Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Integrative Medicine

• Clinical Practice Guidelines •    

Clinical practice guideline for acupuncture and moxibustion: Female urinary incontinence

Chao Yanga,1, Shan-ze Wangb,1, Sheng Chena, Shuo Dua, Guan-qun Wanga, Wei Guoc, Xiao-long Xiea, Bi-hui Penga, Shi-hao Dud, Ji-ping Zhaoa   

  1. a. Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100700, China
    b. Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Guangdong provincial hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong Province; China
    c. Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China
    d. Institute of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China 
  • Received:2024-02-20 Accepted:2024-03-07 Online:2024-03-07 Published:2024-03-07
  • About author:1 These authors contributed equally to this work.
  • Supported by:
    This research is financially funded by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2019YFC1712200). The funder is the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China. The funder is not involved in any other aspect of the project, such as the protocol design and consensus meeting. The funder had no input in interpreting or publishing the study results.

Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common problem worldwide. It has a major impact on the physical and social activities and interpersonal relationships. UI is common in women, but is under-reported and under-treated. It affects the quality of life in female patients severely and is known as a “nonlethally social cancer.” Acupuncture and moxibustion has been proposed as a potentially effective intervention for female UI. Hence, for the benefit of acupuncture practitioners around the world, the World Federation of Acupuncture-moxibustion Societies have initiated a project to develop the clinical practice guideline (CPG) for the use of acupuncture and moxibustion to treat female UI. The CPG was developed according to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology, referring to the principles of the World Health Organization Handbook for Guideline Development. During the development of the CPGs, the guideline development group (GDG) played an important role. The clinical questions, recommendations and therapeutic protocols were all formulated by GDG using the modified Delphi method. The CPGs contain ten recommendations about the use of acupuncture and moxibustion interventions for ten clinical questions, which include nine conditional recommendations for the intervention, one conditional recommendations for either the intervention or the comparison. The CPG also provide one conventional filiform needle therapy protocol, two deep puncturing stimulation on lumbosacral acupoints therapy protocols, and four moxibustion therapy protocols, based on the protocols presented in RCTs reviews by the GDG.

Key words: Acupuncture, Clinical practice guideline, Female urinary incontinence, Moxibustion, GRADE

