Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2020, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (6): 522-529.doi: 10.1016/j.joim.2020.08.002

• Original Experimental Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of co-administration of Ganoderma terpenoid extract with chloroquine on inflammatory markers and antioxidant status in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice

Olarewaju M. Oluba a, Oghenerobor B. Akpor b, Feyikemi D. Adebiyi c, Sunday J. Josiah d, Olayinka O. Alabi e, Ayoola O. Shoyombo e, Augustine O. Olusola f   

  1. a Department of Biochemistry, Food Safety & Toxicology Research Unit, College of Pure & Applied Sciences, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, 251101, Nigeria
    b Department of Microbiology, College of Pure & Applied Sciences, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, 251101, Nigeria
    c Department of Chemical Sciences, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Osun State, 233121, Nigeria
    d Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada, Edo State, 302110, Nigeria
    e Department of Animal Science, College of Agricultural Sciences, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, 251101, Nigeria
    f Department of Biochemistry, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, 342111, Nigeria
  • Received:2020-03-26 Accepted:2020-07-20 Online:2020-11-10 Published:2020-08-21
  • Contact: Olarewaju M. Oluba


To understand the protective effects of Ganoderma terpenoid extract (GTE) against Plasmodium berghei-malarial infection in mice, the present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of GTE in combination with chloroquine disulphate (CQ) on erythrocyte-selected inflammatory markers and antioxidant defense status in P. berghei-infected mice. 


P. berghei-infected mice were divided into six groups: infected control (IC) group, administered 1 mL Tween 20; GTE100 and GTE250 groups, administered 100 and 250 mg/kg GTE, respectively; GT100 + CQ and GT250 + CQ groups, co-administered 100 and 250 mg/kg GTE plus 30 mg/kg CQ, respectively; and CQ group, administered 30 mg/kg CQ. A separate group of non-infected mice were given 1 mL Tween 20, and served as a normal control group (NC). Extract and drug were dissolved in Tween 20 and administered orally once daily for 12 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment period, mice were anesthetized with chloroform and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Plasma was prepared from blood obtained from each mouse. Parameters evaluated at the end of the treatment period include parasitemia, red blood cell count, hematocrit, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-10 (IL-10). 


Infected mice treated with a combination of GTE and CQ (GT100 + CQ and GT250 + CQ groups) showed significantly reduced parasitemia levels (P < 0.05) compared to those administered GTE alone as well as IC. Significant improvement in body weight (P < 0.05) was also observed in infected mice treated with a combination of GTE and CQ (GT100 + CQ and GT250 + CQ groups), compared to mice receiving GTE alone (GTE100 and GTE250 groups). Plasma MDA and TNF-α concentrations were significantly lowered, and IL-10 concentration was significantly increased in GT100 + CQ and GT250 + CQ groups, relative to the IC group (P < 0.05). GSH concentration and SOD, CAT and GPx activities were significantly higher in GT100 + CQ and GT250 + CQ groups compared to the GTE100, GTE250, IC and NC groups (P < 0.05). 


Data generated in this study showed that GTE enhanced the anti-plasmodial action of CQ in mice through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

Key words: Ganoderma, Terpenes, Malaria, Oxidative stress, Antioxidants, Anti-inflammatory agents

