Search JIM Advanced Search

Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2016, Vol. 14 ›› Issue (4): 269-284.doi: 10.1016/S2095-4964(16)60261-3

• Review • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Apocynaceae species with antiproliferative and/or antiplasmodial properties: A review of ten genera

Eric Wei Chiang Chana , Siu Kuin Wongb, Hung Tuck Chanc   

  1. a Faculty of Applied Sciences, UCSI University, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 
    b School of Science, Monash University Sunway, 46150 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia 
    c International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, c/o Faculty of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, 903-0129, Japan
  • Received:2016-02-20 Accepted:2016-05-05 Online:2016-06-15 Published:2016-07-15
  • Contact: Eric Wei Chiang Chan; E-mail: erchan@yahoo.com, chanwc@ucsiuniversity.edu.my

Apocynaceae is a large family of tropical trees, shrubs and vines with most species producing white latex. Major metabolites of species are triterpenoids, iridoids, alkaloids and cardenolides, which are known for a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities such as cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antimalarial properties. Prompted by their anticancer and antimalarial properties, the current knowledge on ten genera (Allamanda, Alstonia, Calotropis, Catharanthus, Cerbera, Dyera, Kopsia, Nerium, Plumeria and Vallaris) is updated. Major classes of metabolites are described using some species as examples. Species with antiproliferative (APF) and/or antiplasmodial (APM) properties have been identified. With the exception of the genus Dyera, nine genera of 22 species possess APF activity. Seven genera (Alstonia, Calotropis, Catharanthus, Dyera, Kopsia, Plumeria and Vallaris) of 13 species have APM properties. Among these species, Alstonia angustiloba, Alstonia macrophylla, Calotropis gigantea, Calotropis procera, Catharanthus roseus, Plumeria alba and Vallaris glabra displayed both APF and APM properties. The chemical constituents of these seven species are compiled for assessment and further research.

Key words: Apocynaceae, Antiproliferative, Antiplasmodial, Herbal medicine review

1 Endress ME, Bruyns PV. A revised classification of the Apocynaceae.Bot Rev. 2000; 66(1): 1-56.
2 Li PT, Leeuwenberg AJM, Middleton DJ. Apocynaceae. In: Wu ZY, Raven PH. Flora of China. Vol.16. Beijing: Science Press. 1995: 143-188.
3 Wiart C. Medicinal plants of Asia and the Pacific. Boca Raton: CRC Press. 2006.
4 Patočka J. Biologically active pentacyclic triterpenes and their current medicine signification.J Appl Biomed. 2003; 1: 7-12.
5 Tundis R, Loizzo MR, Menichini F, Statti GA, Menichini F. Biological and pharmacological activities of iridoids: recent developments.Mini Rev Med Chem. 2008; 8(4): 399-420.
6 Prassas I, Diamandis EP. Novel therapeutic applications of cardiac glycosides.Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2008; 7(11): 926-935.
7 Qiu S, Sun H, Zhang AH, Xu HY, Yan GL, Han Y, Wang XJ. Natural alkaloids: basic aspects, biological roles, and future perspectives.Chin J Nat Med. 2014; 12(6): 401-406.
8 Wong SK, Lim YY, Abdullah NR, Nordin FJ. Assessment of antiproliferative and antiplasmodial activities of five selected Apocynaceae species.BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011; 11: 3.
9 Wong SK,Lim YY,Abdullah NR,Nordin FJ . Antiproliferative and phytochemical analyses of leaf extracts of ten Apocynaceae species.Pharmacogn Res. 2011; 3(2): 100-106.
10 van Der Heijden R, Jacobs DI, Snoeijer W, Hallard D, Verpoorte R. The Catharanthus alkaloids: pharmacognosy and biotechnology.Curr Med Chem. 2004; 11(5): 607-628.
11 The Plant List. Apocynaceae. (2013) [2016-02-20]. 2013) [2016-02-20]. http:// www.theplantlist.org/1.1/browse/A/Apocynaceae/.
