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Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2018, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (1): 34-38.doi: 10.1016/j.joim.2017.12.005

• Original Clinical Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Determination of symptoms associated with hiesho among young females using hie rating surveys

Hidetoshi Mori a, Hiroshi Kuge a, b, Shunji Sakaguchi c, Tim Hideaki Tanaka a, Junji Miyazaki d   

  1. a Faculty of Health Sciences, Course of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Tsukuba University of Technology, Tsukuba 305-8521, Japan
    b Department of Anesthesiology, Osaka Medical College Hospital, Osaka 569-8686, Japan
    c Research Division of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Kansai University of Health Sciences, Osaka 590-0482, Japan
    d Takarazuka University of Medical and Health Care, Takarazuka 666-0162, Japan
  • Received:2017-06-06 Accepted:2017-10-01 Online:2018-01-15 Published:2017-12-08
  • Contact: Tim Hideaki Tanaka; E-mail:
  • Supported by:
    This work was supported by Tsukuba University of Technology, Promotional Projects for Advanced Education and Research.

Hie (cold sensation) is one of the most well-known health complaints in Japan and elsewhere in East Asia. Those who suffer from severe hie are considered to have hiesho (cold disorder). This study was conducted to determine symptoms associated with hie in young females using a survey consisting of the hie scale and hie diary.


Two hundred and seventy-one participants were included for the analysis. Survey forms were distributed to the participants. Diagnosis of hiesho was determined by using the hie scale. A discriminant score of over ?0.38 was considered hiesho. The Short Form-8 Health Survey Standard Version (SF-8) was used to measure health-related quality of life (QOL). The participants were also asked to respond to the questionnaire evaluating 14 physical and emotional symptoms, utilizing a six-level Likert scale item.


The 1st factor (hie factor) was correlated with hie (r?=?0.546), dry mouth (r?=?0.332), lower-extremity edema (r?=?0.450), headrushes (r?=?0.470), shoulder stiffness (r?=?0.311), headrushes with chills (r?=?0.726), and fatigue (r?=?0.359). Cronbach’s α of the 1st factor was 0.748, which indicated reliability between the items. When hie factor was the dependent variable, standardized partial regression coefficient was β?=??0.387 for physical component score (P?<?0.001) and β?=??0.243 for mental component score (P?<?0.001).
This study indicated that hiesho symptoms among young female adults were associated with bodily pain and general health perceptions of the SF-8 QOL survey.

Key words: Cold hypersensitivity, Questionnaires, Health surveys, Quality of life, Regression analysis, Reproducibility of results

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