Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2011, Vol. 9 ›› Issue (2): 194-200.doi: 10.3736/jcim20110213

• Original Experimental Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Amaranthus caudatus Linn. against paracetamol-induced hepatic injury in rats

Bagepalli Srinivas Ashok Kumar1(),Kuruba Lakshman2, Peresandra Avalakondarayppa Arun Kumar3, Gollapalle Lakshminarayana Shastry Viswantha3, Veeresh Prabhakar Veerapur4, Boreddy Shivanadppa Thippeswamy5, Bachappa Manoj6   

  1. 1. Department of Pharmacognosy, Sri K. V. College of Pharmacy, Chickballapur, Karnataka 562101, India
    2. Department of Pharmacognosy, PES College of Pharmacy, Bangalore, Karnataka 560050, India
    3. Deparment of Pharmcology, Sri K. V. College of Pharmacy, Chickballapur, Karnataka 562101, India
    4. Department in Quality Assurance, Sree Siddaganga College of Pharmacy, Tumkur, Karnataka 572102, India
    5. Department of Pharmacology, Sree Siddaganga College of Pharmacy, Tumkur, Karnataka 572102, India
    6. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Sri K. V. College of Pharmacy, Chickballapur, Karnataka 562101, India
  • Received:2010-08-14 Accepted:2010-09-16 Online:2011-02-20 Published:2011-02-15
  • Contact: Srinivas Ashok Kumar Bagepalli

Objective: Methanol extract of whole plant of Amaranthus caudatus (MEAC) was screened for hepatoprotective potency against paracetamol (PCM)-induced liver damage in Wistar rats.
Methods: Rats of five groups were given sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, PCM, MEAC (200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively) plus PCM, and silymarin plus PCM, respectively. Fourteen days after administration, blood samples were collected for biochemical estimation, then animals were sacrificed and liver samples were collected, weighed and subjected for histopathological studies. Liver marker enzymes such as serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and serum albumin (ALB), total protein (TP), total bilirubin (TB) and direct bilirubin (DB) levels and the markers for oxidative defense namely malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total thiols (TT) and catalase (CAT) were measured.
Results: MEAC at 200 and 400 mg/kg significantly normalized the PCM-induced biochemical changes compared with PCM-treated group (P<0.01); increased ALT, AST, TB and DB levels and decreased serum ALB were significantly reversed by the MEAC treatment (200 and 400 mg/kg). Treatment with MEAC (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly prevented the rise of MDA and TP levels (P<0.01), and prevented the reduction of GSH, CAT and TT levels significantly compared with PCM-treated group (P<0.01). Histopathological examination of the liver sections also proved the hepatoprotective activity of MEAC.
Conclusion: MEAC shows significant hepatoprotective activity against PCM-induced liver damage in rats. This finding supports the use of the plant in ethnomedicine for the treatment of liver diseases.

Key words: Amaranthus, plant extracts, hepatoprotective, paracetamol, animal experimenta- tion, rats



Figure 1

Histopathology of liver tissues in different groups observed by haematoxylin-eosin staining (Light microscopy, ×100) A: Liver section of normal rat (group Ⅰ); B: Paracetamol-treated group (group Ⅱ); C: Paracetamol+methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus (200 mg/kg)-treated group (group Ⅲ); D: Paracetamol+methanolic extract of Amaranthus caudatus (400 mg/kg)-treated group (group Ⅳ); E: Paracetamol+silymarin (100 mg/kg)-treated group (group Ⅴ)."

