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Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2012, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (7): 717-725.doi: 10.3736/jcim20120701

• Review •     Next Articles

An updated review on the Oenothera genus

Sumitra Singh(), Rupinder Kaur, Surendra Kr. Sharma#br#   

  1. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125001, Haryana, IndiaDepartment of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar 125001, Haryana, India
  • Received:2012-02-08 Accepted:2012-03-09 Online:2012-07-20 Published:2018-07-15
  • Contact: Sumitra Singh E-mail:sumitra.singh32@gmail.com

Oenothera genus (Onagraceae) has been used as a folk remedy since ancient times for the treatment of asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, neuralgia, skin diseases, and hepatic and kidney diseases. Different chemical constituents like lipids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids and triterpenes have been isolated from this genus. The various notable pharmacological activities reported from the genus are antioxidant, cytotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidaemic, thrombolytic and antidiarrhoeal. The present paper is to summarize the worldwide reported biological activities and phytoconstituents associated with this genus for about 50 years and highlight the medicinally important species belonging to this genus so that these species can be further explored and used as therapeutic agents for various diseases.

Key words: Oenothera, plant, medicinal, flavonoids, tannins, antioxidants, anti-bacterial agents

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Plant species Part Phytoconstituents Detailed constituents
Oenothera acerviphila
Rosta ski
Seeds Fatty acids γ-Linolenic acid
Oenothera ammophila Focke Seeds Fatty acids γ-Linolenic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid
Oenothera albicaulis Pursh Whole plant Flavonoids Quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside
Oenothera argillicola Mackenz Whole plant Flavonoids Quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-
arabinoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamno
glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoglucoside
Oenothera biennis Linn. Roots Carbohydrate Arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, galacturonic acid,
glucoronic acid
Tannins Gallic acid, tetramethylellagic acid, oenostacin, 2,7,8-trimethyl
ellagic acid
Steroids Sitosterol, oenotheralanosterol A, oenotheralanosterol B
Triterpenes Masilinic acid, oleanolic acid
Lipids 2-Methyl-7-oxo-tritetracont-1,5-dien-21-ol, 18-hydroxypentacos-21-
en-1-oic acid, 5-methyl-27-oxo-tricont-4-en-24-ol
Leaves Carbohydrate Arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, galacturonic acid, glucoronic
acid
Tannins Oenothein A (15), oenothein B (16)
Lipids α-Linolenic acid
Seeds Steroids β-Sitosterol, campesterol
Phenolic acids 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid, salicyclic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric
acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, gentisic
acid, ferulic acid, syringic acid, caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid
Tannins Gallic acid, p-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, catechin, and epicatechin.
Flavonoids Procyanidin B1, procyanidin B3, proanthocyanidin
Lipids γ-Linolenic acid, stearic acid, dihomolinoleic acid
Terpenes Furfural
Oenothera biennis Linn. subsp.
austromontana Munz.
Whole plant Flavonoids Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-
galactoside
Oenothera biennis Linn. subsp.
caeciarum Munz.
Whole plant Flavonoids Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoglucoside, quercetin-
3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-arabinoside,
quercetin-3-O-rhamnoglucoside
Oenothera biennis Linn. subsp.
centralis Munz.
Whole plant Flavonoids Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoglucoside, quercetin-
3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-arabinoside,
quercetin-3-O-rhamnoglucoside
Oenothera caespitosa Nutt. subsp.
montana Nutt.
Whole plant Flavonoids Quercetin-3-O-glucoside,quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, myricetin-3-O-
rhamnoside, myricetin-3-O-galactoside
Oenothera campylocalyx K.
Koch & C. D. Bouche
Whole plant Flavonoids Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoglucoside, quercetin-
3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoglucoside
Oenothera cheiranthifolia
Hornem. ex Spreng.
Whole plant Triterpenes Cheiranthic acid, arjunolic acid, asiatic acid
Flavonoids Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, myricetin-3-O-glucuronide
Oenothera deserticola Munz. Whole plant Flavonoids Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside, myricetin-3-O-
galactoside
Oenothera drummondii Hook. Whole plant Flavonoids Quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoglucoside
Oenothera elata Subsp. Kunth
hirsutissima (A. Gray ex S.
Watson)
Seeds Lipids γ-Linolenic acid
Oenothera epilobiifolia Kunth Whole plant Flavonoids Quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, myricetin-3-O-
rhamnoside, myricetin-3-O-galactoside
Oenothera erythrosepala Borbas. Aerial parts Flavonoids Myricetin, quercetin, anthocyanin
Phenolic acids Caffeic acids, p-coumaric acid
Leaves Tannins Oenothein A , oenothein B, oenothein C
Flavonoids Quercetin glucoside, quercetin galactoside, kaempferol galactoside,
myricetin galactoside
Seeds Phenolic acids 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid, salicyclic acid, ferulic acid,