[1] Talat Albukhari, Bassem Refaat, El-Sayed Bakr, Sameh Baz, Bodour Rajab, Hossam Gadalla, Mohamed El-Boshy. Salvadora persica extract attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced hepatorenal damage by modulating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(4): 348-354.
[2] Célia Cristina Malaguti Figueiredo, Amanda da Costa Gomes, Filipe Oliveira Granero, João Luiz Bronzel Junior, Luciana Pereira Silva, Valdecir Farias Ximenes, Regildo Márcio Gonçalves da Silva. Antiglycation and antioxidant activities of the crude extract and saponin fraction of Tribulus terrestris before and after microcapsules release. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(2): 153-162.
[3] Mohamed S. Othman, Sofian T. Obeidat, Amal H. Al-Bagawi, Mohamed A. Fareid, Alaa Fehaid, Ahmed E. Abdel Moneim. Green-synthetized selenium nanoparticles using berberine as a promising anticancer agent#br#
. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(1): 65-72.
[4] Sutticha Ruangchuay, Qiang-qiang Wang, Liang-yi Wang, Jing Lin, Yong-chao Wang, Guo-huan Zhong, Katesarin Maneenoon, Ze-bo Huang, Sasitorn Chusri. Antioxidant and antiaging effect of traditional Thai rejuvenation medicines in Caenorhabditis elegans . Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(4): 362-373.
[5] Yue-jiao Shi, Hua-xian Zheng, Zhu-ping Hong, Han-bo Wang, Ying Wang, Ming-yan Li, Zhen-hao Li. Antitumor effects of different Ganoderma lucidum spore powder in cell- and zebrafish-based bioassays. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2021, 19(2): 177-184.
[6] Kayode Ezekiel Adewole. Nigerian antimalarial plants and their anticancer potential: A review. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(2): 92-113.
[7] Syed Fairus, Hwee Ming Cheng, Kalyana Sundram. Antioxidant status following postprandial challenge of two different doses of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(1): 68-79.
[8] Gerli E.G. Herr, Fábio Goulart da Silva, Francisco José Cidral-Filho, Fabricia Petronilho, Lucinéia Gainski Danielski, Mariana Pereira de Souza Goldim, Afonso Shiguemi Inoue Salgado, Franciane Bobinski, Daniel Fernandes Martins, Eliane R. Winkelmann. Effects of the use of bioceramic wraps in patients with lower limb venous ulcers: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2020, 18(1): 27-.
[9] Álisson de Carvalho Gonçalves, Einy Jéssika Siqueira Moreira, Guilherme Vannucchi Portari. Benfotiamine supplementation prevents oxidative stress in anterior tibialis muscle and heart. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(6): 423-429.
[10] Pranay Soni, Rajesh Choudhary, Surendra H. Bodakhe. Effects of a novel isoflavonoid from the stem bark of Alstonia scholaris against fructose-induced experimental cataract. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(5): 374-382.
[11] Fatma Mohamed Hussein Shediwah, Khalid Mohammed Naji, Hussein Saleh Gumaih, Fatima A Alhadi, Amani Lutf Al-Hammami, Myrene Roselyn D'Souza. Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Costus speciosus against atherogenic diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rabbits. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(3): 181-191.
[12] Fang-yuan Wang, Jian Jia, Huan-huan Song, Cheng-ming Jia, Chang-bo Chen, Jing Ma. Icariin protects vascular endothelial cells from oxidative stress through inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(3): 205-212.
[13] Lucky Legbosi Nwidu, Yibala Ibor Oboma. Telfairia occidentalis (Cucurbitaceae) pulp extract mitigates rifampicin-isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity in an in vivo rat model of oxidative stress. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(1): 46-56.
[14] Carola Analía Torres, Cristina Marisel Pérez Zamora, María Beatriz Nuñez, Ana María Gonzalez. In vitro antioxidant, antilipoxygenase and antimicrobial activities of extracts from seven climbing plants belonging to the Bignoniaceae. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(4): 255-262.
[15] Akintayo Lanre Ogundajo, Lateef Apollo Adeniran, Anofi Omotayo Ashafa. Medicinal properties of Ocotea bullata stem bark extracts: Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, cytotoxicity and inhibition of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(2): 132-140.
Full text



[1] Wei-xiong Liang. Problems-solving strategies in clinical treatment guideline for traditional Chinese medicine and integrative medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 1-4
[2] Zhao-guo Li. Discussion on English translation of commonly used sentences in traditional Chinese medicine: part one. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 107-110
[3] Jun Hu, Jian-ping Liu. Non-invasive physical treatments for chronic/recurrent headache. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 31
[4] Xue-mei Liu, Qi-fu Huang, Yun-ling Zhang, Jin-li Lou, Hong-sheng Liu, Hong Zheng. Effects of Tribulus terrestris L. saponion on apoptosis of cortical neurons induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation in rats. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 45-50
[5] . Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: Writing and editing for biomedical publication (Chinese version, part two). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1001-1005
[6] Daniel Weber, Janelle M Wheat, Geoffrey M Currie. Inflammation and cancer: Tumor initiation, progression and metastasis,and Chinese botanical medicines. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1006-1013
[7] Hong Liu , Guo-liang Zhang, Li Shen , Zhen Zeng, Bao-luo Zhou, Cheng-hai Liu, Guang Nie . Application and evaluation of a pseudotyped virus assay for screening herbs for anti-H5Nl avian influenza virus. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1036-1040
[8] Zhao-guo Li . A discussion of English translation of 1995 and 1997 Chinese National Standards of Traditional Chinese Medical Terminologies for Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1090-1096
[9] Rui Jin, Bing Zhang. A complexity analysis of Chinese herbal property theory: the multiple formations of herbal property (Part 1). Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1198-1205
[10] Hui-min Liu, Xian-bo Wang, Yu-juan Chang, Li-li Gu. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of integrative medicine therapy for treatment of chronic severe hepatitis. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1211-1228