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Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2012, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (10): 1106-1119.doi: 10.3736/jcim20121007

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A theoretical and experimental study on the Fuzzy evaluation model of biological performance of Chinese materia medica with an either cold or hot herbal property

Rui Jin1, Bing Zhang1(), Xiao-qing Liu1, Chun-miao Xue1, Qian Zhang1, Lian-zhen Li1, Qian Zhao 1, Kang Li2   

  1. 1. School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100102, China
    2. School of Mathematical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 101871, China
  • Received:2012-03-21 Accepted:2012-05-08 Online:2012-10-20 Published:2018-10-15
  • Contact: Bing Zhang E-mail:zhangbing6@263.net

Objective: The concepts of cold and hot herbal properties in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), reflecting the efficacy trends of medicinal herbs, have the Fuzzy characteristics. It is suited for the application of Fuzzy mathematics in research of herbal properties. For a comprehensive evaluation of herbal properties, this work constructed and made a practice of the Fuzzy discrimination model regarding the biological performance of Chinese materia medica. .

Methods: Firstly, TCM formulas of cold or hot property were employed for setting the reference values and calculating the membership functions of cold and hot Fuzzy sets with Fisher discriminant. Then the model parameters of cold performance function (CPF) and hot performance function (HPF) were acquired. Second, the experimental data from studies on changes in multisystem indicators of animals given the classical cold formula (Sanhuang Fang) and hot formula (Jiangfugui Fang) were collected to calculate CPF and HPF. Then an experiment of administration of hot property herbs, Rougui (Cortex Cinnamomi) and Xianmao (Rhizoma Curculiginis), and cold property herbs, Huangbai (Cortex Phellodendri) and Zhizi (Fructus Gardeniae) to normal animals and animals with glucocorticoid-induced yang-deficiency or yin-deficiency state was designed. The relative changes in animal states were analyzed by the evaluation model to find the way in which herbal properties are represented.

Results: The HPF values of biological performance were higher than the CPF values in administration of Rougui to animals of normal (0.528>0.221), yang-deficiency (0.203>–0.490) and yin-deficiency (1.750>–0.479) states, and in administration of Xianmao to animals of normal (0.474>–1.601) and yang-deficiency (0.288>–1.923) states, which represented the hot property. The HPF values of biological performance were lower than the CPF values in administration of Huangbai to animals of normal (–0.870<0.798) and yang-deficiency (–0.339<0.194) states, and in administration of Zhizi to animals of yin-deficiency (–1.802<0.354) state, which represented the cold property.

Conclusion: The herbal properties and the biological performance characteristics of herbal formulas are ascertained by using the Fuzzy evaluation model. The personalities, as well as commonalities of herbal properties are key areas for focus because of the multi-approach biological performance of cold and hot property.

Key words: properties and flavous (TCD), cold (TCD), hot (TCD), expression of herbal properties, Fuzzy mathematics

Table 1

Experiment design for training data set"

Type Case load Biochemical indicators
(representation of medicine property)
Normal NC+NH X1 X2 XP
Group of cold
property formula
NC X1 X2 XP
Group of hot
property formula
NH X1 X2 XP

Table 2

Experiment design for testing data set"

Medicine type Body condition Case load Biochemical indicators (representation of medicine property)
Normal nc+nh X1 X2 XP
Deficiency-cold nc+nh X1 X2 XP
Deficiency-hot nc+nh X1 X2 XP
Cold property medicine Normal nc X1 X2 XP
Cold property medicine Deficiency-cold nc X1 X2 XP
Cold property medicine Deficiency-hot nc X1 X2 XP
Hot property medicine Normal nh X1 X2 XP
Hot property medicine Deficiency-cold nh X1 X2 XP
Hot property medicine Deficiency-hot nh X1 X2 XP

Table 3

Herbal medicines in experiment for training set"

Item Group of cold property formula Group of hot property formula
Administration agent Prepared slices of Chinese crude drugs
Proportioning


Radix ScutellariaeRhizoma CoptidisCortex Phellodendri
(1∶1∶1)
Rhizoma ZingiberisRadix Aconiti Lateralis PreparataCortex Cinnamomi (1∶1∶1)
Dosage 6 g/kg body weight 8 g/kg body weight

Table 4

Experimental method for training set"