[1] Rastrelli L, Pizza C, Saturnino P, Schettino O, Dini A . Studies on the constituents of Amaranthus caudatus(Kiwicha) seeds: isolation and characterization of seven new triterpene saponins[J]. J Agric Food Chem, 1995,43(4):904-909
doi: 10.1021/jf00052a011
[2] Rinderle SJ, Goldstein IJ, Matta KL, Ratcliffe RM . Isolation and characterization of amaranthin, a lectin present in the seeds of Amaranthus caudatus, that recognizes the T-(or cryptic T)-antigen[J]. J Biol Chem, 1989,264(27):16123-16131
[3] Yineger H, Kelbessa E, Bekele T, Lulekal E . Plants used in traditional management of human ailments at Bale Mountains National Park, Southeastern Ethiopia[J]. J Med Plant Res, 2008,2(6):132-153
[4] Sripathi SK, Sankari U . Ethnobotanical documentation of a few medicinal plants in the Agasthiayamalai region of Tirunelveli district, India[J]. Ethnobot Lealf, 2010,14:173-181
[5] Khare CP . Indian medicinal plants: An illustrated dictionary[M]. New York: Springer Science+Bussiness Media, LLC, 2007: 41
[6] Kabiri N, Asgary S, Madani H, Mahzouni P . Effects of Amaranthus caudatus L. extract and lovastatin on atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits[J]. J Med Plant Res, 2010,4(5):355-361
[7] Ashok Kumar BS, Lakshman K, Jayaveera KN, Nandeesh R, Manoj B, Ranganayakulu D . Comparative in vitro anthelmintic activity of three plants from the Amaranthaceae family[J]. Arch Biol Sci, 2010,62(1):185-189
doi: 10.2298/ABS1001185K
[8] Ashok Kumar BS, Lakshman K, Jayaveera KKN, Shekar DS, Muragan CSV . Antinociceptive and antipyretic activities of methanol extract Amaranthus caudatus Linn[J]. Lat Am J Pharm, 2010,29(4):635-639
[9] Plate AYA, Arêas JAG . Cholesterol-lowering effect of extruded amaranth(Amaranthus caudatus L.) in hypercholesterolemic rabbits[J]. Food Chem, 2002,76(1):1-6
doi: 10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00238-2
[10] Conforti F, Statti G, Loizzo MR, Sacchetti G, Poli F, Menichini F . In vitro antioxidant effect and inhibition of α-amylase of two varieties of Amaranthus caudatus seeds[J]. Biol Pharm Bull, 2005,28(6):1098-1102
doi: 10.1248/bpb.28.1098
[11] Bruni R, Medici A, Guerrini A, Scalia S, Poli F, Muzzoli M, Sacchetti G . Wild Amaranthus caudatus seed oil, a nutraceutical resource from Ecuadorian flora[J]. J Agri Food Chem, 2001,49(11):5455-5460
doi: 10.1021/jf010385k
[12] Broekaert WF , Marin W , Terras FR,De Bolle MF, Proost P,Van Damme J, Dillen L,Claeys M,Rees SB, Vanderleyden J,Cammue BPA.Antimicrobial peptides from Amaranthus caudatus seeds with sequence homology to the cysteine/glycine-rich domain of chitin-binding proteins[J]. Biochemistry, 1992,31(17):4308-4314
doi: 10.1021/bi00132a023
[13] Transue TR, Smith AK, Mo H, Goldstein IJ, Saper MA . Structure of benzyl T-antigen disaccharide bound to Amaranthus caudatus agglutinin[J]. Nat Struct Biol, 1997,4(10):779-783
doi: 10.1038/nsb1097-779 pmid: 9334739
[14] Rastrelli L, Aquino R, Abdo S, Proto M, De Simone F, De Tommasi N . Studies on the constituents of Amaranthus caudatus leaves: isolation and structure elucidation of new triterpenoid saponins and ionol-derived glycosides[J]. J Agric Food Chem, 1998,46(5):1797-1804
doi: 10.1021/jf970650v
[15] Bruni R, Guerrini A, Scalia S, Romagnoli C, Sacchetti G . Rapid techniques for the extraction of vitamin E isomers from Amaranthus caudatus seeds: ultrasonic and supercritical fluid extraction[J]. Phytochem Anal, 2002,13(5):257-261
doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1099-1565
[16] Kokate CK. Practical pharmacognosy[M].New Delhi: Vallabh Prakashan, 1986, 111
[17] Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development . OECD series on testing and assessment: Number 24: Guidance document on acute oral toxicity testing. (2001)4&doclanguage=en, 2001
[18] Rao KS, Mishra SH . Hepatoprotective activities of the whole plant of Fumaria indica[J]. Indian J Pharm Sci, 1997,59(4):165-170
[19] Reitman S, Frankel S . A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases[J]. Am J Clin Pathol, 1957,28(1):56-63
doi: 10.1093/ajcp/28.1.56
[20] Malloy HT, Evelyn KA . The determination of bilirubin with the photoelectric colorimeter[J]. J Biol Chem, 1936,119:481-490
doi: 10.1111/j.1469-185X.1937.tb01202.x
[21] Gelvan D, Saltman P . Different cellular targets for Cu- and Fe-catalyzed oxidation observed using a Cu-compatible thiobarbituric acid assay[J]. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1990,1035(3):353-360