12 Hasan AM, Joshi BC, Dobhal MP, Sharma MC. A brief review on chemical constituents of some medicinally important species of the genus Plumeria.Asian J Chem. 1997; 9(4): 571-578.
13 Shen LR, Jin SM, Yin BW, Du XF, Wang YL, Huo CH. Chemical constituents of plants from the genus Cerbera. Chem Biodivers. 2007; 4(7):1438-1449.
14 Kam TS, Lim KH. Alkaloids of Kopsia.Alkaloids Chem Biol. 2008; 66: 1-111.
15 Pratyush K, Misra CS, James J, Dev LM, Veettil AKT, Thankamani V. Ethnobotanical and pharmacological study of Alstonia(Apocynaceae) — a review.J Pharm Sci Res. 2011; 3(8): 1394-1403.
16 Khyade MS, Kasote DM, Vaikos NP. Alstonia scholaris(L.) R.Br. and Alstonia macrophylla Wall. ex G. Don: a comparative review on traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014; 153(1): 1-18.
17 Choudhary M, Kumar V, Singh S. Phytochemical and pharmacological activity of genus Plumeria: an updated review.Int J Biomed Adv Res. 2014; 5(6): 266-271.
18 Wong SK, Chan EWC. Botany, uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Vallaris: a short review.Pharmacogn J. 2013; 5(5): 242-246.
19 Wong SK,Lim YY,Chan EWC. Botany, uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of selected Apocynaceae species: a review.Pharmacogn Commun. 2013; 3: 2-11.
20 Devarenne TP. Terpenoids: higher. In: Encyclopedia of life sciences. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. 2009.
21 Wang F, Ren FC, Liu JK. Alstonic acids A and B, unusual 2,3-secofernane triterpenoids from Alstonia scholaris.Phytochemistry. 2009; 70(5): 650-654.
22 Siddiqui BS, Begum S, Siddiqui S, Lichter W. Two cytotoxic pentacyclic triterpenoids fromNerium oleander. Phytochemistry. 1995; 39(1): 171-174.
23 Begum S, Sultana R, Siddiqui BS. Triterpenoids from the leaves ofNerium oleander. Phytochemistry. 1997; 44(2): 329-332.
24 Siddiqui S, Siddiqui BS, Naeed A, Begum S. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from the leaves ofPlumeria obtusa. Phytochemistry. 1989; 28(11): 3143-3147.
25 Siddiqui BS, Ilyas F, Rasheed M, Begum S. Chemical constituents of leaves and stem bark ofPlumeria obtusa. Phytochemistry. 2004; 65(14): 2077-2084.
26 Springob K, Kutchan TM. Introduction to the different classes of natural products. In: Osbourne AE, Lanzotti V. Plant-derived natural products: synthesis, function and application. St. Louis: Springer. 2009: 3-50.
27 Coppen JJW, Cobb AL. The occurrence of iridoids inPlumeria and Allamanda. Phytochemistry. 1983; 22(1): 125-128.
28 de F Navarro Schmidt D, Yunes RA, Schaab EH, Malheiros A, Cechinel Filho V, Franchi GC Jr, Nowill AE, Cardoso AA, Yunes J. Evaluation of the anti-proliferative effect of extracts of Allamanda blanchetti and A.schottii on the growth of leukemic and endothelial cells. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2006; 9(2): 200-208.
29 Feng T, Cai XH, Du ZZ, Luo XD. Iridoids from the bark ofAlstonia scholaris. Helv Chim Acta. 2008; 91(12): 2247-2251.
30 Kardono LB, Tsauri S, Padmawinata K, Pezzuto JM, Kinghorn AD. Cytotoxic constituents of the bark ofPlumeria rubra collected in Indonesia. J Nat Prod. 1990; 53(6): 1447-1455.
31 Afifi MS, Salama OM, Gohar AA, Marzouk AM. Iridoids with antimicrobial activity fromPlumeria alba L. Bull Pharm Sci Assiut Univ. 2006; 29(1): 215-223.