Group Day 1 to day 14
1 Normal
2 Cold property Water decoction of cold property formula
3 Hot property Water decoction of hot property formula

Table 5

Experimental method for testing set"

Group Modeling (Day 1 to day 21) Administration (Day 15 to day 21)
Normal
Deficiency-cold model Hydrocortisone 20.0 mg/kg
Deficiency-hot model Dexamethasone 0.35 mg/kg
Administration of Rougui 30 g/kg
Normal Rougui water decoction
Deficiency-cold model Hydrocortisone 20.0 mg/kg Rougui water decoction
Deficiency-hot model Dexamethasone 0.35 mg/kg Rougui water decoction
Administration of Xianmao 12 g/kg
Normal Xianmao water decoction
Deficiency-cold model Hydrocortisone 20.0 mg/kg Xianmao water decoction
Deficiency-hot model Dexamethasone 0.35 mg/kg Xianmao water decoction
Administration of Huangbai 5 g/kg
Normal Huangbai water decoction
Deficiency-cold model Hydrocortisone 20.0 mg/kg Huangbai water decoction
Deficiency-hot model Dexamethasone 0.35 mg/kg Huangbai water decoction
Administration of Zhizi 2 g/kg
Normal Zhizi water decoction
Deficiency-cold model Hydrocortisone 20.0 mg/kg Zhizi water decoction
Deficiency-hot model Dexamethasone 0.35 mg/kg Zhizi water decoction

Table 6

Comparison of T3, T4, CS, E2 and T levels in rats of different groups ($\overline{x}$±s)"

Group n T3 (μg/L) T4 (μg/L) CS (μg/L) E2 (ng/L) T (μg/L)
Normal 76 0.70±0.12 79.29±13.24 7.44±3.33 134.94±48.33 1.84±1.20
Cold formula 38 0.64±0.13* 78.93±13.08 6.79±4.01 127.26±70.07 1.78±0.82
Hot formula 38 0.79±0.16* 83.87±8.65 8.72±2.92* 98.72±39.31* 1.91±2.42

Table 7

Comparison of IgM, IgG, C3 and C4 levels in rats of different groups ($\overline{x}$±s, mg/L)"

Group n IgM IgG C3 C4
Normal 76 39.23±9.84 55.66±18.50 47.72±4.21 5.05±1.31
Cold formula 38 44.58±8.43* 55.08±12.85 50.06±4.81* 4.87±1.53
Hot formula 38 49.46±11.43* 49.19±15.20 50.86±6.01* 5.67±1.34*

Table 8

Comparison of GLU, TC, TAG and UA levels in rats of different groups ($\overline{x}$±s, mmol/L)"

Group n GLU TC TAG UA
Normal 76 4.71±0.75 1.17±0.20 0.85±0.24 93.99±18.16
Cold formula 38 4.83±0.65 1.09±0.24* 0.81±0.25 106.20±30.08*
Hot formula 38 5.02±0.80* 1.29±0.25* 0.88±0.27 75.53±20.43*

Table 9

Comparison of TP, ALB, LAC and LDH levels in rats of different groups ($\overline{x}$±s)"

Group n TP (g/L) ALB (g/L) LAC (U/L) LDH (mmol/L)
Normal 76 63.19±4.35 27.56±1.54 5.66±0.83 1880.51±404.08
Cold formula 38 64.59±3.20 28.66±1.71* 6.22±1.68* 1781.53±439.89
Hot formula 38 65.92±5.63* 28.37±1.72* 6.17±0.65* 1957.56±339.44

Table 10

Comparison of BUN, CRE, ALT and AST levels in rats of different groups ($\overline{x}$±s)"

Group n BUN (μmol/L) CRE (μmol/L) ALT (U/L) AST (U/L)
Normal 76 6.31±0.66 41.89±10.52 80.37±11.08 182.84±35.05
Cold formula 38 6.09±0.61 40.04±9.54 75.81±10.90* 175.13±35.31
Hot formula 38 6.51±0.74 41.83±8.00 83.11±9.23 192.53±29.00

Table 11

Discriminant results between cold formula group and normal group"