doi: 10.1016/0304-4165(90)90100-B
[22] Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ . Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent[J]. J Biol Chem, 1951,193(1):265-275
doi: 10.1515/bchm2.1951.286.1-6.270 pmid: 14907713
[23] Moron MS, Depierre JW, Mannervik B . Levels of glutathione, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase activities in rat lung and liver[J]. Biochem Biophys Acta, 1979,582(1):67-68
doi: 10.1016/0304-4165(79)90289-7
[24] Greenwald RA. CRC handbook of methods for oxygen radical research[M]. London: CRC Press, 1985: 283-284
[25] Chatterjee TK . Herbal options[M]. Calcutta: Books and Allied (P) Ltd, 2000: 135
[26] Savides MC, Oehme FW . Acetaminophen and its toxicity[J]. J Appl Toxicol, 1983,3(2):96-111
doi: 10.1002/(ISSN)1099-1263
[27] Bernal W . Changing patterns of causation and the use of transplantation in the United Kingdom[J]. Semin Liver Dis, 2003,23(3):227-237
doi: 10.1055/s-2003-42640
[28] Lee WM . Acute liver failure in the United States[J]. Semin Liver Dis, 2003,23(3):217-226
doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-139-12-200312160-00022 pmid: 14678932
[29] Jollow DJ, Thorgeirsson SS, Potter WZ, Hashimoto M, Mitchell JR . Acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis. Ⅵ. Metabolic disposition of toxic and nontoxic doses of acetaminophen[J]. Pharmacology, 1974,12(4-5):251-271
doi: 10.1159/000136547
[30] Navarro VJ, Senior JR . Drug-related hepatotoxicity[J]. N Engl J Med, 2006,354(7):731-739
doi: 10.1056/NEJMra052270
[31] Küpeli E, Orhan DD, Yesilada E . Effect of Cistus laurifolius L. leaf extracts and flavonoids on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice[J]. J Ethnopharmacol, 2006,103(3):455-460
doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.038
[32] Rao RH . Fasting glucose homeostasis in the adaptation to chronic nutritional deprivation in rats[J]. Am J Physiol, 1995,268(5 Pt 1):E873-E879
doi: 10.1016/0167-0115(95)00022-4 pmid: 7762640
[33] Leeuwenburgh C, Ji LL . Glutathione depletion in rested and exercised mice: biochemical consequence and adaptation[J]. Arch Biochem Biophys, 1995,316(2):941-949
doi: 10.1006/abbi.1995.1125 pmid: 7864653
[34] Potter DW, Hinson JA . Mechanisms of acetaminophen oxidation to N-acetyl-P-benzoquinone imine by horseradish peroxidase and cytochrome P-450[J]. J Biol Chem, 1987,262(3):966-973
[35] Tee LB, Davies DS, Seddon CE, Boobis AR . Species differences in the hepatotoxicity of paracetamol are due to differences in the rate of conversion to its cytotoxic metabolite[J]. Biochem Pharmacol, 1987,36(7):1041-1052
doi: 10.1016/0006-2952(87)90412-6
[36] Council of Scientific and Industrial Research . The wealth of India: A dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products(Vol Ⅵ)[M]. New Delhi: Publications and Information Directorate, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, 1988: 215-216
[37] De Toranzo EG, De Ferreyra EC, De Fenos OM, Castro JA . Prevention of carbon tetrachloride-induced liver necrosis by several amino acids[J]. Br J Exp Pathol, 1983,64(2):166-171
doi: 10.1016/0093-934X(83)90024-X pmid: 6849812
[38] Pisarenko OI . Mechanisms of myocardial protection by amino acids: facts and hypotheses[J]. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol, 1996,23(8):627-633
doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1681.1996.tb01748.x pmid: 8886480
[39] Jamall IS, Mignano JE, Lynch VD, Bidanset JH, Lau-Cam C, Greening M . Protective effects of zinc sulfate and L-lysine on acute ethanol toxicity in mice[J]. Environ Res, 1979,19(1):112-120
doi: 10.1016/0013-9351(79)90039-2 pmid: 510262
[40] DeFeudis FV, Papadopoulos V, Drieu K . Ginkgo biloba extracts and cancer: a research area in its infancy[J]. Fundam Clin Pharmacol, 2003,17(4):405-417
doi: 10.1046/j.1472-8206.2003.00156.x pmid: 12914542
[41] Takeoka GR, Dao LT . Antioxidant constituents of almond [Prunus dulcis(Mill.) D.A. Webb] hulls[J]. J Agri Food Chem, 2003,51(2):496-501
doi: 10.1021/jf020660i pmid: 12517116
[42] Hu J, Lee SO, Hendrich S, Murphy PA . Quantification of the group B soyasaponins by high-performance liquid chromatography[J]. J Agri Food Chem, 2002,50(9):2587-2594
doi: 10.1021/jf0114740 pmid: 11958627
