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Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2012, Vol. 10 ›› Issue (7): 784-792.doi: 10.3736/jcim20120709

• Original Experimental Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effectiveness of flavonoid-rich leaf extract of Acalypha indica in reversing experimental myocardial ischemia: biochemical and histopathological evidence

C. Mouli Kalla1,Vijaya Tartte2(),Dattatreya Rao Sirpurkar3   

  1. 1. Department of Biotechnology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502, Andhra Pradesh, India
    2. Department of Botany, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502, Andhra Pradesh, India
    3. Department of Shalya, Sri Venkateswara Ayurvedic College, Tirupati 517502, Andhra Pradesh, India
  • Received:2012-01-26 Accepted:2012-02-28 Online:2012-07-20 Published:2018-10-20
  • Contact: Vijaya Tartte

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the antimyocardial ischemic effects of flavonoid-rich methanolic leaf extract of Acalypha indica (AIE).
METHODS: An animal model of myocardial ischemic injury was induced by isoproterenol (ISO) in adult rats. Albino Wistar rats were pretreated with the AIE (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight orally) for 30 d followed by ISO (85 mg/kg subcutaneously) at an interval of 24 h for 2 d. At the end of the experimental period (12 h after the second dose of ISO injection), rats were sacrificed by anaesthetization with an intramuscular injection of ketamine hydrochloride (24 mg/kg). To ensure anti-ischemic potential of AIE, the plasma lipids such as total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), free fatty acids (FFA), phospholipids (PL), myocardial lipids and hepatic lipids (TC, TG, FFA and PL) were estimated. Histopathology of heart tissue was also examined.
RESULTS: Administration of AIE maintained the levels of plasma lipids in all the treatment groups (100 and 200 mg/kg) when compared with the ISO-injected model rats. Histopathological examination of heart tissue of ISO-administered model rat showed myofiber loss, extensive subendocardial necrosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells, marked myocellular edema and vacuolar degeneration. However, pretreatment with AIE at 200 mg/kg showed predominantly normal myocardium structure with myofibers appeared and no inflammatory cell infiltration, edema and necrosis.
CONCLUSION: The biochemical and histological evidence from this study shows that AIE is protective against ISO-induced myocardial ischemia.

Key words: Acalypha indica, myocardial ischemia, plant extracts, flavonoids, antilipemic agents, rats


Group n TC (mg/L) TAG (mg/L) HDL-C (mg/L) LDL-C (mg/L) VLDL-C (mg/L)
Control 6 7.475±0.614 5.278±0.327 4.278±0.324 2.141±0.831 1.055±0.065
Model (isoproterenol 85 mg/kg) 6 10.758±0.919* 7.293±0.577* 3.078±0.226* 6.261±0.705* 1.458±0.115*
Isoproterenol plus AIE (100 g/kg) 6 9.256±0.646 5.958±0.323 4.516±0.305 3.548±0.481 1.191±0.064
Isoproterenol plus AIE (200 g/kg) 6 8.573±0.585 5.381±0.291 4.348±0.253 3.148±0.649 1.076±0.058
Group n FFA (mg/L) PL (mg/L) AIP Non-HDL-C (mg/L)
Control 6 5.018±0.357 8.035±0.622 –0.027±0.005 3.196±0.854
Model (isoproterenol 85 mg/kg) 6 6.881±0.639* 11.961±1.068* 0.001±0.004* 7.680±0.768*
Isoproterenol plus AIE (100 g/kg) 6 5.913±0.391 8.886±0.787 –0.024±0.002 4.740±0.507
Isoproterenol plus AIE (200 g/kg) 6 5.348±0.344 7.468±0.525 –0.022±0.000 4.220±0.626


Group n Myocardial lipids
Total cholesterol TAG FFA PL
Control 6 3.56±0.12 3.74±0.11 3.95±0.16 13.04±1.41
Model (isoproterenol 85 mg/kg) 6 4.94±0.10* 5.49±0.18* 5.02±0.20* 9.31±0.92*
Isoproterenol plus AIE (100 g/kg) 6 4.21±0.19 4.61±0.16 4.52±0.16 12.26±1.05
Isoproterenol plus AIE (200 g/kg) 6 3.82±0.11 4.36±0.12 4.11±0.18 11.83±1.06
Group n Hepatic lipids
Total cholesterol TAG FFA PL
Control 6 4.28±0.26 4.68±0.28 6.59±0.34 20.11±1.60
Model (isoproterenol 85 mg/kg) 6 5.81±0.23* 6.62±0.25* 11.02±1.01* 14.28±1.13*
Isoproterenol plus AIE (100 g/kg) 6 5.14±0.19 5.83±0.19 7.93±0.49 17.18±1.32
Isoproterenol plus AIE (200 g/kg) 6 4.91±0.17 5.21±0.27 7.47±0.33 16.49±1.21

Figure 1

Photomicrographs showing histopathology of heart tissue in rats by hematoxylin-eosin staining (Light microscopy, ×40) A: Normal struefure of myocardium of rats in the control group; B: Extensive myocardial necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration in model group; C: Myocardium with the presence of sparse inflammatory cells and focal edema in AIE 100 mg/kg group; D: Myocardium in AIE 200 mg/kg group. Figures are representative of at least four independent experiments. AIE: Acalypha indica extract."

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