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Journal of Integrative Medicine ›› 2018, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (2): 72-76.doi: 10.1016/j.joim.2018.01.001

• Commentary • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Arnica montana experimental studies: Confounders and biases?

Bellavite Paolo, Marzotto Marta, Bonafini Clara   

  1. Department of Medicine, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, Verona 37134, Italy
  • Received:2017-07-05 Accepted:2017-11-27 Online:2018-03-10 Published:2018-02-21
  • Contact: Marzotto Marta; E-mail:

Arnica montana is a popular traditional remedy widely used in complementary and alternative medicine, in part for its wound-healing properties. The authors recently showed that this plant extract and several of its homeopathic dilutions are able to modify the expression of a series of genes involved in inflammation and connective tissue regeneration. Their studies opened a debate, including criticisms to the “errors” in the methods used and the “confounders and biases”. Here the authors show that the criticisms raised on methodology and statistics are not consistent and cannot be considered pertinent. The present comment also updates and reviews information concerning the action of A. montana dilutions in human macrophage cells while summarizing the major experimental advances reported on this interesting medicinal plant.

Key words: Arnica montana, Gene expression, Ethanol, Statistics

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