32 Cordell GA, Quinn-Beattie ML, Farnsworth NR. The potential of alkaloids in drug discovery.Phytother Res. 2001; 15(3): 183-205.
33 Liu L, Cao JX, Yao YC, Xu SP. Progress of pharmacological studies on alkaloids from Apocynaceae.J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2013; 15(2): 166-184.
34 Raffauf RF, Flagler MB.Alkaloids of the Apocynaceae. Econ Bot. 1960; 14(1): 37-55.
35 Kam TS, Choo YM. Angustilodine, an unusual pentacyclic indole alkaloid fromAlstonia. Helv Chim Acta. 2004; 87(2): 366-369.
36 Ku WF, Tan SJ, Low YY, Komiyama K, Kam TS. Angustilobine and andranginine type indole alkaloids and an uleine-secovallesamine bisindole alkaloid fromAlstonia angustiloba. Phytochemistry. 2011; 72(17): 2212-2218.
37 Kam TS, Choo YM. Bisindole alkaloids. In: Cordell GA. Alkaloids: chemistry and biology. Vol. 63. London: Academic Press. 2006: 276.
38 Tan SJ, Lim JL, Low YY, Sim KS, Lim SH, Kam TS. Oxidized derivatives of macroline, sarpagine, and pleiocarpamine alkaloids fromAlstonia angustifolia. J Nat Prod. 2014; 77(9): 2068-2080.
39 Keawpradub N, Houghton PJ. Indole alkaloids fromAlstonia macrophylla. Phytochemistry. 1997; 46(4): 151-162.
40 Keawpradub N, Eno-Amooquaye E, Burke PJ, Houghton PJ. Cytotoxic activity of indole alkaloids fromAlstonia macrophylla. Planta Med. 1999; 65(4): 311-315.
41 Keawpradub N, Kirby GC, Steele JC, Houghton PJ. Antiplasmodial activity of extracts and alkaloids of threeAlstonia species from Thailand. Planta Med. 1999; 65(8): 690-694.
42 Chaisri L. Indole alkaloids from the fruits of Alstonia scholaris. Thai J Pharm Sci.2004; 28(3-4): 173-180. Thai with abstract in English.
43 Macabeo AP, Krohn K, Gehle D, Read RW, Brophy JJ, Cordell GA, Franzblau SG, Aguinaldo AM. Indole alkaloids from leaves of PhilippineAlstonia scholaris. Phytochemistry. 2005; 66(10): 1158-1162.
44 Cai XH, Liu YP, Feng T, Luo XD. Picrinine-type alkaloids from the leaves ofAlstonia scholaris. Chin J Nat Med. 2008; 6(1): 20-22.
45 Feng T, Cai XH, Zhao PJ, Du ZZ, Li WQ, Luo XD. Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from the bark ofAlstonia scholaris. Planta Med. 2009; 75(14): 1537-1541.
46 Zhang L, Hua ZQ, Song Y, Feng CW. Monoterpenoid indole alkaloids fromAlstonia rupestris with cytotoxic, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Fitoterapia. 2014; 97: 142-147.
47 Newman RA, Yang P, Pawlus AD, Block KI. Cardiac glycosides as novel cancer therapeutic agents.Mol Interv. 2008; 8(1): 36-49.
48 Lhinhatrakool T, Sutthivaiyakit S. 19-Nor- and 18,20-epoxy-cardenolides from the leaves ofCalotropis gigantea. J Nat Prod. 2006; 69(8): 1249-1251.
49 Wang M, Mei W, Deng Y, Liu S, Wang Z, Dai H. Cytotoxic cardenolides from the roots ofCalotropis gigantea. Modern Pharm Res. 2008; 1: 4-9.
50 Seeka C, Sutthivaiyakit S. Cytotoxic cardenolides from the leaves of Calotropis gigantea.Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2010; 58(5): 725-728.