[43] Ouyang MA, He ZD, Wu CL . Anti-oxidative activity of glycosides from Ligustrum sinense[J]. Nat Prod Res, 2003,17(6):381-387
doi: 10.1080/1057563031000075476 pmid: 14577686
[44] Di Carlo G, Mascolo N, Izzo AA, Capasso F . Flavonoids: old and new aspects of a class of natural therapeutic drugs[J]. Life Sci, 1999,65(4):337-353
doi: 10.1016/S0024-3205(99)00120-4 pmid: 10421421
[1] Wan-jun Guo, Yi Wang, Yu Deng, Lin-yan Cheng, Xin Liu, Ruo-fan Xi, Sheng-jie Zhu, Xin-yi Feng, Liang Hua, Kan Ze, Jian-yong Zhu, Dong-jie Guo, Fu-lun Li. Therapeutic effects of the extract of Sancao Formula, a Chinese herbal compound, on imiquimod-induced psoriasis via cysteine-rich protein 61. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(4): 376-384.
[2] Stefania Lamponi, Anna Maria Aloisi, Claudia Bonechi, Marco Consumi, Alessandro Donati, Gemma Leone, Claudio Rossi, Gabriella Tamasi, Luana Ghiandai, Ersilia Ferrini, Paolo Fiorenzani, Ilaria Ceccarelli, Agnese Magnani. Evaluation of in vitro cell and blood compatibility and in vivo analgesic activity of plant-derived dietary supplements. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(3): 213-220.
[3] Supakanya Kumkarnjana, Rutt Suttisri, Ubonthip Nimmannit, Thongchai Koobkokkruad, Chutichot Pattamadilok, Nontima Vardhanabhuti . Anti-adipogenic effect of flavonoids from Chromolaena odorata leaves in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(6): 427-434.
[4] Rohitash Jamwal. Bioavailable curcumin formulations: A review of pharmacokinetic studies in healthy volunteers. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(6): 367-374.
[5] Shohini Chakraborty, Nashra Afaq, Neelam Singh, Sukanta Majumdar. Antimicrobial activity of Cannabis sativaThuja orientalis and Psidium guajava leaf extracts against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(5): 350-357.
[6] Bruno José Martins Da Silva, Amanda Anastácia Pinto Hage, Edilene Oliveira Silva, Ana Paula Drummond Rodrigues. Medicinal plants from the Brazilian Amazonian region and their antileishmanial activity: A review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(4): 211-222.
[7] Musa Toyin Yakubu, Abdulquadri Funmbi Olutoye. Aphrodisiac activity of aqueous extract of Anthonotha macrophylla P. Beauv. leaves in female Wistar rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(5): 400-408.
[8] Nisha Panth, Keshav Raj Paudel, Rajendra Karki. Phytochemical profile and biological activity of Juglans regia. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(5): 359-373.
[9] JiaXia, Li-qunHe, XiaoSu. Interventional mechanisms of herbs or herbal extracts on renal interstitial fibrosis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(3): 165-173.
[10] Santu Kumar Saha, Sourav Roy, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh. Ultra-highly diluted plant extracts of Hydrastis canadensis and Marsdenia condurango induce epigenetic modifications and alter gene expression profiles in HeLa cells in vitro. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(6): 400-411.
[11] Wei Chiang Chan Eric, Kuin Wong Siu. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of ornamental gingers, Hedychium coronarium and Alpinia purpurata: A review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(6): 368-379.
[12] Rashmi Singh, Shatruhan Sharma, Veena Sharma. Comparative and quantitative analysis of antioxidant and scavenging potential of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. extracts. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(4): 269-278.
[13] Oluwatosin Adaramoye, Bettina Erguen, Olubukola Oyebode, Bianca Nitzsche, Michael Höpfner, Klaus Jung, Anja Rabien. Antioxidant, antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activities of root methanol extract of Calliandra portoricensis in human prostate cancer cells. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(3): 185-193.
[14] Swapnil P. Borse, Bhagyashree B. Kamble. Effects of Ayurvedic Rasayana botanicals on CYP3A4 isoenzyme system. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(3): 165-172.
[15] Udhaya Lavinya Baskaran, Sherry Joseph Martin, Rasool Mahaboobkhan, Sabina Evan Prince. Protective role of Triphala, an Indian traditional herbal formulation, against the nephrotoxic effects of bromobenzene in Wistar albino rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(2): 115-121.
Full text