Number Indicator Partial R-Square F value Pr
1 ALB 0.096 5 11.97 0.000 8
2 ALT 0.100 9 12.45 0.000 6
3 T3 0.082 5 9.89 0.002 1
4 BUN 0.064 8 7.55 0.007 0
5 UA 0.062 6 7.22 0.008 4
6 IgM 0.072 5 8.36 0.004 6
7 TC 0.036 6 4.03 0.047 3
8 C3 0.032 1 3.49 0.064 6
9 C4 0.042 6 4.63 0.033 8

Table 12

Discriminant results between hot formula group and normal group"

Number Indicator Partial R-Square F value Pr
1 IgM 0.179 7 24.53 <0.000 1
2 UA 0.141 9 18.36 <0.000 1
3 C3 0.084 2 10.11 0.001 9
4 IgG 0.068 8 8.06 0.005 4
5 CS 0.062 3 7.17 0.008 6
6 T 0.046 7 5.24 0.024 0
7 E2 0.040 3 4.45 0.037 2
8 TP 0.030 8 3.34 0.070 5
9 GLU 0.030 5 3.30 0.072 2
10 ALT 0.030 4 3.26 0.074 0

Figure 1

Cold performance function (blue) and hot performance function (red) "

Table 13

Comparison of T3, CS, E2 and T levels in rats of different groups ($\overline{x}$±s)"

Group n T3 (μg/L) CS (μg/L) E2 (ng/L) T (μg/L)
Normal 30 0.71±0.11 7.45±3.27 134.94±30.01 1.85±1.68
Deficiency-cold model 30 0.56±0.11* 6.34±1.79 147.74±39.17 1.67±1.49
Deficiency-hot model 30 0.99±0.23* 1.41±1.27* 142.31±23.81 2.78±2.30
Rougui
Normal 10 0.66±0.13 6.70±3.43 104.24±22.53* 0.49±1.28
Deficiency-cold model 10 0.63±0.10 6.38±2.70 135.37±67.28 1.79±2.28
Deficiency-hot model 9 0.95±0.14 0.94±0.89 155.09±46.65 4.80±2.21
Xianmao
Normal 10 0.64±0.12 8.85±3.13 89.41±10.83* 0.17±0.56*
Deficiency-cold model 10 0.65±0.10 5.89±3.11 84.66±13.09 0.80±1.32
Deficiency-hot model 10 0.98±0.13 1.03±0.86 93.74±13.82 3.25±1.95
Huangbai
Normal 10 0.61±0.10* 8.59±4.16 138.02±48.22 1.79±1.22
Deficiency-cold model 10 0.53±0.09 8.37±3.51 100.41±10.95 1.05±1.00
Deficiency-hot model 10 1.10±0.12 1.56±1.34 117.54±15.97 1.12±1.72
Zhizi
Normal 10 0.87±0.09* 8.60±4.17 121.50±28.61 1.29±1.25
Deficiency-cold model 10 0.73±0.10 10.39±5.15 136.22±22.93 0.41±1.23
Deficiency-hot model 10 1.05±0.12 0.54±1.79 107.63±13.46 0.94±0.72

Table 14

Comparison of IgM, IgG and C3 levels in rats of different groups ($\overline{x}$±s, mg/L)"

Group n IgM IgG C3
Normal 30 39.23±9.97 55.65±17.11 47.72±4.38
Deficiency-cold model 30 37.87±13.50 52.62±12.03 52.99±5.62*
Deficiency-hot model 30 16.23±5.63* 24.13±9.42* 36.61±6.48*
Rougui
Normal 10 46.71±8.61* 64.15±19.17 47.01±5.81
Deficiency-cold model 10 46.68±7.17 43.97±15.32 55.06±4.08
Deficiency-hot model 9 46.88±8.32 23.71±9.03 35.29±4.89
Xianmao
Normal 10 43.59±7.96 49.92±13.13 38.63±9.89*
Deficiency-cold model 10 38.61±5.57 39.03±15.14 46.98±8.79
Deficiency-hot model 10 25.69±5.41 42.15±9.46 50.31±11.06
Huangbai
Normal 10 47.08±11.15* 56.97±14.74 53.29±3.85*
Deficiency-cold model 10 38.44±8.76 53.72±13.71 57.43±3.26
Deficiency-hot model 10 17.63±2.81 26.86±10.34 41.24±4.95
Zhizi
Normal 10 38.17±6.81 55.52±13.48 51.96±3.71*
Deficiency-cold model 10 46.77±7.59 46.89±12.88 55.48±5.52
Deficiency-hot model 10 23.36±7.08 29.32±10.10 38.90±3.58