51 Elgamal MHA, Hanna AG, Morsy NAM, Duddeck H, Simon A, Gáti T, Tóth G. Complete 1H and 13C signal assignments of 5α-cardenolides isolated fromCalotropis procera R. BR. J Mol Struct. 1999; 477(1-3): 201-208.
52 Shaker KH, Morsy N, Zinecker H, Imhoff JF, Schneider B. Secondary metabolites fromCalotropis procera(Aiton). Phytochem Lett. 2010; 3(4): 212-216.
53 Cheenpracha S, Karalai C, Rat-A-Pa Y, Ponglimanont C, Chantrapromma K. New cytotoxic cardenolide glycoside from the seeds of Cerbera manghas.Chem Pharm Bull(Tokyo). 2004; 52(8): 1023-1025.
54 Laphookhieo S, Cheenpracha S, Karalai C, Chantrapromma S, Rat-a-Pa Y, Ponglimanont C, Chantrapromma K. Cytotoxic cardenolide glycoside from the seeds ofCerbera odollam. Phytochemistry. 2004; 65(4): 507-510.
55 Zhao M, Bai L, Wang L, Toki A, Hasegawa T, Kikuchi M, Abe M, Sakai J, Hasegawa R, Bai Y, Mitsui T, Ogura H, Kataoka T, Oka S, Tsushima H, Kiuchi M, Hirose K, Tomida A, Tsuruo T, Ando M. Bioactive cardenolides from the stems and twigs ofNerium oleander. J Nat Prod. 2007; 70(7): 1098-1103.
56 Deepak D, Khare A, Khare MP. Plant pregnanes.Phytochemistry. 1989; 28(12): 3255-3263.
57 Kitagawa I, Zhang RS, Park JD, Baek NI, Takeda Y, Yoshikawa M, Shibuya H. Indonesian medicinal plants.I. Chemical structures of calotroposides A and B, two new oxypregnane-oligoglycosides from the root of Calotropis gigantea(Asclepiadaceae). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1992; 40(8): 2007-2013.
58 Shibuya H, Zhang RS, Park JD, Baek NI, Takeda Y, Yoshikawa M, Kitagawa I. Indonesian medicinal plants. V. Chemical structures of calotroposides C, D, E, F and G, five additional new oxypregnane-oligoglycosides from the roots ofCalotropis gigantea(Asclepiadaceae). Chem Pharm Bull. 1992; 40(10): 2647-2653.
59 Bai L, Wang L, Zhao M, Toki A, Hasegawa T, Ogura H, Kataoka T, Hirose K, Sakai J, Bai J, Ando M. Bioactive pregnanes fromNerium oleander. J Nat Prod. 2007; 70(1): 14-18.
60 Pietta PG. Flavonoids as antioxidants.J Nat Prod. 2000; 63(7): 1035-1042.
61 Sen S, Sahu NP, Mahato SB. Flavonol glycosides fromCalotropis gigantea. Phytochemistry. 1992; 31(8): 2919-2921.
62 Ferreres F, Pereira DM, Valentão P, Andrade PB, Seabra RM, Sottomayor M. New phenolic compounds and antioxidant potential ofCatharanthus roseus. J Agric Food Chem. 2008; 56(21): 9967-9974.
63 Rao AS, Ahmed MF. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds inCatharanthus roseus leaves by HPLC method. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2014; 5(3): 977-981.
64 Sakushima A, Nishibe S, Hisada S, Noro Y, Hisada Y. Studies on the constituents of Apocynaceae plants; isolation of flavonol glycosides and some other components from the leaves of Cerbera manghas L. Yakugaku Zasshi.1976; 96(8): 1046-1048. Japanese.
65 Wong SK, Lim YY, Ling SK, Chan EWC. Caffeoylquinic acids in leaves of selected Apocynaceae species: their isolation and content.Pharmacogn Res. 2014; 6(1): 67-72.
