Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2015, Vol. 13 ›› Issue (5): 281-288.doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(15)60186-8

• Global Views • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Dr. Gene Bruno: The beginning of the acupuncture profession in the United States (1969-1979) — Acupuncture, medical acupuncture and animal acupuncture

Arthur Yin Fan, Sarah Faggert    

  1. McLean Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, PLC., Vienna, VA 22182, USA
  • Received:2015-02-20 Accepted:2015-03-05 Online:2015-09-10 Published:2015-09-15

Key words: Acupuncture, United States, History of medicine, Gim Shek Ju, Tin Yau So, Gene Bruno, Animal acupuncture

[1] Cassedy JH . Early uses of acupuncture in the United States, with an addendum(1826) by Franklin Bache, M.D. Bull N Y Acad Med, 1974,50(8):892-906
pmid: 4604365
[2] Moriyama K . Osler and oriental medicine. J Med Biogr. 2007; 15 Suppl 1: 38.
[3] Fan AY, Fan Z . Dr. Miriam Lee: a heroine for the start of acupuncture as a profession in the State of California. J Integr Med, 2014,12(3):182-186
doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(14)60016-9
[4] Fan AY . The earliest acupuncture school of the United States incubated in a Tai Chi Center in Los Angeles. J Integr Med, 2014,12(6):524-528
[5] Fan AY . The first acupuncture center in the United States: an interview with Dr. Yao Wu Lee, Washington Acupuncture Center. J Chin Integr Med, 2012,10(5):481-492
doi: 10.3736/jcim20120502
[6] Fan AY, Fan Z . The beginning of acupuncture in Washington, DC and Maryland: an interview with Dr. Yeh-chong Chan. J Integr Med, 2013,11(3):220-228
doi: 10.3736/jintegrmed2013028
[7] Fan AY, Fan Z . Dr. Wu: a beautiful, moving and meditative song — in memory of Dr. Jing Nuan Wu, a pioneer of acupuncture and a Chinese medicine doctor in the United States. J Chin Integr Med, 2012,10(8):837-840
[8] Fan AY, Fan Z . Dr. Ralph Coan: a hero in establishing acupuncture as a profession in the United States. J Integr Med, 2013,11(1):39-44
doi: 10.3736/jintegrmed2013007 pmid: 23464645
[9] Fan AY . Nevada: the first state that fully legalized acupuncture and Chinese medicine in the Unites States — In memory of Arthur Steinberg, Yee Kung Lok and Jim Joyce who made it happen. J Integr Med, 2015,13(2):72-79
doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(15)60158-3
[10] Bruno G, Editorial Staff . Spotlight on the AAOM: A question-and-answer session with Gene Bruno, LAc, OMD, Part one. [ 2015-04-01].
[11] Select Committee on Health Manpower. California, Legislature, Assembly. Acupuncture hearing on October 19, 1972, Los Angeles, California. 1972: 13.[ 2014-12-14].
[12] Clohouno. James Tin Yau So. [ 2014-12-14].
[13] The International Academy of Animal Acupuncture (IAAA). Bring Chinese medicine to animals.[ 2015-02-03].
[1] Jun-peng Yao, Li-ping Chen, Xian-jun Xiao, Ting-hui Hou, Si-yuan Zhou, Ming-min Xu, Kai Wang, Yu-jun Hou, Lin Zhang, Ying Li. Effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for treating functional constipation: An overview of systematic reviews. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2022, 20(1): 13-25.
[2] Arthur Yin Fan, David Dehui Wang, Hui Ouyang, Haihe Tian, Hui Wei, Deguang He, Changzhen Gong, Jipu Wen, Ming Jin, Chong He, Sarah Faggert Alemi, Sudaba Rahimi. Acupuncture price in forty-one metropolitan regions in the United States: An out-of-pocket cost analysis based on Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2019, 17(5): 315-320.
[3] Arthur Yin Fan, Sarah Faggert. Distribution of licensed acupuncturists and educational institutions in the United States in early 2015. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(1): 1-5.
[4] Arthur Yin Fan, David W. Miller, Bonnie Bolash, Matthew Bauer, John McDonald, Sarah Faggert, Hongjian He, Yong Ming Li, Amy Matecki, Lindy Camardella, Mel Hopper Koppelman, Jennifer A.M. Stone, Lindsay Meade, John Pang. Acupuncture's Role in Solving the Opioid Epidemic: Evidence, Cost-Effectiveness, and Care Availability for Acupuncture as a Primary, Non-Pharmacologic Method for Pain Relief and Management-White Paper 2017. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(6): 411-425.
[5] Li-gong Liu, Arthur Yin Fan, Hong Zhou, Jun Hu. The history of acupuncture anesthesia for pneumonectomy in Shanghai during the 1960s. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(4): 285-290.
[6] Arthur YinFan. The legendary life of Dr. Gim Shek Ju, the founding father of the education of acupuncture and Chinese medicine in the United States. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(3): 159-164.
[7] Arthur Yin Fan. Dr. William Prensky: The birth of the acupuncture profession in the United States (1969-1979) — the Institute for Taoist Studies and the National Acupuncture Association. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2016, 14(1): 5-11.
[8] Mojtaba Heydari, Mohammad Hashem Hashempur, Mohammad Hosein Ayati, Detlev Quintern, Majid Nimrouzi, Seyed Hamdollah Mosavat. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(6): 363-367.
[9] Bosch Peggy, van den Noort Maurits, Yeo Sujung, Lim Sabina, Coenen Anton, van Luijtelaar Gilles. The effect of acupuncture on mood and working memory in patients with depression and schizophrenia. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(6): 380-390.
[10] Nobuari Takakura, Miho Takayama, Hiroyoshi Yajima. The difference of park and streitberger single-blind needles from takakura double-blind needle. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(4): 212-214.
[11] Arthur Yin Fan. The methodology flaws in Hinman’s acupuncture clinical trial, Part III: Sample size calculation. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(4): 209-211.
[12] Arthur Yin Fan. The methodology flaws in Hinman’s acupuncture clinical trial, Part II: Zelen design and effectiveness dilutions. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(3): 136-139.
[13] Marco Gemma, Elisa Nicelli, Luigi Gioia, Elena Moizo, Luigi Beretta, Maria Rosa Calvi. Acupuncture accelerates recovery after general anesthesia: A prospective randomized controlled trial. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(2): 99-104.
[14] Arthur Yin Fan. The methodology flaws in Hinman’s acupuncture clinical trial, Part I: Design and results interpretation. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(2): 65-68.
[15] Yin Fan Arthur. Nevada: the first state that fully legalized acupuncture and Chinese medicine in the Unites States — In memory of Arthur Steinberg, Yee Kung Lok and Jim Joyce who made it happen. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2015, 13(2): 72-79.
Full text



