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Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2016, Vol. 14 ›› Issue (1): 36-43.doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(16)60232-7

• Research Article • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Extraction of items identifying hiesho (cold disorder) and their utility in young males and females

ShunjiSakaguchia, HiroshiKugeb,c, HidetoshiMoric, JunjiMiyazakid, Tim HideakiTanakac, KazuyoHanyuc,e, TaroTakedaf, KazuroSasakig   

  1. a Research Division of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Kansai University of Health Sciences, Osaka, 590- 0482, Japan 
    b Department of Anesthesiology, Osaka Medical College Hospital, Osaka, 569-8686, Japan 
    c Faculty of Health Sciences, Course of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Tsukuba University of Technology, Tsukuba, 305-0821, Japan
    d Takarazuka University of Medical and Health Care, Takarazuka, 666-0162, Japan
    e Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305-8572, Japan 
    f Department of Clinical Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Meiji University of Integrative Medicine, Kyoto, 629-0301, Japan 
    g Department of Acupuncture Medicine, Faculty of Oriental Medicine, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, 510-0293, Japan
  • Received:2015-07-29 Accepted:2015-10-23 Online:2016-01-15 Published:2016-01-15
  • Contact: Tim Hideaki Tanaka, PhD; Tel: +1-416-929-6958; E-mail:


Hie (cold sensation) is one of the most common health complaints in Japan. Those who suffer from severe hie are considered as having hiesho (cold disorder). However, exact hiesho symptoms have not been defined clearly and the decision as to whether a person suffers from hiesho is subjective and based on self-awareness. The study was conducted in attempt to develop a standardized hiesho diagnostic scale.


Subjects comprised 1 146 students. From the self-awareness of hiesho symptoms, males and females were divided into hiesho and non-hiesho groups. Physical, behavioral and adaptive characteristics were compared using the 24-item questionnaire (four-grade survey) and indicators for hiesho symptoms were extracted. Based on the scores, a receiver operating characteristic curve was drawn for the total ordinal scale score of the extracted items in relation to the presence and absence of hiesho symptoms, and an optimal cutoff value was determined.


The self-awareness of having hiesho was found in 23.2% males and in 55.6% females. The sensitivity was 84.5% for males and 83.3% for females in the hiesho groups, and the specificity was 86.0% for males and 85.2% for females in the non-hiesho groups.


A questionnaire consisting of the extracted items may be useful to identify hiesho in young males and females with a high level of accuracy.

Key words: Cold hypersensitivity!, Questionnaires, ROC curve

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