Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2022, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (2): 153-162.doi: 10.1016/j.joim.2021.12.003

• Original Experimental Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Antiglycation and antioxidant activities of the crude extract and saponin fraction of Tribulus terrestris before and after microcapsules release

Célia Cristina Malaguti Figueiredoa, Amanda da Costa Gomesa, Filipe Oliveira Graneroa, João Luiz Bronzel Juniora, Luciana Pereira Silvab, Valdecir Farias Ximenesc, Regildo Márcio Gonçalves da Silvaa,d   

  1. a. Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, São Paulo 14800-060, Brazil
    b. Educational Foundation of the City of Assis, Assis, São Paulo 19807-130, Brazil
    c. Department of Chemistry, School of Sciences, São Paulo State University, Bauru, São Paulo 17033-360, Brazil
    d. Department of Biotechnology, School of Sciences, Humanities and Languages, São Paulo State University, Assis, São Paulo 19806-900, Brazil
  • Online:2022-03-25 Published:2022-03-30
  • Contact: Regildo Márcio Gonçalves da Silva


The present study investigated antiglycation and antioxidant activities of crude dry extract and saponin fraction of Tribulus terrestris. It also developed a method of microencapsulation and evaluated antiglycation and antioxidant activities of crude dry extract and saponin fraction before and after microcapsules release. 


Antiglycation activity was determined by relative electrophoretic mobility (REM), free amino groups and inhibition of advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation. Antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), nitric oxide (NO) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) tests. Microcapsules were prepared using maltodextrin as wall material and freeze-drying as encapsulation technique. Morphological characterization of microcapsules was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, and encapsulation efficiency and microcapsules release were determined by total saponins released. Antiglycation and antioxidant assays were performed using crude dry extract and saponin fraction of T. terrestris before and after release.


Saponin fraction showed an increase of 32.8% total saponins. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of saponins in the obtained fraction. Antiglycation evaluation by REM demonstrated that samples before and after release present antiglycation activity similar to bovine serum albumin treated with aminoguanidine. Additionally, samples inhibited AGEs formation, highlighting treatment with saponins fraction after release (89.89%). Antioxidant tests demonstrated antioxidant activity of the samples. Crude dry extract before encapsulation presented the highest activities in DPPH (92.00%) and TBARS (32.49%) assays. Saponins fraction before encapsulation in FRAP test (499 μmol Trolox equivalent per gram of dry sample) and NO test (15.13 μmol nitrite formed per gram of extract) presented the highest activities. 


This study presented antiglycation activity of crude dry extract and saponins fraction of T. terrestris, besides it demonstrated promising antioxidant properties. It also showed that the encapsulation method was efficient and maintained biological activity of bioactive compounds after microcapsules release. These results provide information for further studies on antidiabetic and antiaging potential, and data for new herbal medicine and food supplement formulations containing microcapsules with crude extract and/or saponins fraction of T. terrestris.

Key words: Glycation, Microencapsulation, Oxidative stress, Saponins, Tribulus terrestris

