P . Anti-inflammatory effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Nut extract in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. Biol Pharm Bull, 2004,27(12):2028-2031
doi: 10.1248/bpb.27.2028
[46] Grabiec AM, Krausz S, de Jager W, Burakowski T, Groot D, Sanders ME, Prakken BJ, Maslinski W, Eldering E, Tak PP, Reedquist KA . Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress inflammatory activation of rheumatoid arthritis patient synovial macrophages and tissue. J Immunol, 2010,184(5):2718-2728
doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.0901467
[47] Adcock IM . HDAC inhibitors as anti-inflammatory agents. Br J Pharmacol, 2007,150(7):829-831
doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0707166 pmid: 17325655
[1] Chiung-Hui Huang, Mei-Ling Yeh, Fang-Pey Chen, Daphne Wu. Low-level laser acupuncture reduces postoperative pain and morphine consumption in older patients with total knee arthroplasty: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(4): 321-328.
[2] Keat Lam Ho, Phaik Har Yong, Chee Woon Wang, Umah Rani Kuppusamy, Chek Tung Ngo, Festo Massawe, Zhi Xiang Ng. Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth and eye diseases: A review on phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(4): 292-304.
[3] Jia-yi Zhao, Jin Pu, Jian Fan, Xin-yu Feng, Jian-wen Xu, Rong Zhang, Yan Shang. Tanshinone IIA prevents acute lung injury by regulating macrophage polarization. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(3): 274-280.
[4] Célia Cristina Malaguti Figueiredo, Amanda da Costa Gomes, Filipe Oliveira Granero, João Luiz Bronzel Junior, Luciana Pereira Silva, Valdecir Farias Ximenes, Regildo Márcio Gonçalves da Silva. Antiglycation and antioxidant activities of the crude extract and saponin fraction of Tribulus terrestris before and after microcapsules release. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(2): 153-162.
[5] Peter Bablis, Henry Pollard, Anthony L. Rosner. Stress reduction via neuro-emotional technique to achieve the simultaneous resolution of chronic low back pain with multiple inflammatory and biobehavioural indicators: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(2): 135-144.
[6] Ye-juan Jia, Tian-yu Li, Peng Han, Yu Chen, Li-jia Pan, Chun-sheng Jia. Effects of different courses of moxibustion treatment on intestinal flora and inflammation of a rat model of knee osteoarthritis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(2): 173-181.
[7] Victor Abou Nehmi Filho, Gilson Masahiro Murata, Ruan Carlos Macêdo de Moraes, Gabriely Cristina Alves Lima, Danielle Araujo de Miranda, Katrin Radloff, Raquel Galvão Figuerêdo Costa, Joyce de Cassia Rosa de Jesus, Jéssica Alves De Freitas, Nayara Izabel Viana, Ruan Pimenta, Katia Ramos Moreira Leite, José Pinhata Otoch, Ana Flávia Marçal Pessoa. A novel supplement with yeast β-glucan, prebiotic, minerals and Silybum marianum synergistically modulates metabolic and inflammatory pathways and improves steatosis in obese mice. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(5): 439-450.
[8] Ju-Yeon Park, Young-Won Kwon, Sun-Ah Kim, Sun-Dong Park, Chang-Hyun Kim, Jin-Hee Kim, Ju-Hee Lee. Polyherbal formula SC-E3 inhibits rheumatoid arthritis activity in a mouse model of type-II collagen-induced arthritis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(3): 265-273.
[9] Na Zhi, Qian Mo, Shuo Yang, Yuan-xing Qin, Hao Chen, Zeng-guang Wu, Cai-hong Lan, Jun Zhang, Yin-long Li. Treatment of pulmonary fibrosis in one convalescent patient with corona virus disease 2019 by oral traditional Chinese medicine decoction: A case report. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(2): 185-190.
[10] Bing-rong Li, Shi-yun Shao, Long Yuan, Ru Jia, Jian Sun, Qing Ji, Hua Sui, Li-hong Zhou, Yi Zhang, Hui Liu, Qi Li, Yan Wang, Bi-meng Zhang. Effects of mild moxibustion on intestinal microbiome and NLRP3 inflammasome in rats with 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(2): 144-157.
[11] Johannes Loeser, Brigitte Layer, Christopher Plata, Klaus-Maria Perrar, Tim Hucho, Rebecca Kulbida. Hirudotherapy attenuates arthritic pain in patients with various chronic pain syndromes: A retrospective analysis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(5): 425-433.
[12] Swatantra Kumar, Vimal K Maurya, Debadatta Nayak, Anil Khurana, Raj K Manchanda, Srinivasulu Gadugu, Madan LB Bhatt, Shailendra K Saxena. Calcarea carbonica treatment rescues lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human mononuclear cells via downregulation of inducible cyclooxygenase pathway. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(5): 441-449.
[13] Sitthichai Iamsaard, Supatcharee Arun, Jaturon Burawat, Supataechasit Yannasithinon, Saranya Tongpan, Sudtida Bunsueb, Natthapol Lapyuneyong, Pannawat Choowong-in, Nareelak Tangsrisakda, Chadaporn Chaimontri, Wannisa Sukhorum. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity and reproductive toxicity of aqueous extract of Thai Mucuna pruriens seeds. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(3): 265-273.
[14] Kayode Ezekiel Adewole. Nigerian antimalarial plants and their anticancer potential: A review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(2): 92-113.
[15] Yogesh Subhash Biradar, Swathi Bodupally, Harish Padh. Evaluation of antiplasmodial properties in 15 selected traditional medicinal plants from India. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(1): 80-85.
Full text



[1] Wei-xiong Liang. Problems-solving strategies in clinical treatment guideline for traditional Chinese medicine and integrative medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 1-4
[2] Zhao-guo Li. Discussion on English translation of commonly used sentences in traditional Chinese medicine: part one. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 107-110
[3] Jun Hu, Jian-ping Liu. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 31
[4] Xue-mei Liu, Qi-fu Huang, Yun-ling Zhang, Jin-li Lou, Hong-sheng Liu, Hong Zheng. Effects of Tribulus terrestris L. saponion on apoptosis of cortical neurons induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation in rats. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 45-50
[5] . Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: Writing and editing for biomedical publication (Chinese version, part two). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1001-1005
[6] Daniel Weber, Janelle M Wheat, Geoffrey M Currie. Inflammation and cancer: Tumor initiation, progression and metastasis,and Chinese botanical medicines. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1006-1013
[7] Hong Liu , Guo-liang Zhang, Li Shen , Zhen Zeng, Bao-luo Zhou, Cheng-hai Liu, Guang Nie . Application and evaluation of a pseudotyped virus assay for screening herbs for anti-H5Nl avian influenza virus. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1036-1040
[8] Zhao-guo Li . A discussion of English translation of 1995 and 1997 Chinese National Standards of Traditional Chinese Medical Terminologies for Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1090-1096
[9] Rui Jin, Bing Zhang. A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple formations of herbal property (Part 1). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1198-1205
[10] Hui-min Liu, Xian-bo Wang, Yu-juan Chang, Li-li Gu. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of integrative medicine therapy for treatment of chronic severe hepatitis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1211-1228