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Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2013, Vol. 11 ›› Issue (3): 206-212.doi: 10.3736/jintegrmed2013022

• Research Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Amaranthus roxburghianus root extract in combination with piperine as a potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice

Sunil A. Nirmala, Jayashri M. Ingalea, Shashikant R. Pattanb, Sanjay B. Bhawarc   

  1. a. Department of Pharmacognosy, Pravara Rural College of Pharmacy, Loni 413736, Maharashtra, India
    b. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Pravara Rural College of Pharmacy, Loni 413736,Maharashtra, India
    c. Department of Pharmacology, Pravara Rural College of Pharmacy, Loni 413736, Maharashtra, India
  • Received:2012-09-17 Accepted:2013-01-24 Online:2013-05-10 Published:2013-05-15


The present work was undertaken to determine the effects of Amaranthus roxburghianus Nevski. (Amaranthaceae) root alone and in combination with piperine in treating ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice.


Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups (n = 6). Standard group received prednisolone (5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Treatment groups received hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A. roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg, per oral) and a combination of hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A. roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg, per oral) and piperine (5 mg/kg, per oral). Ulcer index, colitis severity, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde and glutathione were estimated from blood and tissue. Column chromatography of the extract was done and purified fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS).


Treatment with the combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A. roxburghianus and piperine showed minimal ulceration, hemorrhage, necrosis and leucocyte infiltration by histopathological observation. Acetic acid increased MPO levels in blood and colon tissue to 355 U/mL and 385 U/mg, respectively. The combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A. roxburghianus (100 mg/kg) and piperine (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased MPO in blood and tissue to 182 U/mL and 193 U/mg, respectively (P < 0.05). Similarly, this combination significantly reduced malondialdehyde levels and increased glutathione levels in blood and tissue. Various phytoconstituents were detected by GC-MS.


The combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A. roxburghianus and piperine is effective in the treatment of UC and the effects are comparable with the standard drug prednisolone. 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl, eugenol and benzene, and 1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl are reported having analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties; they may play a role in the biological activity of A. roxburghianus root.

Key words: Amaranthus, Plant extracts, Ulcerative colitis, Myeloperoxidase, Malondialdehyde, Glutathione, Mice


Figure 1

Histopathological observations of colon tissue after the treatment with Amaranthus roxburghianus root extract alone and in combination with piperine (Light microscopy, ×400) A: Model control (5% acetic acid); B: Standard (prednisolone, 5 mg/kg, i.p.); C: Hydroalcoholic extract (50 mg/kg, p.o.); D: Hydroalcoholic extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.); E: Hydroalcoholic extract (50 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (5 mg/kg, p.o.); F: Hydroalcoholic extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (5 mg/kg, p.o.). i.p.: intraperitoneally; p.o.: per oral."



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