Table 15

Comparison of GLU, TC, TP and ALB levels in rats of different groups ($\overline{x}$±s)"

Group n GLU (mmol/L) TC (mmol/L) TP (g/L) ALB (g/L)
Normal 30 4.71±1.23 1.17±0.26 63.19±7.50 27.56±1.35
Deficiency-cold model 30 4.22±1.33 0.95±0.25* 63.41±4.04 27.02±1.34
Deficiency-hot model 30 9.89±2.21* 1.64±0.49* 73.49±5.57* 35.55±2.23*
Rougui
Normal 10 4.89±1.61 1.23±0.21 65.84±2.75 /
Deficiency-cold model 10 3.97±1.44 1.04±0.24 64.32±2.07 /
Deficiency-hot model 9 10.09±2.42 1.91±0.38 79.94±8.98 /
Xianmao
Normal 10 4.57±1.26 0.94±0.22* 62.14±9.08 /
Deficiency-cold model 10 4.33±1.58 0.84±0.13 62.58±4.02 /
Deficiency-hot model 10 10.64±1.56 1.66±0.28 75.16±3.81 /
Huangbai
Normal 10 4.75±1.74 1.52±0.30* 68.22±3.23* 29.10±1.85*
Deficiency-cold model 10 5.21±1.57 1.18±0.25 67.06±3.17 27.60±1.30
Deficiency-hot model 10 9.98±2.59 1.81±0.56 78.47±4.14 36.59±1.96
Zhizi
Normal 10 4.28±0.69 1.64±0.43* 61.41±5.00 26.58±1.93
Deficiency-cold model 10 4.01±0.88 1.06±0.18 62.19±4.22 25.92±1.65
Deficiency-hot model 10 8.19±1.67 2.49±0.56 69.83±8.64 31.82±2.70

Table 16

Comparison of BUN, ALT and UA levels in rats of different groups ($\overline{x}$±s)"

Group n BUN (μmol/L) ALT (U/L) UA (mmol/L)
Normal 30 6.30±0.85 80.38±15.18 93.99±17.67
Deficiency-cold model 30 6.32±0.80 80.21±16.08 100.40±21.43
Deficiency-hot model 30 6.31±0.77 108.38±29.80 89.90±16.57
Rougui
Normal 10 5.94±0.65 / 95.67±13.45
Deficiency-cold model 10 6.27±0.68 / 98.76±12.70
Deficiency-hot model 9 7.05±0.76 / 94.45±20.57
Xianmao
Normal 10 6.29±0.73 / 98.76±20.67
Deficiency-cold model 10 5.87±0.34 / 102.32±12.34
Deficiency-hot model 10 6.53±0.72 / 96.34±19.53
Huangbai
Normal 10 6.31±0.55 84.55±15.28 96.67±13.26
Deficiency-cold model 10 6.43±0.59 75.30±11.67 102.28±11.72
Deficiency-hot model 10 7.14±0.89 114.46±27.86 86.95±12.43
Zhizi
Normal 10 5.96±0.83 66.38±16.75* 111.60±19.79*
Deficiency-cold model 10 5.87±0.66 67.48±8.50 112.70±17.79
Deficiency-hot model 10 5.88±0.78 85.88±17.44 94.46±19.14

Table 17

CPF and HPF values in rats of different groups"

Group Mean (fHPF(x)) Mean (fCPF(x)) Median (fHPF(x)) Median (fCPF(x))
Rougui
Normal 0.528 0.221 0.451 0.670
Deficiency-cold 0.203 –0.490 –0.571 –0.387
Deficiency-hot 1.750 –0.479 1.902 –0.871
Xianmao
Normal 0.474 –1.601 0.470 –1.918
Deficiency-cold 0.288 –1.923 0.166 –1.897
Deficiency-hot 0.625 2.539 0.602 3.035
Huangbai
Normal –0.870 0.798 0.482 0.600
Deficiency-cold –0.339 0.194 –0.022 0.811
Deficiency-hot 2.068 1.160 2.175 0.426
Zhizi
Normal –4.379 –1.550 –4.839 –1.881
Deficiency-cold –1.664 –0.804 –1.498 0.253
Deficiency-hot –1.802 0.354 –2.003 0.888
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