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Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2010, Vol. 8 ›› Issue (9): 842-847.doi: 10.3736/jcim20100907

• Original Clinical Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Distribution characteristics of syndrome types in essential hypertension

 Wan-li Gua, Zai-xiang Shib,Yun-xu Yu b, Yu-wei Wub, Bao-wei Lua, Ka-kit Huic   

  1. a Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Liaocheng People^s Hospital, Liaocheng 252000, Shandong Province, China
    b National Integrative Medicine Center of Cardiovascular Diseases, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China
    c Center for East-West Medicine, University of California,Los Angeles,Los Angeles,CA 90032,USA
  • Received:2010-02-05 Accepted:2010-06-21 Online:2010-09-20 Published:2010-09-15


To investigate the distribution characteristics of syndrome types of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in essential hypertension and to explore the distribution rule of TCM syndromes.

 A multicenter, large-sample survey method of clinical epidemiology was applied to choose the patients with essential hypertension from North, Middle, and South China. A questionnaire was designed and filled in, then 477 untreated patients with first-diagnosed essential hypertension were selected and the information was recorded into FileMaker database. A cluster analysis method was utilized to study the TCM syndrome distribution rule of essential hypertension.

Two-step cluster analysis was done from 3 to 7 clusters. Seven clusters were appropriate, which included deficiency of heart and kidney qi, hyperactivity of liver-yang, deficiency of yin and yang, stagnation of phlegm-dampness, phlegm-heat (subtype of stagnation of phlegm-dampness), blood stasis obstructing collaterals, and other syndromes. The symptoms presenting high percentage in each cluster were more significant in TCM theory. The syndromes of hyperactivity of liver-yang (24.1%) and stagnation of phlegm-dampness (27.1%) presented the high percentages, and deficiency of heart and kidney qi (10.1%), deficiency of yin and yang (8.4%), and blood stasis obstructing collaterals (9.0%) presented the low percentages.

As compared with the current syndrome differentiation criteria, two-step cluster analysis results not only include the syndromes of deficiency of yin and yang, hyperactivity of liver-yang, stagnation of phlegm-dampness, but also cover qi deficiency and blood stasis.

Key words: Hypertension, Syndrome, Questionnaires, Survey methods, Cluster analysis, Clinical study, Evidence-based medicine

Table 1

Distribution of blood pressure classification and syndromes in patients with essential hypertension"

Table 2

Distribution of gender differences and syndromes in patients with essential hypertension"

Table 3

Distribution of regions and syndromes in patients with essential hypertension"

Table 4

Distribution of age ranges and syndromes in patients with essential hypertension"

Table 5

Distribution of body mass index and syndromes in patients with essential hypertension"

Table 6

Distribution of blood lipids, blood sugar and syndromes in patients with essential hypertension"

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