[1] Jin-rong Fu. Establishment of multivariate diagnosis and treatment system of modern gynecology of traditional Chinese medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 22-24
[2] Hao Li, Ming-jiang Yao, Wen-ming Zhao, Jie Guan, Lin-lin Cai, Ling Cui. A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of Huannao Yicong capsule in senile patients with mild cognitive impairment. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 25-31
[3] Zhi-chun Jin. Problems in establishing clinical guideline for integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 5-8
[4] SUN Ming-yu, ZUO Jian, DUAN Ji-feng, HAN Jun, FAN Shi-ming, ZHANG Wei, ZHU Li-fang, YAO Ming-hui. Antitumor activities of kushen flavonoids in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 51-59
[5] Min Cheng, Qiong Feng, Shu-wen Qian, Hui Gao, Cui-qing Zhu. Preliminary assay of p-amyloid binding elements in heart-beneficial recipe. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 68-72
[6] Ning-qun Wang, Liang-duo Jiang, Zong-xing Li. Research progress in asthma-related quality of life. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 93-97
[7] Jing-yuan Mao, Chang-xiao Liu, Heng-he Wang, Guang-li Wei , Zhen-peng Zhang, Jie Xing, Wang Xian liang , Ying-fei Bi . Effects of Shenmai Injection on serum concentration and pharmacokinetics of digoxin in dogs with heart failure. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1070-1074
[8] Zhi-mei Wang, Bin Zhang. A study on translation of ellipses in Huangdi Neijing from perspective of hermeneutic theory. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1097-1100
[9] Gui Yu, Jie Wang. Thinking on building the network cardiovasology of Chinese medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1206-1210
[10] Pedro Saganha João, Doenitz Christoph, Greten Tobias, Efferth Thomas, J. Greten Henry. Qigong therapy for physiotherapists suffering from burnout: a preliminary study. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2012, 10(11): 1233-1239