syringic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid,
p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, γ-rezorcil, gentisic acid, protocatechuic
acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid
Lipids γ-Linolenic acid
Oenothera gigas de Vries Whole plants Flavonoids Kaempferol, quercetin, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, quercitrin, hyperoside
Tannins 1,4,6-Tri-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, 1-O-galloyl-4,6-hexahydroxy
dibenzyl-β-D-glucose, gallic acid
Carbohydrate D-glucose
Oenothera glazioviana Micheli Seeds Steroids β-Sitosterol
Lipids Linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid
Oenothera grandiflora L’ Her.
ex Aiton.
Roots Steroids Enotherasterol
Whole plant Flavonoids Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoglucoside, quercetin-
3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-arabinoside,
quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamno glucoside
Oenothera hookeri Tors.& A.
Gray.
Leaves Flavonoids Quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-7-O-
rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoglucoside, quercetin-3-O-arabinoside,
kaempferol galactoside
Phenolic acids 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid, salicyclic acid, ferulic acid,
syringic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid,
p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic
acid, gallic acid
Oenothera indecora Cambess Seeds Lipids Palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid
Oenothera jamesii Tors.& A.
Gray.
Seeds Lipids γ-Linolenic acid
Oenothera kunthiana Munz. Whole plant Flavonoids Quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-
rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoglucoside
Oenothera laciniata Hill. Roots Steroids β-Sitosterol
Roots and stems Tannins Oenothein A , oenothein B, oenothein C, cornusiin A, oenothein D,
oenothein F, oenothein G, eucalbanin, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-β-D-
glucose, 1,2,6-tri-galloyl-β-D-glucose, tellimagrandin
Oenothera lamarckiana de Vries Seeds Steroids β-Sitosterol
Triterpenes Lupeolcitrostadienolcycloartenyl palmitate
Seeds and plant Phenolic acids 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid, salicyclic acid, ferulic acid,
syringic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid,
p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic
acid, gallic acid
Roots Steroids β-Sitosterol, enotherasterol
Oenothera lavandulaefolia
Tors. & A. Gray.
Leaves Flavonoids Myricetin-3-β-D-galactoside
Oenothera missouriensis Sims. Leaves Flavonoids Kaempferol-galactoside, quercetin-glucoside, quercetin-galactoside,
myricetin-galactoside
Oenothera mollisima Linn. Leaves Flavonoids Kaempferol-galactoside, quercetin-glucoside, quercetin-galactoside,
myricetin-galactoside
Oenothera moravica V. Jehlik et
Rostanski.
Seeds Lipids γ-Linolenic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid
Oenothera odorata Jacq. Roots Steroids β-Sitosterol
Oenothera organensis Munz. Whole Plant Flavonoids Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoglucoside, quercetin-
3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoglucoside,
quercitin-3-O-methyl-7-O-glucoside
Oenothera pallida subsp.pallida
Lindl.
Whole plant Flavonoids Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoglucoside, quercetin-
3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoglucoside, myricetin-3-O-
galactoside
Oenothera paradoxa Hudziok. Seeds Steroids β-Sitosterol
Lipids γ-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, dihomo-γ-
linolenic acid
Tannins Epicatechin gallate, proanthocyandin B3, oenothein B, penta-O-
galloyl-β-D-glucose
Oenothera parviflora Linn. Roots Steroids β-Sitosterol
Seeds Lipids γ-Linolenic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid
Oenothera picensis Phil. Seeds Lipids Linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid
Oenothera purpusii Munz. Whole plant Flavonoids Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoglucoside, quercetin-
3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoglucoside, quercetin-3-O-
galactoside
Oenothera rubricaulis Kleb. Seeds Lipids γ-Linolenic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid
Oenothera speciosa Nutt. Whole plant Flavonoids Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside, myricetin-3-O-
galactoside, myricetin-3-O-methyl ether-3′-O-β-D-glucoside
Leaves Flavonoids Myricetin 3-O-methyl ether-3′-O-β-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside,
myricetin 3-O-rhamnoside, myricetin 3-O-galactoside, kaempferol 3-
O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-arabinoside, myricetin-3-O-arabinoside,
quercetin 3,7-diglucuronide, myricetin 3,7-diglucuronide,
quercetin 3-O-sulphate
Leaves and stem Flavonoids Myricetin 4′-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3′-O-α-L-
rhamnopyranoside
Leaves and stem Phenolics Myricitrin, europetin 3-O-α-L-1C4-rhamnopyranoside, quercitrin,
hyperin, rhamnetin 3-O-β-galacto-pyranoside, caffeic acid, caffeic acid
methyl ester, chlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid methyl ester, gallic
acid, gallic acid methyl ester, myricetin, quercetin, ellagic acid
Oenothera suaveolens Pers. Seeds and plant Phenolic acids 2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid, salicyclic acid, ferulic acid,
syringic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid,
p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic
acid, gallic acid
Oenothera tetraptera Cav. Roots Steroids β-Sitosterol
Tannins Oenotherin T1
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