[1] Mohamed S. Othman, Sofian T. Obeidat, Amal H. Al-Bagawi, Mohamed A. Fareid, Alaa Fehaid, Ahmed E. Abdel Moneim. Green-synthetized selenium nanoparticles using berberine as a promising anticancer agent#br#
. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(1): 65-72.
[2] Olarewaju M. Oluba, Oghenerobor B. Akpor, Feyikemi D. Adebiyi, Sunday J. Josiah, Olayinka O. Alabi, Ayoola O. Shoyombo, Augustine O. Olusola. Effects of co-administration of Ganoderma terpenoid extract with chloroquine on inflammatory markers and antioxidant status in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(6): 522-529.
[3] Gerli E.G. Herr, Fábio Goulart da Silva, Francisco José Cidral-Filho, Fabricia Petronilho, Lucinéia Gainski Danielski, Mariana Pereira de Souza Goldim, Afonso Shiguemi Inoue Salgado, Franciane Bobinski, Daniel Fernandes Martins, Eliane R. Winkelmann. Effects of the use of bioceramic wraps in patients with lower limb venous ulcers: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(1): 27-.
[4] Álisson de Carvalho Gonçalves, Einy Jéssika Siqueira Moreira, Guilherme Vannucchi Portari. Benfotiamine supplementation prevents oxidative stress in anterior tibialis muscle and heart. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(6): 423-429.
[5] Pranay Soni, Rajesh Choudhary, Surendra H. Bodakhe. Effects of a novel isoflavonoid from the stem bark of Alstonia scholaris against fructose-induced experimental cataract. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(5): 374-382.
[6] Fang-yuan Wang, Jian Jia, Huan-huan Song, Cheng-ming Jia, Chang-bo Chen, Jing Ma. Icariin protects vascular endothelial cells from oxidative stress through inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(3): 205-212.
[7] Lucky Legbosi Nwidu, Yibala Ibor Oboma. Telfairia occidentalis (Cucurbitaceae) pulp extract mitigates rifampicin-isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity in an in vivo rat model of oxidative stress. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(1): 46-56.
[8] Kayode E. Adewole, Joseph O. Adebayo. Antioxidant defense system induced by cysteine-stabilized peptide fraction of aqueous extract of Morinda lucida leaf in selected tissues of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(5): 388-397.
[9] Uduak Akpan Okon, Idorenyin Udo Umoren. Comparison of antioxidant activity of insulin, Ocimum gratissimum L., and Vernonia amygdalina L. in type 1 diabetic rat model. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(4): 302-309.
[10] Udhaya Lavinya Baskaran, Evan Prince Sabina. Clinical and experimental research in antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity: A review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(1): 27-36.
[11] Khanh Nguyen, Jean Sparks, Felix O. Omoruyi. Investigation of the cytotoxicity, antioxidative and immune-modulatory effects of Ligusticum porteri (Osha) root extract on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(6): 465-472.
[12] Benjamin Perry, Junzeng Zhang, Tarek Saleh, Yanwen Wang. Liuwei Dihuang, a traditional Chinese herbal formula, suppresses chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in obese rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2014, 12(5): 447-454.
[13] Mukherjee Avinaba, Boujedaini Naoual, Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh Anisur. Homeopathic Thuja 30C ameliorates benzo(a)pyrene-induced DNA damage, stress and viability of perfused lung cells of mice in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(6): 397-404.
[14] Marjan Nassiri-Asl, Taghi Naserpour Farivar, Esmail Abbasi, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Mehdi Sheikhi, Mina Lotfizadeh, Parisa Bazahang. Effects of rutin on oxidative stress in mice with kainic acid-induced seizure. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(5): 337-342.
[15] Hai-yan Song, Li Zhang, Jie-lu Pan, Li-li Yang, Guang Ji. Bioactivity of five components of Chinese herbal formula Jiangzhi granules against hepatocellular steatosis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2013, 11(4): 262-268.
Full text



[1] Wei-xiong Liang. Problems-solving strategies in clinical treatment guideline for traditional Chinese medicine and integrative medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 1-4
[2] Zhao-guo Li. Discussion on English translation of commonly used sentences in traditional Chinese medicine: part one. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 107-110
[3] Jin-rong Fu. Establishment of multivariate diagnosis and treatment system of modern gynecology of traditional Chinese medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 22-24
[4] Hao Li, Ming-jiang Yao, Wen-ming Zhao, Jie Guan, Lin-lin Cai, Ling Cui. A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of Huannao Yicong capsule in senile patients with mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 25-31
[5] Jun Hu, Jian-ping Liu. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 31
[6] Yi-ting He, Qing-lin Zha, Jian-ping Yu, Yong Tan, Cheng Lu, Ai-ping Lv. Principal factor analysis of symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and their correlations with efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 32-36
[7] Jun Cai, Hua Wang, Sheng Zhou, Bin Wu, Hua-rong Song, Zheng-rong Xuan. Effect of Sijunzi Decoction and enteral nutrition on T-cell subsets and nutritional status in patients with gastric cancer after operation: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 37-40
[8] Dong Yang, Yong-ping Du, Qing Shen, Wei Chen, Yan Yu, Guang-lei Chen. Expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin in renal tubulointerstitium in patients with kidney collateral stasis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 41-44
[9] Xue-mei Liu, Qi-fu Huang, Yun-ling Zhang, Jin-li Lou, Hong-sheng Liu, Hong Zheng. Effects of Tribulus terrestris L. saponion on apoptosis of cortical neurons induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation in rats. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 45-50
[10] Zhi-chun Jin. Problems in establishing clinical guideline for integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 5-8