66 Kupchan SM, Dessertine AL, Blaylock BT, Bryan RF. Isolation and structural elucidation of allamandin, an antileukemic iridoid lactone fromAllamanda cathartica. J Org Chem. 1974; 39(17): 2477-2482.
67 Jagetia GC, Baliga MS. Evaluation of anticancer activity of the alkaloid fraction ofAlstonia scholaris(Sapthaparna) in vitro and in vivo. Phytother Res. 2006; 20(2): 103-109.
68 You H, Lei M, Song W, Chen H, Meng Y, Guo D, Liu X, Hu L. Cytotoxic cardenolides from the root bark ofCalotropis gigantea. Steroids. 2013; 78(10): 1029-1034.
69 Habib MR, Islam MA, Karim MR. Cytotoxic chemicals fromCalotropis gigantea flower. Chem Nat Compd. 2013; 49(1): 165-166.
70 Bhagat M, Arora JS, Saxena AK.In vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Calotropis procera against CNS cancer cell line. Asian J Bio Sci. 2009; 4(1): 69-72.
71 Magalhães HIF, Ferreira PMP, Moura ES, Torres MR, Alves APNN, Pessoa OD, Costa-Lotufo LV, Moraes MO, Pessoa C.In vitro and in vivo antiproliferative activity of Calotropis procera stem extracts. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2010; 82(2): 407-416.
72 Murti Y, Singh AP, Pathak D.In-vitro anthelmintic and cytotoxic potential of different extracts of Calotropis procera leaves. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2013; 6(1): 14-16.
73 El-Sayed A, Cordell GA.Catharanthus alkaloids. XXXIV. Catharanthamine, a new antitumor bisindole alkaloid from Catharanthus roseus. J Nat Prod. 1981; 44(3): 289-293.
74 Chang LC, Gills JJ, Bhat KP, Luyengi L, Farnsworth NR, Pezzuto JM, Kinghorn AD. Activity-guided isolation of constituents ofCerbera manghas with antiproliferative and antiestrogenic activities. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2000; 10(21): 2431-2434.
75 Nurhanan MY, Asiah O, Mohd Ilham MA, Syarifah MS, Norhayati I, Sahira HL. Anti-proliferative activities of 32 Malaysian plant species in breast cancer cell lines.J Trop For Sci. 2008; 20(2): 77-81.
76 Syarifah MS, Nurhanan MY, Haffiz JM, Ilham AM, Getha K, Asiah O, Norhayati I, Sahira HL, Suryani SA. Potential anticancer compound fromCerbera odollam. J Trop For Sci. 2011; 23(1): 89-96.
77 Lim KH, Hiraku O, Komiyama K, Koyano T, Hayashi M, Kam TS. Biologically active indole alkaloids fromKopsia arborea. J Nat Prod. 2007; 70(8): 1302-1307.
78 Yap WS, Gan CY, Low YY, Choo YM, Etoh T, Hayashi M, Komiyama K, Kam TS. Grandilodines A-C, biologically active indole alkaloids fromKopsia grandifolia. J Nat Prod. 2011; 74(5): 1309-1312.
79 Subramaniam G, Hiraku O, Hayashi M, Koyano T, Komiyama K, Kam TS. Biologically active aspidofractinine alkaloids fromKopsia singapurensis. J Nat Prod. 2008; 71(1): 53-57.
80 Shan LY, Thing TC, Ping TS, Awang K, Hashim NM, Nafiah MA, Ahmad K. Cytotoxic, antibacterial and antioxidant activity of triterpenoids fromKopsia singapurensis Ridl. J Chem Pharm Res. 2014; 6(5): 815-822.
81 Kam TS, Lim KH, Yoganathan K, Hayashi M, Komiyama K. L u n d u r i n e s A - D , c y t o t o x i c i n d o l e a l k a l o i d s incorporating a cyclopropyl moiety fromKopsia tenuis and revision of the structures of tenuisines A-C. Tetrahedron. 2004; 60(47): 10739-10745.