[1] Wei-xiong Liang. Problems-solving strategies in clinical treatment guideline for traditional Chinese medicine and integrative medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 1-4
[2] Zhao-guo Li. Discussion on English translation of commonly used sentences in traditional Chinese medicine: part one. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 107-110
[3] Jun Hu, Jian-ping Liu. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 31
[4] Xue-mei Liu, Qi-fu Huang, Yun-ling Zhang, Jin-li Lou, Hong-sheng Liu, Hong Zheng. Effects of Tribulus terrestris L. saponion on apoptosis of cortical neurons induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation in rats. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 45-50
[5] . Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: Writing and editing for biomedical publication (Chinese version, part two). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1001-1005
[6] Daniel Weber, Janelle M Wheat, Geoffrey M Currie. Inflammation and cancer: Tumor initiation, progression and metastasis,and Chinese botanical medicines. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1006-1013
[7] Hong Liu , Guo-liang Zhang, Li Shen , Zhen Zeng, Bao-luo Zhou, Cheng-hai Liu, Guang Nie . Application and evaluation of a pseudotyped virus assay for screening herbs for anti-H5Nl avian influenza virus. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1036-1040
[8] Zhao-guo Li . A discussion of English translation of 1995 and 1997 Chinese National Standards of Traditional Chinese Medical Terminologies for Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1090-1096
[9] Rui Jin, Bing Zhang. A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple formations of herbal property (Part 1). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1198-1205
[10] Hui-min Liu, Xian-bo Wang, Yu-juan Chang, Li-li Gu. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of integrative medicine therapy for treatment of chronic severe hepatitis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1211-1228