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Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine ›› 2006, Vol. 4 ›› Issue (4): 384-387.doi: 10.3736/jcim20060413

• Original Experimental Research • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil on tumor growth and cell cycle of MKN-45 human gastric cancer cells orthotopically transplanted in nude mice

Yan Xiao, Pin-kang Wei, Jun Li, Jun Shi, Zhi-hong Yu, Hui-ming Lin   

  1. Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003, China
  • Online:2006-07-31 Published:2006-07-15


To evaluate the effects of Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil on tumor growth and cell cycle of MKN-45 human gastric cancer cells orthotopically transplanted in nude mice.


One hundred and five nude mice orthotopically transplanted with MKN-45 human gastric cancer cells were randomly divided into seven groups: untreated group, normal saline-treated group, dissolvant-treated group, cyclophosphamide (CTX)-treated group and high-, medium-, and low-dose Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil-treated groups. Corresponding interventions were implemented in each group except the untreated group. The antitumor effects in vivo were evaluated. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of MKN-45 human gastric cancer cells were determined by using flow cytometry (FCM). The ultrastructure of MKN-45 gastric cancer cells was observed by a transmission electron microscope.


In the high-, medium-, and low-dose Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil-treated groups, the growth inhibition rates of gastric cancer were 57.2%, 28.0% and 5.0% respectively, and the gastric cancer cells were arrested at G0/G1 phase. This antitumor effect was dose-dependent. The apoptotic cells occurred more frequently in the high-dose Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil-treated group and the CTX-treated group than those in the medium- and low-dose Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil-treated groups.


The Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil is an effective composition for growth inhibition of gastric cancer, and its mechanism may be related to regulating the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis.

Key words: Rhizoma kaempferiae, Volatile oil, Stomach neoplasms, Orthotopic transplantation, Apoptosis, Cell cycle, Nude mice

CLC Number: 

  • R735.2

Table 1

Antitumor effects on gastric cancer orthotopically transplanted in nude mice in different groups"

Group n Tumor weight (ヌ±S, g) Growth inhibition rate (%)
Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil-treated
High-dose 15 1.194±0.617** 57.2
Medium-dose 15 2.009±1.927 28.0
Low-dose 15 2.636±1.532 5.0
Dissolvant-treated 15 2.898±2.180
CTX-treated 15 0.587±0.146** 78.9
Normal saline-treated 15 2.774±0.662 0.7
Untreated 15 2.794±0.799

Table 2

Cell cycle distribution and apoptotic rate of MKN-45 gastric cancer cells orthotopically transplanted in nude mice in different groups(ヌ±S, %)"

Group n G0/G1 S G2/M Apoptotic rate
Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil-treated
High-dose 15 64.55±12.58* 23.15±8.89* 12.23±3.86 27.10±14.03*
Medium-dose 15 60.36±12.37 24.04±9.24 15.41±8.33 25.10±11.97*
Low-dose 15 57.45±10.08 27.99±11.99 14.55±5.44 19.73±9.26
Dissolvant-treated 15 54.76±12.06 30.61±9.97 14.68±7.83 17.07±8.16
CTX-treated 14 56.73±11.69 28.91±8.08 14.52±4.03 25.86±8.37*
Normal saline-treated 15 52.21±10.24 31.87±6.83 15.91±3.41 16.82±9.84
Untreated 15 53.58±11.45 31.12±7.74 15.30±3.75 17.33±7.63

Figure 1

Ultrastructures of MKN-45 gastric cancer cells orthotopically transplanted in nude mice in different groups (×2 500)A: Untreated group; B: Normal saline-treated group; C: High-dose Rhizoma kaempferiae volatile oil-treated group; D: CTX-treated group."

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