82 Vinayagam A, Sudha PN. Cytotoxic activity of crude extracts fromNerium indicum(Apocynaceae). Int J Front Sci Technol. 2013; 1(3): 167-175.
83 Rashan LJ, Franke K, Khine MM, Kelter G, Fiebig HH, Neumann J, Wessjohann LA. Characterization of the anticancer properties of monoglycosidic cardenolides isolated fromNerium oleander and Streptocaulon tomentosum. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011; 134(3): 781-788.
84 Rahman H, Reddy VB, Ghosh S, Mistry SK, Pant G, Sibi G. Antioxidant, cytotoxic and hypolipidemic activities ofPlumeria alba L. and Plumeria rubra L. Am J Life Sci. 2014; 2(6-1): 11-15.
85 Radha R, Sivakumar T.In vitro and in vivo anti-cancer activity of leaves of Plumeria alba Linn. J Pharm Res. 2009; 2: 203-207.
86 Wong SK, Lim YY, Ling SK, Chiang Chan EWC. Antiproliferative activity of Vallaris glabra Kuntze (Apocynaceae).Pharmacogn Mag. 2014; 10(Suppl 2): S232-S239.
87 Cragg GM, Newman DJ. Plants as a source of anti-cancer agents.J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 100(1-2): 72-79.
88 Shah U, Shah R, Acharya S, Acharya N. Novel anticancer agents from plant sources.Chin J Nat Med. 2013; 11(1): 16-23.
89 Wright CW, Allen D, Cai Y, Phillipson JD, Said IM, Kirby GC, Warhurst DC.In vitro anti-amoebic and antiplasmodial activities of alkaloids isolated from Alstonia angustifolia roots. Phytother Res. 1992; 6(3): 121-124.
90 Bello IS, Oduola T, Adeosun OG, Omisore NOA, Raheem GO, Ademosun AA. Evaluation of antimalarial activity of various fractions ofMorinda lucida leaf extract and Alstonia boonei stem bark. Global J Pharmacol. 2009; 3(3): 163-165.
91 Iyiola OA, Tijani AY, Lateef KM. Antimalarial activity of ethanolic stem bark extract ofAlstonia boonei in mice. Asian J Biol Sci. 2011; 4(3): 235-243.
92 Lumpu SL, Kikueta CM, Tshodi ME, Mbenza AP, Kambu OK, Mbamu BM, Cos P, Maes L, Apers S, Pieters L, Cimanga RK. Antiprotozoal screening and cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions from the leaves, stem bark and root bark ofAlstonia congensis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 148(2): 724-727.
93 Cheenpracha S, Ritthiwigrom T, Laphookhieo S. Alstoniaphyllines A-C, unusual nitrogenous derivatives from the bark ofAlstonia macrophylla. J Nat Prod. 2013; 76(4): 723-726.
94 Sharma P, Sharma JD.In-vitro schizonticidal screening of Calotropis procera. Fitoterapia. 2000; 71(1): 77-79.
95 Gathirwa JW, Rukunga GM, Njagi EN, Omar SA, Mwitari PG, Guantai AN, Tolo FM, Kimani CW, Muthaura CN, Kirira PG, Ndunda TN, Amalemba G, Mungai GM, Ndiege IO. Thein vitro anti-plasmodial and in vivo anti-malarial efficacy of combinations of some medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of malaria by the Meru community in Kenya. J Nat Med. 2008; 115(2): 223-231.
96 Shaari K, Abdullah NR, Janib M, Najila S, Imiyabir Z, Madani L, Chomel R, Mohamad R, Hashim N, Goh SH, Ismail Z.In vitro antiplasmodial properties of selected plants of Sabah. Pertanika J Sci Technol. 2011; 19(1): 11-17.
97 Johnson NB, Elvis OA, Kyei S, Aboagye B, Asare K, Afoakwah R, Boye A, Donfack JH.In vivo antimalarial activity of stem bark extracts of Plumeria alba against Plasmodium berghei in imprinting control region mice. Rep Parasitol. 2013; 3: 19-25.
