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Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2016, Vol. 14 ›› Issue (1): 44-50.doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(16)60241-8

Special Issue: Natural Drug

• Research Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Studies on metals and pesticide content in some Ayurvedic formulations containing Bacopa monnieri L.

AmritaMishraa,b, Arun K.Mishraa, Om PrakashTiwaria, ShiveshJhab   

  1. a Central Facility of Instrumentation, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, IFTM University, Lodipur, Moradabad 244001, India
    b Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi 835215, India
  • Received:2015-06-05 Accepted:2015-09-28 Online:2016-01-15 Published:2016-01-15
  • Contact: Amrita Mishra; Tel: +91-9451751810; E-mail:


Ayurvedic formulations are preferred over other formulations as well as commercialized on broad level to treat various ailments. The World Health Organization has established certain guidelines for quality control of heavy metals and pesticide residues. Bacopa monnieri, a popular herb with immunomodulator and memory-enhancing properties is the chief constituent of several Ayurvedic formulations, which include Brahmi Vati (BV), Brahmi Ghrita (BG) and Saraswat Churna (SC), etc. In view of the World Health Organization guidelines, two products of each formulation from six different manufacturers were purchased from Ayurvedic Pharmacy, Bulanala-Varanasi, India for testing heavy metal and pesticide residue.


In the present study, all the formulations—BV, BG and SC—were selected for estimation of four heavy metals namely lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) by a plasma emission spectrophotometer. Organochlorine pesticidal residues were estimated for dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane, isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and α-endosulfan, etc. in total 12 samples of test formulations containing Bacopa monnieri L. using gas chromatography technique.


Out of 12 samples, Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were present in all samples but below the permissible limit. Although atrazine, aldrin, dialdrin were in below detection limit, but other pesticides were detected in some samples as oxamyl, hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-HCH, β-HCH and γ-HCH), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene.


The presence of heavy metals in the formulations was low to cause toxicity. However evaluation of heavy metals and pesticide residue in every batch is necessary.

Key words: Ayurvedic formulations, Heavy metals, Pesticide residues, Drug contamination

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