[1] Lin-hong Jiang, Pei-jun Li, Ying-qi Wang, Mei-ling Jiang, Xiao-yu Han, Yi-die Bao, Xin-liao Deng, Wei-bing Wu, Xiao-dan Liu . Anti-inflammatory effects of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2023, 21(6): 518-527.
[2] Amir Mohammad Jaladat, Mahdi Alizadeh Vaghasloo, Fatemeh Atarzadeh, Mohammad Hossein Ayati, Amir Human Kazemi, Emine Akin, Mohammad Hashem Hashempur. Similarities and differences between kaiy in Persian medicine and moxibustion in Chinese medicine. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2023, 21(4): 354-360.
[3] Han Yang, Zhi-yong Xiao, Zi-han Yin, Zheng Yu, Jia-jia Liu, Yan-qun Xiao, Yao Zhou, Juan Li, Jie Yang, Fan-rong Liang. Efficacy and safety of acupuncture for polycystic ovary syndrome: An overview of systematic reviews. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2023, 21(2): 136-148.
[4] Jia-cheng Shen, Qin Qib, Dong Han, Yuan Lu, Rong Huang, Yi Zhu, Lin-shan Zhang, Xiu-di Qin, Fang Zhang, Huan-gan Wu, Hui-rong Liu. Moxibustion improves experimental colitis in rats with Crohn’s disease by regulating bile acid enterohepatic circulation and intestinal farnesoid X receptor. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2023, 21(2): 194-204.
[5] Hsueh-Hua Yang, Yu-Chu Chung, Pai-Pei Szeto, Mei-Ling Yeh, Jaung-Geng Lin. Laser acupuncture combined with auricular acupressure improves low-back pain and quality of life in nurses: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2023, 21(1): 26-33.
[6] Chuang Zhao, Xiao-yan Li, Zun-yuan Li, Miao Li, Zhi-dan Liu. Moxibustion regulates T-regulatory/T-helper 17 cell balance by modulating the microRNA-221/suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 axis in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(5): 453-462.
[7] Hong-xiao Li, Ling Shi, Shang-jie Liang Chen-chen Fang, Qian-qian Xu, Ge Lu, Qian Wang, Jie Cheng, Jie Shen, Mei-hong Shen. Moxibustion alleviates decreased ovarian reserve in rats by restoring the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(2): 163-172.
[8] Ye-juan Jia, Tian-yu Li, Peng Han, Yu Chen, Li-jia Pan, Chun-sheng Jia. Effects of different courses of moxibustion treatment on intestinal flora and inflammation of a rat model of knee osteoarthritis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(2): 173-181.
[9] Jun-peng Yao, Li-ping Chen, Xian-jun Xiao, Ting-hui Hou, Si-yuan Zhou, Ming-min Xu, Kai Wang, Yu-jun Hou, Lin Zhang, Ying Li. Effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for treating functional constipation: An overview of systematic reviews. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(1): 13-25.
[10] Li-jun Li, Yu-chong Shi, Min-xiang Luo, Chang-lin Zhao. Effects of moxibustion on Treg cells in sarcoma microenvironment. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(3): 251-257.
[11] Bing-rong Li, Shi-yun Shao, Long Yuan, Ru Jia, Jian Sun, Qing Ji, Hua Sui, Li-hong Zhou, Yi Zhang, Hui Liu, Qi Li, Yan Wang, Bi-meng Zhang. Effects of mild moxibustion on intestinal microbiome and NLRP3 inflammasome in rats with 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(2): 144-157.
[12] Chang-quan Ling, Jia Fan, Hong-sheng Lin, Feng Shen, Zhen-ye Xu, Li-zhu Lin, Shu-kui Qin, Wei-ping Zhou, Xiao-feng Zhai, Bai Li, Qing-hui Zhou, on behalf of the Chinese Integrative Therapy of Primary Liver Cancer Working Group. Clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of primary liver cancer with integrative traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(4): 236-248.
[13] Min Yee Lim, Jian Huang, Bai-xiao Zhao, Hui-qin Zou, Yong-hong Yan. Influence of storage duration and processing on chromatic attributes and flavonoid content of moxa floss. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(1): 69-76.
[14] Bosch Peggy, van den Noort Maurits, Yeo Sujung, Lim Sabina, Coenen Anton, van Luijtelaar Gilles. The effect of acupuncture on mood and working memory in patients with depression and schizophrenia. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(6): 380-390.
[15] Arthur Yin Fan, Sarah Faggert . Dr. Gene Bruno: The beginning of the acupuncture profession in the United States (1969-1979) — Acupuncture, medical acupuncture and animal acupuncture. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(5): 281-288.
Full text



[1] Jiang Chong-bo, Wang Jun, Zheng Zhi-xin, Hou Jing-shan, Ma Ling, Sun Tong. Efficacy of cervical fixed-point traction manipulation for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy: a randomizedcontrolled trial. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(1): 54-58
[2] Sung Min Lim, Sook-Hyun Lee. Effectiveness of bee venom acupuncture in alleviating post-stroke shoulder pain: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(4): 241-247
[3] Rui Jin , Bing Zhang . A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: The multiple expressions of herbal property (Part 2). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(12): 1321-1327
[4] Yu-ting Yin, Xiao-wan Li , Yang Dong , Jian-rong Shi. Research progress in biological basis of cold and heat essence of Chinese medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(12): 1328-1335
[5] Kumar Dinesh, Kumar Sunil, Taprial Seema, Kashyap Deepak, Kumar Ajay, Prakash Om. A review of chemical and biological profile of genus Michelia. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(12): 1336-1340
[6] Bao Yan-ju, Hua Bao-jin. Discussion on six errors of formulas corresponding to syndromes in using the classic formulas. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(12): 1363-1370
[7] Xiao-lei Bao, Liang-ping Hu. Multifactor designs able to examine the interactions. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(12): 1371-1374
[8] Yan-bo Zhu , Hideki Origasa, Xiao-xia Luo, Yang-yang Wang , Jie Di , Lin Lin. Responsiveness of three subjective report of outcome measures for chronic heart failure. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(12): 1375-1381
[9] Yu Zhao, Jing-hua Peng , Xue-mei Li , Qi-lin Fu, Tuan Cui , Qi Li, Ya-jun Tang , Qin Feng , Hua Zhang , Hua Zhou , Yi-yang Hu. Diagnostic value of clinical indices in syndrome differentiation of chronic hepatitis B: an exploration based on receiver operating characteristic curves and stepwise discriminant analysis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(12): 1382-1387
[10] Xue Qiao, Yu-fang Hao. Qualitative research of the elderly real experience of long-term adherence to Tai Chi exercise. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(12): 1388-1393