98 Bero J, Frédérich M, Quetin-Leclercq J. Antimalarial compounds isolated from plants used in traditional medicine.J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009; 61(11): 1401-1433.
99 Kaur K, Jain M, Kaur T, Jain R. Antimalarials from nature.Bioorg Med Chem. 2009; 17(9): 3229-3256.
100 Frederich M, Tits M, Angenot L. Potential antimalarial activity of indole alkaloids.Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008; 102(1): 11-19.
101 Christensen SB, Kharazmi A. Antimalarial natural products. In: Tringali C. Bioactive compounds from natural sources: isolation, characterization and biological properties. London: Taylor & Francis. 2001: 379-432.
102 Koyama K, Hirasawa Y, Zaima K, Hoe TC, Chan KL, Morita H. Alstilobanines A-E, new indole alkaloids fromAlstonia angustiloba. Bioorg Med Chem. 2008; 16(13): 6483-6488.
103 Lim SH, Low YY, Sinniah SK, Yong KT, Sim KS, Kam TS. Macroline, akuammiline, sarpagine, and ajmaline alkaloids fromAlstonia macrophylla. Phytochemistry. 2014; 98: 204-215.
104 Hirasawa Y, Arai H, Zaima K, Oktarina R, Rahman A, Ekasari W, Widyawaruyanti A, Indrayanto G, Zaini NC, Morita H. Alstiphyllanines A-D, indole alkaloids fromAlstonia macrophycla. J Nat Prod. 2009; 72(2): 304-307.
105 Arai H, Hirasawa Y, Rahman A, Kusumawati I, Zaini NC, Sato S, Aoyama C, Takeo J, Morita H. Alstiphyllanines E-H, picraline and ajmaline-type alkaloids fromAlstonia macrophylla inhibiting sodium glucose cotransporter. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010; 18(6): 2152-2158.
106 Lim SH, Low YY, Subramaniam G, Abdullah Z, Thomas NF, Kam TS. Lumusidines A-D and villalstonidine F, macroline-macroline and macroline-pleiocarpamine b i s i n d o l e a l k a l o i d s f r o mAlstonia macrophylla. Phytochemistry. 2013; 87: 148-156.
107 Lim SH, Tan SJ, Low YY, Kam TS. Lumutinines A-D, linearly fused macroline-macroline and macroline-sarpagine bisindoles fromAlstonia macrophylla. J Nat Prod. 2011; 74(12): 2556-2562.
108 Khan AQ, Ahmed Z, Kazmi SN, Malik A. A new pentacyclic triterpene fromCalotropis procera. J Nat Prod. 1988; 51(5): 925-928.
109 Pant R, Chaturvedi K. Chemical analysis ofCalotropis procera latex. Curr Sci. 1989; 58(13): 740-742.
110 Ibrahim SRM, Mohamed GA, Shaala LA, Banuls LM, van Goietsenoven G, Kiss R, Youssef DTA. New ursane-type triterpenes from the root bark ofCalotropis procera. Phytochem Lett. 2012; 5(3): 490-495.
111 Ansari SH, Ali M. Norditerpenic ester and pentacyclic triterpenoids from root bark ofCalotropis procera(Ait) R. Br. Pharmazie. 2001; 56(2): 175-177.
112 Mittal A, Ali M. Acyclic diterpenic constituents from the roots ofCalotropis procera(Ait.) R. Br. J Saudi Chem Soc. 2015; 19(1): 59-63.
113 Brüschweiler F, Stöcklin W, Stöckel K, Reichstein T. Glycosides ofCalotropis procera R.Br. glycosides and aglycones. Helv Chim Acta. 1969; 52(7): 2086-2106.
114 Atta-ur-Rahman, Ali I, Bashir M. Isolation and structural studies on the alkaloids in flowers ofCatharanthus roseus. J Nat Prod. 1984; 47(3): 554-555.
