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Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2018, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (2): 132-140.doi: 10.1016/j.joim.2018.02.007

• Original Experimental Research • Previous Articles    

Medicinal properties of Ocotea bullata stem bark extracts: Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, cytotoxicity and inhibition of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes

Akintayo Lanre Ogundajo, Lateef Apollo Adeniran, Anofi Omotayo Ashafa   

  1. Phytomedicine and Phytopharmacology Research Group, Department of Plant Sciences, University of the Free State, Qwaqwa Campus, Phuthaditjhaba 9866, South Africa
  • Received:2017-04-14 Accepted:2017-09-26 Online:2018-03-10 Published:2018-02-12
  • Contact: Anofi Omotayo Ashafa; E-mail: ashafaaot@ufs.ac.za

Objective
This study evaluates the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, cytotoxicity, and inhibitory activity against carbohydrate metabolism of extracts from Ocotea bullata stem bark.


Methods

Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water were used to extract the air-dried sample. The phytochemical investigation and antioxidant assays were carried out on the extracts using standard procedures. The antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory potentials were evaluated using α-amylase, α-glucosidase and 5-lipoxygenase enzymes respectively. Vero cells were employed to determine the cytotoxicity of the extracts.


Results

The ethyl acetate extract showed higher phenolic contents (8.97?mg/g gallic acid) while methanol displayed higher flavonoid (36.06?mg/g quercetin) and flavonol (153.44?mg/g rutin) contents than other extracts. Hexane extract had the greatest capacity to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (0.19?mg/mL), hydroxyl (25.77?mg/mL) and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (0.07?mg/mL) radicals, while ethyl acetate extract exhibited stronger inhibition (P?<?0.05) against superoxide anion (0.41?mg/mL) and ferric ion-reducing power (2.36?mg/mL) compared to other extracts and standards. Aqueous extract (27.02?mg/mL) exhibited strong metal-chelating activity (P?<?0.05) compared to other extracts and gallic acid. The aqueous extract demonstrated the greatest inhibition of α-glucosidase (1.45?mg/mL) and α-amylase (2.43?mg/mL) compared to other extracts and acarbose. There were no significant differences (P?<?0.05) in half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of all tested extracts and indomethacin in the inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase activity. The aqueous extract was nontoxic to Vero cells with an IC50 value of 0.38?mg/mL.


Conclusion

O. bullata stem bark contains active phytochemicals with diverse pharmacological potentials that could be beneficial in managing diabetes and inflammation.

Key words: Ocotea bullata, Antioxidants, Antidiabetics, Anti-inflammatories, Cytotoxicity

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