115 Sibi G, Venkategowda A, Gowda L. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial alkaloids fromPlumeria alba flowers against food borne pathogens. Am J Life Sci. 2014; 2(6-1): 1-6.
116 Duffy R, Wade C, Chang R. Discovery of anticancer drugs from antimalarial natural products: a MEDLINE literature review.Drug Discov Today. 2012; 17(17-18): 942-953.
117 Kundu CN, Das S, Nayak A, Satapathy SR, Das D, Siddharth S. Anti-malarials are anti-cancers andvice versa—one arrow two sparrows. Acta Trop. 2015; 149: 113-127.
118 Gandhi M, Vinayak VK. Preliminary evaluation of extracts ofAlstonia scholaris bark for in vivo antimalarial activity in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 1990; 29(1): 51-57.
[1] Prachi Tomar, Yadu Nandan Dey, Deepti Sharma, Manish Motiram Wanjari, Sudesh Gaidhani, Ankush Jadhav. Cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity of kanchnar guggulu, an Ayurvedic formulation. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2018, 16(6): 411-417.
[2] Omowumi Titilola Kayode, Musa Toyin Yakubu. Parquetina nigrescens leaves: chemical profile and influence on the physical and biochemical indices of sexual activity of male Wistar rats. Journal of Integrative Medicine, 2017, 15(1): 64-76.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
[1] Wei-xiong Liang. Problems-solving strategies in clinical treatment guideline for traditional Chinese medicine and integrative medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 1-4
[2] Jin-zhou Tian, Jing Shi, Xin-qing Zhang, Qi Bi, Xin Ma, Zhi-liang Wang, Xiao-bin Li, Shu-li Shen, Lin Li, Zhen-yun Wu, Li-yan Fang, Xiao-dong Zhao, Ying-chun Miao, Peng-wen Wang, Ying Ren, Jun-xiang Yin, Yong-yan Wang, Beijing United Study Group on MCI of the Capital Foundation of Medical Developments. An explanation on "guiding principles of clinical research on mild cognitive impairment (protocol)". Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 15-21
[3] Jin-rong Fu. Establishment of multivariate diagnosis and treatment system of modern gynecology of traditional Chinese medicine. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 22-24
[4] Jun Cai, Hua Wang, Sheng Zhou, Bin Wu, Hua-rong Song, Zheng-rong Xuan. Effect of Sijunzi Decoction and enteral nutrition on T-cell subsets and nutritional status in patients with gastric cancer after operation: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 37-40
[5] SUN Ming-yu, ZUO Jian, DUAN Ji-feng, HAN Jun, FAN Shi-ming, ZHANG Wei, ZHU Li-fang, YAO Ming-hui. Antitumor activities of kushen flavonoids in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 51-59
[6] Wei Zhang, Xiang-feng Lu, Xiao-mei Zhang, Jian-jun Wu, Liang-duo Jiang. A rat model of pulmonary fibrosis induced by infusing bleomycin quickly through tracheal intubation. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 60-67
[7] A-gao Zhou, Yong Zhang, Gang Kui, De-Yun Kong, Hai-liang Ge, Qiu-hua Ren, Jia-rong Dong, Sheng Hong, Xu-ming Mao, Yin Wang, Hui-zheng Zhang, Shu-jun Wang. Influence of traditional Chinese compound recipes with different efficacy on body weight, tumor weight and immune function in H22 cancer-bearing mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 77-82
[8] Guo-hong Yuan, Xiao-jing Pang, He-chao Ma. Synergic effects of Danggui Buxue Decoction in reducing toxicity of cytoxan in tumor-bearing mice. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 83-88
[9] Ning-qun Wang, Liang-duo Jiang, Zong-xing Li. Research progress in asthma-related quality of life. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2008, 6(1): 93-97
[10] Daniel Weber, Janelle M Wheat, Geoffrey M Currie. Inflammation and cancer: Tumor initiation, progression and metastasis,and Chinese botanical medicines. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, 2010, 8(11): 1006-1013